Trudy Ann Cameron



cameron@uoregon.edu
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Comprehensive vita: PDF


Abstracts of Manuscripts and Working Papers

PUBLICATIONS

J.R. DeShazo, T.A. Cameron, and M. Saenz (2009) "The effect of consumers' real-world choice sets on inferences from stated preference surveys " Environmental & Resource Economics, forthcoming.

For stated preference (SP) studies, we develop a model that assesses the influence of choice set misspecification arising from the omission of perceived substitutes among real-world alternatives in the same class of goods. This problem is most likely to be present when individuals are allowed to select a "no purchase" option instead of being forced to choose from an explicit set of SP alternatives with hypothetical attribute levels. A convenient feature of our model is that researchers do not need to know exactly which omitted real substitute the individual most prefers, only the set of real substitutes that exists. In our empirical application, a comparison of rival models suggests researchers who overlook the presence of perceived real alternatives related to an SP experiment can end up with noticeably biased welfare estimates. Our moregeneral model suggests that it may be prudent for future SP researchers to anticipate, test, and possibly correct, for biases in utility parameter estimates that result from this problem.

R.C. Bosworth, T.A. Cameron, and J.R. DeShazo (2008) "Demand for Environmental Policies to Improve Health: Evaluating Community-Level Policy Scenarios" Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, forthcoming.

Using a national survey and a discrete choice experiment format, we estimate demand for environmental polices to improve health. We use a richly detailed community-level approach that describes illnesses avoided, premature deaths avoided, policy duration, and the affected population size. We allow preferences for policy attributes to vary systematically with the scenario design, with the source of risk and type of health threat, and with respondent characteristics. Using a WTP framework similar to that used for studies of individual risk, we find that omission of illness information leads to an upward bias in estimates of the value of avoided premature deaths and that individuals view avoided deaths and avoided illnesses as substitutes. We also find evidence of strongly diminishing marginal utility in policy scope. Differences in marginal WTP from different sources of risk or types of illness appear very small relative to differences associated with respondent characteristics and/or perceptions. Self-interest strongly dominates altruistic considerations.

J.J. Lee and T.A. Cameron (2008) "Popular Support for Climate Change Mitigation: Evidence from a General Population Mail Survey " Environmental & Resource Economics, 41(2), 223-248.

Using a sample of 1,651 US households, we explore some determinants of willingness to pay (WTP) for climate change mitigation programs. Our mail survey had a relatively low response rate, so we first use several additional data sources to build a detailed sample selection model. This model uses features of the survey instrument, measures of geographic vulnerability to climate change, seasonality, the political mix in the county, attributes of the address or addressee, and a set of factor scores from an extensive factor analysis of all census tracts in the US. We estimate this model jointly with a model to explain climate policy preferences as a function of the domestic and international distribution of policy costs as well as the climate change impacts that each respondent believes will occur under a policy of business-as-usual. Despite statistically significant patterns of nonresponse, selectivity effects are minimal in this case. WTP for climate change mitigation is greater when the domestic incidence of mitigation costs is borne mostly through higher energy taxes. It is also greater when costs are understood to be shared internationally with other groups of countries, rather than being borne mostly by a country group including the US. People are generally more willing to pay for climate change mitigation if they believe that the harm caused by climate change impacts will be substantial, rather than just moderate.

D.R. Burghart, T.A. Cameron, and G.R. Gerdes (2007) "Valuing Publicly Sponsored Research Projects: Risks, Scenario Adjustments, and Inattention," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 35(1), 77-105.

Survey-based choice scenarios used to value non-market public goods typically preclude any risk that the benefits described may not be delivered. Our survey specifies explicit risks of (a) outright program failure and (b) program redundancy due to possible private sector substitutes. Additionally, most analyses assume that survey subjects fully accept these scenarios and that all provided information receives their complete attention. Our discounted expected utility model of choice accommodates both these objective risks and the possibility of subjective scenario adjustment or selective inattention by respondents. We then counterfactually simulate willingness-to-pay in the absence of these distortions.

T. A. Cameron and I.T. McConnaha (2006) "Evidence of Environmental Migration," Land Economics, 82(2), 273-290.

In hedonic property value models, economists typically assume that changing perceptions of environmental risk should be captured by changes in housing prices. For long-lived risks emanating from point sources, however, many other features of neighborhoods seem to change as well. Households relocate in response to changes in perceived environmental quality. We consider spatial patterns in selected census variables over three decades in the vicinity of four Superfund sites. We find many examples of moving and staying behavior, inferred from changes in the relative concentrations of a wide range of socio-demographic groups in census tracts near the site versus farther away.

T. A. Cameron (2006) "Directional heterogeneity in distance profiles in hedonic property value models ," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 51(1), 26-45.

In environmental economics, hedonic property value (HPV) models have often employed distance from a localized environmental disamenity as a proxy for perceived risk. The magnitude of a distance effect on housing prices, however, may depend upon the direction in which it is being measured. We generalize conventional distance models to allow for continuously varying directional effects by converting from Cartesian to polar coordinates. A simple empirical example (for housing prices around Woburn, Massachusetts, between 1988 and 1996) illustrates how failure to allow for directional heterogeneity can obscure otherwise statistically significant distance effects in HPV.

K. Messer, W.D. Schulze, K.F. Hackett, T.A. Cameron, and G. McClelland (2006) "Can Stigma Explain Large Property Value Losses? The Psychology and Economics of Superfund," Environment and Resource Economics, 33(3), 299-324.

This research documents the long term impacts of delayed cleanup on property values in communities neighborhing prominent Superfund sites. The research examines the sale prices of nearly 34,000 homes near sites in three metropolitan areas for up to a thirty-year period. To our knowledge, no other property value studies have examined sites in multiple areas with large property value losses over the length of time used here. The results are both surprising and inconsistent with most prior work. The principal result is that, when cleanup is delayed for ten, fifteen, and even up to twenty years, the discounted present value of the cleanup is mostly lost. A possible explanation for these property value losses is that the sites are stigmatized and the homes in the surrounding communities are shunned. The results suggest that expedited cleanup and minimizing the number of stigmatizing events would reduce these losses.

J. Louviere, K. Train, M. Ben-Akiva, C. Bhat, D. Brownstone, T.A. Cameron, R. Carson, J.R. DeShazo, D. Feibig, W. Greene, D. Hensher, and D.Waldman (2005) "Recent Progress on Endogeneity in Choice Modeling," Marketing Letters, 16(3-4), 255-265.

We describe recent progress in several areas related to endogeneity, including: choice set formation and attention to attributes; interactions among decision-makers; respondents’ strategic behavior in answering stated preference choices; models of multiple discrete/continuous choice; distributions of willingness-to-pay; and methods for handling traditionally endogenous explanatory variables.

T. A. Cameron (2005) "Updating subjective risks in the presence of conflicting information: An application to climate change," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 30 (1), 63-97.

Willingness to support public programs for risk management often depends on individual subjective risk perceptions in the face of uncertain science. As part of a larger study concerning climate change, we explore individual updated subjective risks as a function of individual priors, the nature of external information, and individual attributes. We examine several rival hypotheses about how subjective risks change in the face of new information (Bayesian updating, alarmist learning, and ambiguity aversion). The source and nature of external information, as well as its collective ambiguity, can have varying effects across the population, in terms of both expectations and uncertainty.

T. A. Cameron (2005) "Individual option prices for climate change mitigation," Journal of Public Economics, 89 (2-3), 283-301.

Willingness-to-pay for climate change mitigation depends on people's perceptions about just how bad things will get if nothing is done. Individual subjective distributions for future climate conditions are combined with stated choices over alternative climate policies to estimate individual option prices (the appropriate ex ante welfare measure in the face of uncertainty) for climate change mitigation. We find statistically significant sensitivity of estimated option prices to both expected future conditions and uncertainty about future conditions.
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J. Louviere, D. Street, R. Carson, A. Ainslie, J.R. DeShazo, T. Cameron, D. Hensher, R. Kohn, T. Marley (2002) "Dissecting the random component of utility," Marketing Letters 13 (3), 177-193.

Abstract not available.

T. A. Cameron, G. L. Poe, R. G. Ethier, and W. D. Schulze (2002) "Alternative non-market value-elicitation methods: Are the underlying preferences the same?," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 44 (3), 391-425.

We advocate a more formal structural approach for comparing WTP for non-market or pre-test-market goods conveyed by fundamentally different preference elicitation mechanisms. Seven independent samples of respondents were asked to value the identical good. Elicitation methods include one actual purchase and six widely used hypothetical choice formats. Using a common underlying indirect utility function (and stochastic structure) allows data for different elicitation methods to be used independently, compared pair-wise (as in much of the earlier literature) or pooled across all samples in one unified model with heteroscedasticity across elicitation methods. Our differences in estimated WTP for the individual models are typical of earlier findings. However, pooled-data models that allow for heteroscedasticity reveal that while there are substantial differences in the amount of noise in the different samples, a common underlying systematic component of the preference structure cannot be rejected for at least four (and possibly five) of these seven elicitation methods.
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T.A. Cameron, W.D. Shaw, and S. Ragland (1999) "Nonresponse Bias in Mail Survey Data: Salience vs. Endogenous Survey Complexity," in Valuing the Environment Using Recreation Demand Models, J.A. Herriges and C.L. Kling (eds.) Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd., 217-251.

Abstract not available.
Paper

T. A. Cameron, and J. Quiggin (1998) "Estimation using contingent valuation data from a "dichotomous choice with follow-up" questionnaire: Reply," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 35 (2), 195-199.

Our original article proposed that the two yes-no willingness-to-pay (WTP) responses produced by this survey format should be viewed as a pair of jointly distributed (correlated) discrete random variables. The comparison model-the "conventional" approach to estimation using these types of data-contained a programming error. Correction alters the results from the comparison model, but our original claim-that estimation by conventional methods can produce misleading inferences if ours is the appropriate specification-still stands. This is especially true if negative TWTP is precluded when E[WTP] is calculated.

T. A. Cameron, and J. Englin (1997) "Respondent experience and contingent valuation of environmental goods," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 33 (3), 296-313.

Respondent experience (i.e., a respondent's information set) has long been suspected to influence contingent valuation estimates of environmental values. We assess the influence of experience by explicitly modeling the relationship between respondent experience and both fitted individual resource values and the conditional variance of these estimated values. Using three different joint specifications for experience and WTP-normal/censored-normal, Poisson/censored-normal, and zero-inflated Poisson/censored-normal-we find discrete jumps in resource values as experience increases from zero and that more-experienced respondents have smaller conditional variances. Simulation of arbitrary levels of experience allows standardization of the amount of information when developing welfare estimates.
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T. A. Cameron, and J. Englin (1997) "Welfare effects of changes in environmental quality under individual uncertainty about use," Rand Journal of Economics, 28, S45-S70.

We adapt the theoretical state-preference model to value nonmarket public goods under individual uncertainty about use, illustrating with an assessment of willingness-to-pay to prevent acid rain lake damage in the northeast United States. Individual usage uncertainty is modelled via probabilities of participation in trout fishing. Changes in environmental quality are valued using a random utility model to explain yes/no responses to a contingent valuation question. We produce quantitative welfare measures: individual fitted and simulated passive- and active-use values, individual expected consumer surplus, option price, option value, and complete individual willingness-to-pay loci.
Paper

T. A. Cameron, W. D. Shaw, S. E. Ragland, J. MacCallaway, and S. Keefe (1996) "Using actual and contingent behavior data with differing levels of time aggregation to model recreation demand," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 21 (1), 130-149.

A model of recreation demand is developed to determine the role of water levels in determining participation at and frequency of trips taken to various federal reservoirs and rivers in the Columbia River Basin. Contingent behavior data are required to break the near-perfect multicollinearities among water levels at some waters. We combine demand data for each survey respondent at different levels of time aggregation (summer months, rest of year, and annual), and our empirical models accommodate the natural heteroskedasticity that results. Our empirical results show it to be quite important to control carefully for survey nonresponse bias.
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J. Englin and T.A. Cameron (1996) "Augmenting Travel Cost Models with Contingent Behaviour Data: Poisson Regression Analyses with Individual Panel Data" Environmental and Resource Economics 7, 133-147.

Abstract not available.
Paper

T. A. Cameron, and J. Quiggin (1994) "Estimation Using Contingent Valuation Data from a Dichotomous Choice with Follow-up Questionnaire," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 27 (3), 218-234.

Dichotomous-choice (referendum) contingent-valuation questions are inefficient in that a very large number of observations is required to identify a distribution of resource values with any degree of accuracy. An alternative questioning strategy introduces a follow-up dichotomous-choice question. We generalize upon previous analyses of this type of data by relaxing the assumption that the identical unobserved resource value motivates both responses. While values implied by the first and second responses are highly correlated and may be drawn from the same distribution, they are definitely not identical. Furthermore, assuming that they are can severely distort the estimated valuation distribution.
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T. A. Cameron (1992) "Nonuser Resource Values," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 74 (5), 1133-1137.

Abstract not available.
Paper

T. A. Cameron (1992) "Combining Contingent Valuation and Travel Cost Data for the Valuation of Nonmarket Goods," Land Economics, 68 (3), 302-317.

The travel cost method (TCM) has long been used to infer the economic value of nonmarket resources and public goods. More recently, contingent valuation (CVM) survey methods have gained popularity for eliciting these values. Here, CVM survey responses are combined with TCM data on actual market behavior to estimate jointly both the parameters of the underlying utility function and its corresponding ordinary demand function. This is a prototypical empirical example of a new modeling strategy, variants of which should prove useful in many applications, especially where reliance on a single valuation method is undesirable.
Paper

T.A. Cameron and M. Wright (1991) "Energy Audit Programs versus Market Incentives as Inducements to Undertake Energy Conservation Retrofits," Natural Resources Modelling 5, 19-53.

Sometimes policymakers seek to influence economic activity merely by providing information, rather than by manipulating relative prices through taxation or subsidization. Household energy audits are an example. Furthermore, these programs are sometimes intended to increase the probability of a particular discrete outcome, such as whether or not the household is motivated to install energy-conservation retrofits. We use a utility-theoretic model for households’ discrete decisions to install attic insulation with and without participation in an energy audit program. We find that (i) self-selection bias in naïve models seems to give an audit program roughly twice the credit it deserves, and (ii) policy measures designed to influence retrofit costs or energy prices may have more discernible direct effects on attic insulation retrofit activity than do audit programs.
Paper

T. A. Cameron (1992) "Correction," Journal of Econometrics, 52 (3), 419-421.

Abstract not available.

T. A. Cameron (1991) "Interval Estimates of Nonmarket Resource Values from Referendum Contingent Valuation Surveys," Land Economics, 67 (4), 413-421.

Abstract not available.
Paper

T. A. Cameron, and D. D. Huppert (1991) "Referendum Contingent Valuation Estimates - Sensitivity to the Assignment of Offered Values," Journal of the American Statistical Association, 86 (416), 910-918.

Contingent valuation methods (CVM) are becoming increasingly popular for assessing the value of nonmarket resources and public goods. In particular, CVM "willingness to pay" estimates are gaining currency for the assessment of damages in environmental litigation. Several studies have compared the value estimates resulting from alternative formats used for CVM survey questions and have speculated on the reasons for observed discrepancies. These reasons now include a whole taxonomy of possible biases. We take a closer look at one CVM format-the referendum-and demonstrate that simply the "luck of the draw" in assigning the referendum thresholds on individual questionnaires can produce a surprisingly wide variety of value estimates. We control for the behavioral biases that confound other comparison studies by using one sample of "payment card" CV data and simulating 200 samples of consistent referendum responses. Due to the inefficiency of the referendum format, we conclude that, where referendum questions have produced different value estimates than other formats, elaborate explanations for the apparent discrepancies may not be necessary.
Paper

T. A. Cameron (1991) "Cameron Censored Logistic-Regression Model - Reply," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 20 (3), 303-304.

Abstract not available.

T. A. Cameron (1990) "One-Stage Structural Models to Explain City Size," Journal of Urban Economics, 27 (3), 294-307.

Several papers have estimated the parameters of Pareto distributions for city sizes in different countries, but only one has attempted to explain the differing magnitudes of these parameters with a set of country-specific explanatory variables. While it is reassuring that there has been some research which advances beyond simple "curve-fitting" to explore the determinants of city size distributions, the existing research uses a two-stage OLS method which yields invalid second-stage standard errors (and, consequently, questionable hypothesis tests). In this paper, we develop candidate one-stage structural models with normal and non-normal errors which accommodate truncated size distributions, potentially Pareto-like shapes, and city-level variables. In general, these new models are nonlinear in parameters. We illustrate with data on U.S. urban areas.

T. A. Cameron, and M. B. Wright (1990) "Determinants of Household Water Conservation Retrofit Activity - a Discrete Choice Model Using Survey Data," Water Resources Research, 26 (2), 179-188.

Abstract not available.
Paper

T. A. Cameron, and D. D. Huppert (1989) "OLS Versus ML Estimation of Non-Market Resource Values with Payment Card Interval Data," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 17 (3), 230-246.

Contingent valuation methods (CVM) have been shown to be potentially very useful for eliciting information about demands for non-market goods. We assess the sensitivity of "payment card" CVM results to the researcher's choice of estimation method. Empirical payment card data are used in both (a) a naive ordinary least squares (OLS) procedure employing interval midpoints as proxies for the true dependent variable, and (b) an efficient maximum likelihood (ML) procedure which explicitly accommodates the intervals. Depending upon the design of the payment card, OLS can yield biased parameter estimates, misleading inferences regarding the effects of different variables on resource values, and biased estimates of the overall resource value.
Paper

T. A. Cameron (1988) "A New Paradigm for Valuing Non-Market Goods Using Referendum Data - Maximum-Likelihood Estimation by Censored Logistic-Regression," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 15 (3), 355-379.

This paper challenges the W.M. Hanemann [Amer. J. Agr. Econom. 66, 332-341 (1984)] and C. Sellar, J.P. Chavas, and J.R. Stoll [J. Environ. Econom. Management 13, 382-390 (1986)] utilizations of logit models to estimate the value of non-market resources from “referendum” survey data. These data are more informative than conventional choice data. The “random utility” interpretation of logit models is therefore too restrictive. Bypassing the utility function entirely, it will be shown that parameters and standard errors for utility-theoretic inverse Hicksian demand functions can be extracted directly and much more simply. Estimated demand functions need not be limited to those corresponding to the linear-in-parameters utility difference specifications which can be handled by packaged logit programs.
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T. A. Cameron, and M. D. James (1987) "Estimating Willingness to Pay from Survey Data - an Alternative Pre-Test-Market Evaluation Procedure," Journal of Marketing Research, 24 (4), 389-395.

Closed-ended contingent valuation surveys are used to access demands in hypothetical markets and recently have been applied widely to the valuation of (non-market) environmental resources. This interviewing strategy holds considerable promise for more general market research application. The authors describe a new maximum likelihood estimation technique for use with these special data. Unlike previously used methods, the estimated models are as easy to interpret as ordinary least squares regression results and the results can be approximated accurately by packaged probit estimation routines.
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T.A. Cameron and K.J. White (1990) "Generalized Gamma Family Regression Models for Long Distance Telephone Call Durations," in A. de Fontenay, M. Shugard, and D. Sibley (eds.), Telecommunications Demand Modeling, Amsterdam: North-Holland, 333-350.

In regression applications where the dependent variable cannot logically take on negative values, the Generalized Gamma (GG) distribution can be adopted as a flexible alternative to the usual Normal conditional distribution. This paper offers a comprehensive assessment of the impact of different distributional assumptions (the GG and its many special cases) upon regression parameter estimates in both linear and log-linear specifications for a model of log-distance telephone call durations.
Paper

T. A. Cameron (1987) "The Impact of Grouping Coarseness in Alternative Grouped-Data Regression-Models," Journal of Econometrics, 35 (1), 37-57.

In regression applications, the only available data for the independent variable have sometimes been grouped or rounded over a known interval. Monte Carlo experiments demonstrate that (i) grouping coarseness will systematically affect the “need” for special estimation methods, and (ii) departures from the conventional linear normal regression model will increase the distortion in parameter estimates when interval midpoints are used as proxies for the true values. Normal, exponential, and Weibull regression models are examined. We propose a simple diagnostic test to determine the maximum parameter distortion due to grouping, and an empirical example illustrates this distortion in a household income model.
Paper

T. A. Cameron, and M. D. James (1987) "Efficient Estimation Methods for Closed-Ended Contingent Valuation Surveys," Review of Economics and Statistics, 69 (2), 269-276.

“Closed-ended contingent valuation” surveys can be very useful in the evaluation of non-market resources. Respondents merely state whether they would accept or reject a hypothetical threshold amount, either as payment for giving up access to the resource, or as a fee for its use. We develop a maximum likelihood procedure which exploits the variation in the threshold values to allow direct and separate point estimates of regression-like slope coefficients and error standard deviations (without truncation bias). Our illustration uses data from a survey of recreational fishermen to examine factors which influence individuals’ willingness-to-pay.
Paper

T. A. Cameron (1986) "Permanent and Transitory Income in Models of Housing Demand," Journal of Urban Economics, 20 (2), 205-210.

Permanent income has for some time been recognized as the appropriate income variable for models of housing demand. This paper examines a recently developed model wherein permanent and transitory income are considered to be fitted and residual components, respectively, of a regression of actual income on several household characteristics. An important caveat for these models is pointed out. One logical remedial strategy is shown to result in underidentification for the coefficient on permanent income. However, the technique uncovers a tangential result which summarizes why an alternative class of models can be expected to underestimate income elasticities.
Paper

T. A. Cameron (1986) "Some Reflections on Comparable Worth," Contemporary Policy Issues, 4 (2), 33-39.

Despite its somewhat impudent tone, this paper examines a major controversy. “Comparable worth” has its proponents and detractors, but as in most debates, neither side fully appreciates the maintained hypothesis of the other. From an economic point of view, the disagreement seems to boil down to differences of opinion about whether the “excessive supply” of women to “women’s jobs” is a result of their utility functions or of their different constrains. There also has been a serious confusion of the “normative’ with the “positive”, some oversight of the potentially large regulatory costs that would accompany comparable worth legislation, and a tendency to consider only the partial-equilibrium consequences of these measures. Each of these considerations is examined in detail, with the conclusion that while comparable worth measures might alleviate some inequities in the short term, the long-term consequences could seriously aggravate the very problem the policy was intended to solve.
Paper

T. A. Cameron, and K. J. White (1986) "The Demand for Computer Services - a Disaggregate Decision-Model," Managerial and Decision Economics, 7 (1), 37-41.

Abstract not available.

T. A. Cameron (1985) "A Nested Logit Model of Energy-Conservation Activity by Owners of Existing Single Family Dwellings," Review of Economics and Statistics, 67 (2), 205-211.

Previous models of residential energy demand have emphasized either (i) short-run continuous adjustments in the utilization of a fixed capital stock or (ii) long-run discrete decisions about the capital embodied in new housing. This paper examines medium-run adjustments to the existing housing stock, focusing on discrete energy conservation “retrofits” such as insulation and storm windows. Individual household data are employed in a two-level nested logit model to estimate a translog indirect utility function. Simulations reveal considerable sensitivity of the demand for retrofits to their own prices, to relative energy prices and to changes in real incomes.
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T. A. Cameron (1985) "Consistent Multinomial and Nested Logit Point Estimates - a Practical Note," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 47 (1), 83-89.

Abstract not available.
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T. A. Cameron, and K. J. White (1985) "Demand Models Incorporating Price Differences across Political Boundaries," Annals of Regional Science, 19 (1), 50-60.

Whenever a consumer can acquire a good or a service more conveniently by paying a per-unit premium, the number of units purchased in a particular transaction becomes important. Furthermore, the potential “convenience” associated with the consumption process is often independent of the number of units of the good being purchased. This implies that the “price of convenience” (POC) can be defined as the increment to total cost incurred by the decision to purchase at the premium price. The POC will influence a consumer’s decision to participate in either the high-priced or the low-priced market. While the notion of a price of convenience is quite general, this paper focuses on an area where it may be particularly relevant. When political boundaries are present and create a differential in the real price of some good on each side of the border, the price of convenience will be an important determinant of the demand for commodities (near the border) in both jurisdictions. The POC model is examined here as an extension to a special case of the notion of “market locational accessibility,” where accessibility enters discretely, rather than as a continuous variable. Simple logit models are argued to be appropriate for empirical applications when only a binary side-of-border decision is being modeled. If this decision is embedded in a hierarchy of convenience choices, multinomial logit techniques are suggested.
Paper

T.A. Cameron and S.L. Schwartz (1979) "Sectoral Energy Demand in Canadian Manufacturing Industries," Energy Economics, April, 112-118.

Abstract not available.

T.A. Cameron and S.L. Schwartz (1980) "Inflationary Expectations and the Demand for Labor, Capital, and Energy in Canadian Manufacturing Industries," Chapter 3 in Energy Policy Modeling: United States and Canadian Experiences, Volume I: Specialized Energy Policy Models, W.T. Ziemba and others (eds.), Martinus Nijhoff, Social Sciences Division, Boston, 50-64.

Abstract not available.

Book Review

T. A. Cameron (1989) "Econometric-Analysis of Discrete Choice - with Applications on the Demand for Housing in the United-States and West-Germany - Borsch-Supan,A.," Journal of Economic Literature, 27 (2), 663-664.

Abstract not available.