D - d

d   Some speakers may have light implosion, while for others the stop is not implosive.

a-daá   v itr. To eat, feed (itr). Káló adaá amʉ̂ káátà esúmàsh. I am going to eat because I am hungry. Ágɨ́rà adaá. I am eating. Tányà taá ɛdaá inkíshù ɛ́nyɛnák tɔ̀ lcámpâ línò. Forbid his cows from grazing in your land. (W). Ɛ́ɨ́má inkíshù enê áàpùò áàdàà. The herds of cows have passed here for grazing. (Pk). Ɛtadɛ́ɛ̀ ɛlɛ́ páyìàn. This man has eaten.

a-daarí   To go on eating from one place to another or one meal after another; feed on. Kétírù ɛnkɔ́shɔ́kɛ̀ ɔltʉŋánì ɔdaárì The stomach will ache anybody who keeps on eating from place to place. See: ɛn-dáátá The eating, food; ɛn-dáà Food; a-nyá To eat (transitive); a-itotí To feed (transitive); a-ɨnɔ́s To eat; a-ám To eat; a-má To eat.

ɛn-dáà   Nom sg: ɛn-dáâ. Acc pl: ɨn-daikí. Nom pl: ɨn-dáíkì. n. Food. Kɛ́nyá oshî ɨltʉŋaná ɛndáà peê éíshû. People eat food so as to live. (Pk). Tʉ́pʉrdakɨ́ lpílipílì atúà ndáà. Crush the pepper into the food. (SN). See: a-daá To eat, feed.

ɛn-dáátá   Nom sg: ɛn-daatá. Acc pl: ɨn-daát. Nom pl: ɨn-daát. n. 1 • Grazing. Ɛshɔmɔ̂ inkíshù indaát. The cows have gone to graze. Kórè tɔɔ ɔlámèyù, németum inkíshù ɨndaát sidaîn. During the dry period cows do not graze well.

2 • Grazing land, pasture. Náà ɛ́ntabáɨ́ inkíshú ɨndaát ɛnyɛ̂. Make sure the cows reach their grazing fields. (Pk). See: a-daá To eat.

dákár ? [North]   Acc pl: dakarrí?. n. [North] Flea? (something that dogs have, dark red and jumps).

ɔl-dákéí   Nom sg: ɔl-dakéí. [Purko] Acc sg: ɔl-dákèì. n. 1 • The eating.

2 • Eating habit. See: ɛn-dáà Food; ɔl-adakíté Food.

ɛn-dakɛ́t   Nom sg: ɛn-dákɛt. Acc pl: ɨn-dakɛ́tà. Nom pl: ɨn-dákɛ̀tà. n. 1 • Mouth.

2 • Utensil for eating. Ɛ́yaʉ́ indakɛ́tà peê kɨ̀nyà ɛndáà. Bring the utensils so that we can begin eating. (Pk). See: ɛn-kʉ́tʉ́k Mouth; ɛ-nyɨ́rt Mouth; a-daá To eat.

ɔl-dákɨ́tárrí   Nom sg: ɔl-dakɨtarrí. Acc pl: ɨl-dakɨtarriní. Nom pl: ɨl-dákɨtarriní. n. Doctor; healer. Eképuoi áàʉ̀d ɨnkɛ́rà táaisérè ɨldákɨtarriní. Children will be vaccinated (injected) tomorrow by doctors. See: ɔl-abáànì Healer; doctor; ɔl-ádítárí Doctor.

a-dál1   v.prog. 1 • To scorch, heat too hotly. Restrict: Sun, fire. Usage: a-dál means to put out heat toward sth. else. a-irowúá means sth. is hot in itself.. Ɛdalɨ́tà ɛnkɨ́mà iyíóók The fire is scorching us. Ɛ́dál ɛnkɔ́lɔ̀ŋ ɛnâ kɔ́p There is too much heat (from the sun) on this land. The sun scorches on this land. Kɛ́dálɨshɔ táatá ɛnkɔ́lɔ̀ŋ. The sun is too hot today. ɛnkátá nadalʉ́ ɛnkɔ́lɔ̀ŋ olêŋ néírowúájù olêŋ The time when the sun scorches down immensely and it becomes very hot [This is a description of ɔl-adalʉ́, the hot month]. Ɛtadálua ɛnkɔ́lɔ̀ŋ olêŋ. The sun has given a lot of heat.

2 • To shine intensely; burn eyes with bright light. Míkíntókì adál téínâ kíóòk. Don't keep on burning my eyes with that mirror (i.e., the light from the mirror is too bright for me). See: ɔl-adalʉ́ Hot season; a-irowúá To be hot.

a-dál2   v.prog. 1 • To intentionally pass a little bit aside from the main course. adál enkóítói To deviate from the path.

2 • To intentionally deviate from the main point or from the truth in a discussion. adál ɛsɨ́pátá To intentionally deviate from the truth. Syn: a-paásh To deviate from.

a-dál3   v.prog. To swing hand(s) or leg(s). Ɛ́dál ɔlákúɛ́tání ɨnkáɨ́k tenékùɛ̀t. The athlete will swing his hands when he runs. Ɛ́dalɨ́tà ɔltʉ́ŋání ɨnkáɨ́k ɔ́ nkɛjɛ́k tiátùà ɛnkárɛ́ A person is swinging hands and legs in water. See: a-yúk To swing.

a-dalá   v. To play. Edálà ɨlŋátùnyò. Lions are playing. (W).[low falling tone on ɨlŋátunyo]  Ádálà táatá. I will play today. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkáyíóní adalarɛ́ intótò. The boy is playing with pebbles. (Pk).

a-dalarɛ́   To joke, play with; mock, jest.

a-dalá lʉkʉnyá   To be not attentive.

ɛn-dálà   n. Play.

ɨl-Dalálɛ̀kʉ̀tʉ̀k   n.pl. Name of a Maasai section. See: ɨl-Kankérè il-Kankere section; ol-oshô Section.

n-dálankúánì [North]   n. [North] Type of grass that is bigger and wider than other grass, which grows on arid land on the sides of a hill, normally in clumps. See synonyms at: See: ɛn-kʉ́jɨ́tá Grass.

dalût   Nom sg: dálùt. Acc pl: dalútì. Nom pl: dálutí. adj. Mischievous, playful. Ɨ́ntalamáɨ́ ɛnâ kɛ́ráɨ́ dalût amʉ̂ kéíbukóó kʉnâ motorí. Keep away this mischevious child, because he will pour out this soup. (Pk). See: a-ɨŋɔlá To be playful.

a-dám1   v. To turn sth. Ɛgɨ́raɨ áàdàm inkíshú méínyìààri ɛnkáló naiŋúáà. The cows are being turned so they return to the direction they came from. (Pk).

a-damá   v.mid. To change direction; turn. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛngári adamá. The car is turning. (Pk). See: a-oʉ́k To turn.

a-dám2   v. To slap. Ɛgɨ́raɨ áàdàm ɔlpúríshóí isedéri tɔɔ́ nkáɨ̀k. The thief is being slapped (on) the cheeks with the hands. See: a-ósh To slap, beat.

a-dám3   v. To mislead; destroy, disorganize (by alcohol, withcraft, etc.). Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnaishó adám ɔltʉŋánì. The alcohol is misleading the person. (Pk).

a-damá   v.mid. To be destroyed by sth. like alcohol or witchcraft. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɛráɨ́ adamá ánàà ɛnasukútò. The child is behaving like one who is bewitched. (Pk). As a result of being a-damá, a person does not do what is expected of a normal individual, and may behave in any of a number of anti-social ways. For example, he may wander around, be unsuccessful in business, kill, take a lot of alcohol etc.

ɛn-dam [South]4   n. [South] Basket. See: ɛn-kɨɔndɔ̂ Basket.

ɛn-dámà1   Nom sg: ɛn-dámâ. Acc pl: ɨn-damaritín. Nom pl: ɨn-dámaritín. n. 1 • Daylight. Tɛ̀ ɛndámâ oshî ɛwáŋ ɛnkɔ̂p. It is during daylight that earth is bright. (Pk).

2 • Day. Óù tádɛkɛnyá amʉ̂ káànyù, kákè mílotú taá dámà amʉ̂ áɨ́dɨ́pà ɨ̀nà kátá ashɔ́mɔ̀. Come in the morning because I will wait for you, but don't come in the afternoon because I would have left by that time. (Pk).

3 • Afternoon, from noon on. Éjó áá ɛndámâ? How is the afternoon? (W).

4 • [North] Sun.

ɔl-dámà   1 • Long daylight. Ɛ́ɨ́tɔrrɔnɔ̂ tɛ̀ nɛ́ɨ́shʉnyɛ́ ɔldámâ ɔ́bà nchí nɛ́mɛ́ɛ́tà. It is bad to let such a long day end without doing anything. (lit: It is bad of a long day to reach xxx and not do anything.) (Pk).

2 • Heat from sun; hot sun, hot day. See: ɛnk-ɔlɔ́ŋ Sun; dámà During the day; [North] m-parkɨ́jɨ̀ Daytime; [Camus] ɔŋán Daytime.

ɔl-dámà2   Nom sg: ɔl-dámâ. Acc pl: ɨl-damát. Nom pl: ɨl-damát. n. 1 • Hillside, spur.

ɛn-dáma ɔ́ ɛnkɛwaríé   n. Period of time which includes day and night together; day (24 hours). Órè ɛndáma ɔ́ ɛnkɛwaríé pɔɔkɨ́ kɛ́tɔ́nɨ́tà aké. Day and night he has just been sitting. (Pk). See: ɛnk-ɔlɔ́ŋ Sun, day; [North] m-párr Day.

ɨl-Damát   n.pl. Name of a Maasai section.

n-dámátà [North]   Nom sg: n-damatá. Acc pl: n-damát. Nom pl: n-damát. n. [North] Slope of a mountain. See: ɛnk-ɔ́shɔ̀kɛ̀ Slope of a hill; ɔl-dámà Hillside.

a-damɨshɔ́   v. To think; be imaginative. ɔltʉŋánì ɔdámɨshɔ person who is imaginative, thinking. Táà ɔltʉŋánì ɔdámɨ̀shɔ̀ mɨ́ncɔ ɨmbáà kíríkínò. Be a thinking person, don't forget issues. See: a-damʉ́ To think.

a-damʉ́   [West]: a-dɛmʉ́. In some suffixed forms: a-damʉ́n. v v.aux+subjn-infinitive. To remember, think (about), imagine; the object may be an NP or a nominalized complement clause. Meékure ɛdamʉ́ kókoô ɨnkaátìnì kúmòk. My grandmother does not remember many stories. Tádamʉ́ eníló táaisérè. Think where you will go tomorrow. Ɛ́gɨ́rá ɛnkɛráí adamɨshɔ́ amʉ̂ kélóítò aás ɛntɛ́mátá. The child is thinking because she is going to do an exam. (Pk). Kɛ́damʉ́ oltʉ́ŋání erréshétó ɔɔ́ ŋúésì. The man imagines/remembers/thinks about trapping animals. (lit: The man cognizes the trapping of animals.) (Pk). Ɛgɨ́rà Jôn adɛmʉ́ ŋótónyé naɨshárɨ̀. Jon is remembering his mother who has passed away (i.e. died). (W). Ant: a-rikinó Forget. See: [North] a-parrʉ́ To remember.

ɛn-dámúnotó   Nom sg: ɛn-damúnotó. Acc pl: ɨn-damunót. Nom pl: ɨn-dámùnòt. n. Thought. Kéíshíákíno nɛ́ɨ́shɔ̀ ɔltʉ́ŋání ɔlikáɨ́ ɛndámúnotó nàrèt. It is proper for a person to give the other a thought that will help him. (Pk). Órè aké téípà nɛ́ɨ́dʉ̀rr ɨnkɛ́rà è sukúùl ɨndámùnòt. In the afternoon/evening, school children's minds (thoughts) wander (migrate). Áaɨdʉrrâ ɨndámùnòt. My thoughts have wandered. See: a-damʉ́ To remember.

l-dánkâl [North]   n. [North] Open location with no tree or house to hide in. Syn: ɔl-bárríkô Wilderness; open ground. See: álábàny Complacent.

en-dánù   n. Spleen.

a-dány   v.prog. 1 • To break, burst, shatter. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɛráí adány olmosorî lé mótonyî. The child is breaking the egg of a bird. (Pk). Ɛtadányɛ̀ olgúsâ The blister burst. Ádányɨ́tà olmósòrì. I am breaking the egg. (W). Míncòp ɛnâ mánkékí amʉ̂ ɛtadányàtɛ̀ ɨntʉ́ntaí. Don't wear that necklace because the oval beads (used to finish the edge) are broken. (Pk). Áatadanyakínè entulélei ɛnkɔŋʉ́. I had a sodom apple burst into my eye. aitík osóít ɔmɛtádanyanyú to hit a stone hard until it breaks (Pk).

2 • To flower. Mayíólò ajó káɨ́nyɔɔ náyawúá ɛnâ síáàì ɛ́ nkasíŋi. Kájo kɛ́kʉlɔ̂ keék ɔɔ́dànyɨ̀tà ɨntapʉ́kà. I don't know what brought about this act/business of sneezing. Maybe it is these trees that are flowering. (lit: that are bursting).

a-danyá   v.mid. To be broken, burst, cracked. Ɛdányà. It is burst. (i.e. it is lying there already in a burst condition). Ɛgɨ́rà ɔldʉ́tʉtâî adanyá. The boil is breaking/bursting. (Pk). Némorroójù, néílubulúbù, nɛ́danya aɨɔtɨɔtá, nétiu ánàà ɨlpɛpɛ́dɔ̀. It becomes rough, it swells, it bursts to be infected and it becomes like scabies. Ɛtadányɛ̀ ɛnkɛ́jʉ̀ ɛ́ ngárrì. The tyre of the car has burst. (i.e. the car has a flat tyre). Nɛ́dʉmʉnɨ́ siî kʉlɛ́ ɛ́ ɨ́nâ áŋ áàpɨ̀k olkúkúrí lɛ́mɛ́dányà. They get milk of that home and put it in a calabash which has not cracked. Etadányɛ̀ olpírâ lɛ́ nkárɛ́. The water can is broken/leaks. [The water can may or may not currently have water in it.] (W). Etadányɛ̀ ɛnkɔ́ŋʉ̀ ɔ́ lkɨ́tɛ́ŋ. The cow's eye has burst. (so it is not working). LING: [ɔ̀lkɪ̀tɛ̀ŋ].

áà-dàny ɛnk-ɔ́shɔ̀kɛ̀   To do abdominal surgery.

ɔl-danyɛ́t   Acc pl: ɨl-danyɛ́tà. n. The first watery liquid that emerges when s.o. or sth. is giving birth. LING: The plural could refer to the watery liquid from several cows.

a-danyʉ́   v. To split. Míntókì adanyʉ́ ɨlantɛ́rɛ̀rà tɔɔ́ lŋayíôî. Stop splitting out seeds from the fruit. (Pk). See: a-ɨpɛ́rr To split; a-rɛ́k To split.

l-dáp [North]   Nom sg: l-dâp. n.sg. [North] Masturbation.

ɛn-dâp   Nom sg: ɛn-dâp. Acc pl: ɨn-dápì. Nom pl: ɨn-dápî. n. Palm (of the hand), sole (of the foot). Ɛgɨ́rà ɛntásât aiutu'út ɨndápì ɔɔ́ nkɛjɛ́k. The woman is cleansing the soles of her feet. (Pk). Ɨ́ntɛ̀r taá aké adɔ́l nɛ́ɨ́lɛ̀pʉ̀ ɛndâp ɛ́ nkáɨ́ná. You begin to see the palm of the hand (observably) increase (in size). Áataremô orkíkùèì ɛndâp ɛ́nkàɨ̀nà. A thorn has pierced my palm. (Pk). LING: An animal (except for monkies and baboons) does not have an ɛndâp.

ɛn-dapanâ   Nom sg: ɛn-dápanâ. Acc pl: ɨn-dápàn. Nom pl: ɨn-dápân. n. Skin, particularly of a small animal such as a goat, sheep, calf. Ɨncɔ́ɔkɨ́ ɛndapanâ náló aɨtainyíé ɔlkɨlâ. Give me a skin (of a goat or sheep) so that I can make a piece of clothing from it. (Pk). ɛn-dapanâ is typically used to make clothes, or straps for sandals. See: ol-coní Skin.

dápásh   Nom sg: dapásh. Acc pl: dápáshí. Nom pl: dapashí. adj. 1 • Broad, wide. Mɛ́ɨ̀m ɛmɨ́sâ dapásh ɛnkʉ́tʉ́k ɛ́ nkají rɔ́nkáí. A wide table can not fit through a narrow door. Mɛ́ɨ̀m entókî dapásh kʉ́tʉ́k ají nápɨ́rɨ́k. Something broad cannot pass a narrow door. (Pk). ɔltʉŋánì dápásh broad-bodied person.

ɛn-dápásh   n. Bed. Shɔ́mɔ̀ ɨ́mɛrɨpɛrayú tɛ̀ ndapásh. Go and rest on the bed. (Pk). Ɛndápásh kɨtɨ́ oshî ɛnɛ̂ ntásàt. It is the small bed in the traditional house that belongs to the mother. (Pk). Ɛndápásh kitók oshî ɛnɔ́ɔ̀ lpayianí. The big bed in a traditional house belongs to the man. (Pk). tɛ̀ ndapásh in/on bed. Traditionally, a house will have two beds, a big one for the man, and a small one for the woman.

ɛn-dápásh sápʉ̀k   The big bed in a traditional house.

ɔl-dápásh   1 • A person with a broad body. This term is primarily used as a person's name whose body is big or broad. Eɛ́wùò ɔldapásh áŋ. Oldapash (lt. The Wide) has come home. (Pk).

2 • The wide open place (masc.).

3 • A big bed. This term exaggerates the size of the bed, and is not the traditionally-used term for the large bed in a traditional house. For SN, there is no indigenous word for 'bed'; rather, the Swahili term kitanda is used. Ɛ́tɨ́pɨ́ká orípíé oldápásh lɛ́máyíólò nanʉ́. He has put the unfinished a big bed that I do not understand. (Pk). Syn: e-rrúât Bed. See: a-ɨdapásh To scatter.

4 • Shoulder. See: a-lalá Wide; o-rôny Shoulder; e-rruât Bed; [North] l-korrór Bed; l-tápʉ́tɛ́t Bed.

l-dápdàp [North]   n. [North] Pigeon; type of bird.

ɛn-dápdápoi   n. Rock. Káídìm atoporôî anâ dápdápoi. I can climb/creep over this rock. (SN).

ɛn-dápɨ́dápòì   Nom sg: ɛn-dapɨdápoi. Acc pl: ɨn-dápɨ́dápò. Nom pl: ɨn-dapɨdápò. [Purko] Acc sg: ɛn-dápʉ́dápòì, ɛn-dápídápòì. [Purko] Nom sg: ɛn-dapɨdápòì. [North] Acc sg: dadápòì. [Chamus] Acc sg: dádápòì. n. Large flat rock. Ɛ́ncɔ̀ɔ̀ intaré épúò áàòk ɛnkárɛ́ natíí ɛndápɨ́dápòì. Let the goats and sheep go and get water that is lying on the flat imporous rock. See: o-sóít Rock.

a-dár   v. 1 • To make a loud noise. Órè oshî ɛ́tɔ̂n mɛɛ́taɨ ɛnkɨ́páátá kɛ́dar aké ɔláyíóní óbo nɛ́mʉrrát mɛnyɛ́ Now normally before the initial ceremony one boy first shouts and his father circumcises him.

2 • To thunder.

a-daraá   1 • To spread out (of news or information). Méítadaráa ɨlɔmɔ́n lɔɔ́ nkʉrrát He/they will not spread confidential news.

2 • To make continous loud sound. ádáráà aló Karen I will make continous loud sound as I go to Karen. Ɛdaráà ɔltʉ́ŋání ɔ́dámá tiátùà Nairobi A bewitched man keeps on making loud sound in Nairobi.

a-darakɨ́   1 • To shout.

2 • To come out like sparks. See: ɛn-dárátá Thunder.

darásà   n. Class. Náaitudúŋ emoyíán darásà. The disease made me miss the class (e.g. for several weeks). (Pk).

ɛn-dárátá   Nom sg: ɛn-daratá. n. Thunder.

ɛn-dárátá ɛ́ncàn   Storm.

ɛn-dárátá ɛ́nkàì   Storm. See: a-dár To make a loud noise; to thunder; en-kíkúrrúkùrr Thunder.

ɔl-dárpóí   Acc pl: ɨl-dárpò. Nom pl: ɨl-dárpô. n. 1 • Bull that congenitally lacks both testicles.

2 • "Sausage" tree?

n-dárpóí [North]   [North] Locally brewed beer. See: ɔ-sʉ́nàsh Bull with one testicle; ɔl-kúùntà Castrated bull; [North] kódílé Male with one testicle; sátìmà Castrated bull; ɔ-sáídóŋóí Castrated male; ɛn-tápɨ̀s Homophrodite; sʉnkʉlaité Homophrodite.

ɛn-darʉ́nà   [North] Acc sg: en-dorúnà. n. Red light of dawn, sunrise. See: akɛnyá morning; sɨrán morning; sɨrán ɔ́ ltɔmɛ before sunrise.

a-dás   v. To milk cow into mouth, e.g. while it is still in the pasture.

a-dás enkíné   To make a clucking sound of annoyance or contempt.

ɛn-dásátá   Nom sg: ɛn-dasatá???. n. Milking into one's own mouth.

en-dásìm [South]   n. 1 • [South] Medicine. See: ɔl-caní Medicine; ɔl-máɨ́rɔ́ Medicine.

en-dásùm   n. Medicine from witchdoctors. See: [South] en-dásìm Medicine; ɔl-caní Medicine.

ɔl-dáù   Nom sg: ɔl-dáù. Acc pl: ɨl-daûn. Nom pl: ɨl-dáùn. n. Semi-permanent climbing rails built on a fence for crossing over the fence. Ɛɨtɔbɨ́rakɨ́ ɔldáù tɔ lpáàshìè ɔlaŋakinyíékì bɔɔ́. Climbing rails have been built on the fence to cross over into the kraal (Pk). See: ol-kedét Ladder.

a-dɛ́   v. 1 • To shell. Ɛ́dɛ́. She will shell (sth). adɛdɛ́ ɨlpáyɛ̂k Take maize kernels out of their cob.

2 • [North] To give a warning signal for someone talking to keep quite, to let you listen; "shh"

a-dedé   v. To be true. Edédè. It is true/It used to be true. (W). ɨmbáà naádedé things that are true. Náà kédédè naárrɨ́ ajó ɛ́kɨrâ kársísî. (i) It used to be true that we were rich. (K Pk) (ii) We were never rich. (-K Pk). Q: Ámaâ émedédè naárrɨ ajó ɨ́yásɨ́shɔrɛ́ Máásâɨ̂ Language Project? A: Ékédédè apá ... Q: Is it true that you worked for the Maasai Language Project? A: It used to be true... Kédédè ɨnâ báɛ̀, kákè ḿmɛ̀ asɨ́pànì ɛmbáɛ̀. That fact is true, but we cannot say a fact is truthful. (Pk). LING: As a verb, this form is defective and does not occur in first or second person, as it is not used to describe human beings, but rather statements or ideas. It also cannot be inflected for any aspect, causative, or other derivational forms.

a-itadedeyíé   To confirm; make clear. See: ɛ-nadédè Truth, the truth; ɛ-sɨ́pátá Truth.

ɛna-dédè   Nom sg: ɛná-dedé. Acc pl: ɨna-ádedé. Nom pl: ɨná-adedé. n. Truth, the truth. Éjó oshî ɨltʉŋaná ɛ́tɔ́n ɛ́ɨ́tʉ̂ epíú Yésù, kákè kórè ɛnadédè etopíwuo ɔpá olêŋ. People always think that Jesus has not resurrected, but the truth is that he resurrected a long time ago. Éjó oshî ɨltʉŋaná meishiunyékì ɔltʉŋánì lóloirírùà, kákè eishiunyékì. Kórè ɨnaádedé náà, kérikí sipitálì, kérikí oloibónì, ɔ aashʉ̂ eomonokiní. People think that a mad person will not be cured. But he can be cured. The facts are, he can be taken to hospital, he can be taken to a magician, or he can be prayed for. LING: adédè has a more restricted syntactic use than ɛsɨ́pátá.

e-dédè   It is true. See: asɨ́pànì Truthful; ɛ-sɨ́pátá Truth.

a-dɛdɛ́   v.prog. To take apart a large structure bit by bit; dismantle; disassemble. Ɛshɔmɔ́ Kónené adɛdɛ́ ɛsʉntâî, peê eitokí ashɛ́t. Konene has gone to take apart the wall so he can rebuild it again. (W). Ɛdɛdɨ́tà. He is taking it apart. Étédédíá ŋolé. He took it apart yesterday. See: a-dɛ́ To shell; a-ŋɛ́r To destroy by tearing apart.

a-dedíá   v.mid. To be torn apart; worn out. Etedédìè ɛnkájì músànà The old house has worn out. LING: The Middle form can be used for large structures or very old cloth.

a-dɛdɛ́ [South]   v. [South] To be unhappy.

a-dɛɛ́ny   v. 1 • To do sth. in a proud manner. adɛɛ́ny osínkólio To sing with pride. adɛɛ́ny ɛnkɨ́nɔ́sátá ɛ́ ndáà To eat food in a proud manner.

2 • To make s.o. proud.

a-dɛɛnyá   v.mid. To be filled with pride, arrogance, or anger; puffed up. Meyíéú ɔlmʉrraní ɛndáà tenétií inkítùààk amʉ̂ kɛ́dɛɛ́nyà. The warrior does not want (to eat) food where women are because he is proud. ɔltʉŋánì ɔdɛɛ́nyà person who is proud, self-conscious. See: a-ɨtɔkɔɔ́s To flirt; a-ŋɨ́d To be proud; a-ɨpɛɛ́j To flirt; a-ɨká To be suspended; puffed up; a-itaakunó To pretend.

deí [North]   adv. [North] Indeed. Ronkó deí ɛtárá. It is a dik-dik that he/she killed. (SN). See: doí Indeed.

ol-déímá   Nom sg: ol-deimá. Acc pl: il-démáíshì. Nom pl: il-demaishí. n. Lymph nodes in the legs. See: ɔl-ŋárkanî Gland; en-tíkanî Lymph node.

a-dɛ́k   v. 1 • To pronounce a misfortune on s.o. or sth, with the result that a supernatural being will allow or bring that misfortune about. It is generally believed that God hears cries of the elderly, the weak, and disabled (physically or mentally). So, typically it is such people who can a-dɛ́k. Sometimes this will be done to a child in judgement for wrongdoing. Étédíáá ɔlpáyìàn ɛnkɛ́ráí. The man has cursed the child. [The child may be a-damá, or misfortune may befall the child because of the curse.]. Étédíáá ɔlpáyìàn ɛnáíshó. The man has cursed the beer. [The beer will cause trouble for anyone who takes it.].

2 • To insult, abuse with words. This does not involve any supernatural activity. See: a-mór To insult, abuse.

a-diaakɨ́   Etediaáka ɔlpáyìàn ɛnkɛ́ráí ɛnyɛ́ enáíshó The man has cursed beer for his child (i.e. a misfortune will befall the child if he/she drinks beer). See: ɔl-dɛkɛ́t A curse; a-mórr To insult; a-inyál To insult.

ɔl-dɛkɛ́t   Nom sg: ɔl-dɛ́kɛ̀t. Acc pl: ɨl-dɛkɛ́tà. Nom pl: ɨl-dɛ́kɛ̀tà. n. Curse. See: a-dɛ́k To curse; [North] l-ŋóncóí Curse; [North] l-mogírô Curse.

a-dɛ́m   v. 1 • To praise.

2 • To long for; want.

a-dɛmá   To be lucky. See: a-yíéú To long for; want; a-ɨsɨ́s To praise.

a-dɛmʉ́   v v.aux+subjn-infinitive. To remember, think. Ɨ́dɛ́mʉ́ naárrɨ́ kɨ́nyáɨ́tá inkulukuók? Do you remember those days that we used to eat soil? (W). Ágɨ́rà adɛmɨshɔ́ I am thinking (e.g. in order to figure something out). (W). LING: There is no word with the simple root *dɛm. See: a-damʉ́ To remember.

en-dénkél   n. Centipede. See: ɛnk-ɔlʉ́pà Centipede.

ɔl-dɛ́pɛ̀   Nom sg: ɔl-dɛ́pɛ̂. Acc pl: il-dépeí. Nom pl: il-dépeí. n. Large tin of about 20 kilos. See: ɔl-bákɛ̀t Bucket.

dɛ́rɛ̀   Nom sg: dɛ́rɛ̂. Acc pl: dérèì. Nom pl: déréì. adj. Combination of black and white, with black dominating; may have shades of green to yellow but is basically "gray". The color could be temporary, as when an item is covered with dark gray dust. Color of a mouse or vervet monkey. Ɛtɨmɨrákɨ̀ ɛnkáshê dɛ́rɛ̀. The mouse-gray heifer has been sold. Kɛ́ɨ́dɛ́rɛ̀ ŋolé ɛnkɨ́nʉkʉ́. The mist yesterday was mouse-gray. See: en-derónì Mouse, rat.

n-dɛ́rɛ̀ [North]   n. [North] Vervet monkey, also known as the black-faced monkey. griseo viridis.

ɔl-dɛ́rɛ̀kɛ̀ny   Nom sg: ɔl-dɛ́rɛ́kɛ̀ny. Acc pl: il-derekenyí. Nom pl: il-dérekenyí. n. Jerican. ɔl-dɛ́rɛ̀kɛ̀ny lɛ́ nkárɛ́ Jerican of water.

ɛn-dɛ́rkɛ̀ny   n. Hairless buttocks of a baboon. See: [North] l-ótìm baboon; ɔ-yɛ́kɛ̀ny baboon.

ol-dérkésí   Nom sg: ol-derkesí. Acc pl: il-dérkès. Nom pl: il-dérkês. n. Type of plant, found in Olóíríén region.

dɛ́rlɛ́í [North]   adj. [North] Yellow. See: sikítóì Yellow; túlélèì Yellow; búkóí Yellow.

en-derónì   Nom sg: en-dérònì. Acc pl: in-deró. Nom pl: ín-dérò. n. Rat, mouse. ilderó rats (W). See: dɛ́rɛ̀ Mouse-gray color.

a-dɛ́rr   v. 1 • To have an informal discussion; discuss; converse. Ídérríé Doris? Do you (normally) have informal discussions with Doris?

2 • To chatter. This may include storytelling, either by one person or by exchanges of several people, and can be 3 hours long.

a-ɨtɛdɛ́rr   To seduce; flirt. See: a-ɨrɔ́ To talk.

ɨl-dɛrrát   Sg: ɔl-dɛrrátì. Nom sg: ɔl-dɛ́rràtì. Nom pl: ɨl-dɛrrát. n. Chat; Informal discussions; talks. LING: Plural is the normal form. Merétisho ɨldɛrrát tɔ́rrɔ̀k Bad chat is not helpful. See: ɨ-lɔmɔ́n Conversation; ɛn-kɨrɔ́rɔ́tɔ́ Conversation.

l-désí [Chamus]   n. [Chamus] Baboon. See: ɔ-ɛ́kɛ̀ny Baboon; ɔl-tʉ́làl Baboon; [South] ol-kima Baboon; [North] l-ótìm Baboon.

dɛ́t   Ɛyákakɨ́ ɛntɔ́mɔ́nɔ́nɨ̀ naatɔ́ɨ́shɛ́ dɛ́t ɛndáà. A woman who just had a baby had food brought for her. (Pk).

n-detí [North]   n.pl. [North] Weeds. Káítáy ndetí. [káytáy] I will remove weeds. (S).

a-díá   v. To curse. Kedíá. He is cursing someone. (S). See: a-dɛ́k To curse. Etym: In Maa, there is some evidence for /ia/ developing from /ɛk + a/, supporting an analysis of /dɛk/ as the historical source for modern /díá/. Cf. also Proto-Eastern-Nilotic *-dɛm- 'bewitch' (Vossen 1982:333) and Otuho a-diam-ánà 'bewitch'; Vossen posits the rule e~ɛ > ɪa {N,C}a for Otuho..

día2   Acc pl: díéìn. Nom pl: díéîn. adj. Unfriendly. Kákè día ɛlɛ́ maŋátintá. But this enemy is very unfriendly. (Pk). Ɛ́tárá ɔltʉ́ŋání día ɔlɨkáɨ̀. The unfriendly person has beaten the other. (Pk). Ɛ́tárákɨ̀ ɔltʉŋánì día ɔlɨ́kaɨ. The unfriendly person has been beaten by the other. (Pk). ará día To be unfriendly.

é-ídìà   (He/She) is mean worthless person. Éídìà ɛldɛ́ páyìàn. That man is a mean worthless person. See: ɔl-áróí Unfriendly man.

ol-dîâ1   Nom sg: ol-dîâ. Acc pl: il-díèìn. Nom pl: il-díêîn. Dog. LING: The plurals have two morae in the final syllable, but with tone as indicated. [Purko] Nom sg: ol-día. Ɛtáárá oldîâ ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ metúá. The dog killed the cow. (W). Ɛtáárá ɛnkɨ́tɛ̀ŋ oldîâ metúá. The cow killed the dog. (W). Ɛmɨ́rɨ́tà ildíêîn inkinejí. The dogs are chasing the goats. (W). Ɛmɨ́rɨ́tà inkínèjì ildíèìn. The goats are chasing the dogs. (W). Etúá oldîâ lâî. My dog is dead. Ɛtɨmɨ́ráká oldîâ ɛncɛrɛ́rɛt atûâ entîm. The dog chased the monkey into the bush. (W). Etym: Proto-Eastern-Nilotic *-di- 'dog' (Vossen 1982:354).

en-dîâ   Puppy, bitch.

a-idiá   To be a mean worthless person. Éídìà ɛldɛ́ páyìàn. That man is a mean worthless person. Syn: ol-kúyúkúy Dog.

dia parrɨ́ [North]   [North] Day after tomorrow.

idia ɔlɔ́ŋ   Distant future, including day-after-tomorrow.

a-diaá   v.mid. To be cursed. See: a-dɛ́k To curse; a-diaayá To curse.

a-diaá   [àdyiá] v. To gasp, breath noisly as when one has difficulty breathing; breath heavily; grunt (as when sick). Íjò ídíàà ánàà olomúéí? Why do you grunt like a sick person? Kɛ́tɛdîɛ̂ ŋolé. Yesterday he gasped. (SN). Kédìà. He has difficulty breathing. (S). LING: This verb inflects for perfect(ive) like a middle-form verb. However, in SN it can still take the progressive form: Kádɛ́ɨ́tà 'I am gasping'. See: a-yáŋ To breath.

a-diaayá   v.dir. To curse on leaving, drive off by curses.

a-díák   v. To miss the intended target (e.g. when shooting a lion).

a-itadíák   To make a mistake or be incorrect; err. See: a-tút To miss a target.

en-díátí   [èndyátí]  Nom sg: en-diatí. [Purko] Acc sg: en-díátì. [Purko] Nom sg: en-díátî. n.sg. What is not desired in a garden; weeds. Etym: borrowed term?.

a-dɨdɨ́ŋ   v.prog. To bump into, walk into sth. Ádɨ́dɨ́ŋɨ́tà ɛmɛ́sà. I am bumping into the table.

a-dɨdɨŋʉ́   To push out forcefully towards the point of reference.

a-dɨdɨŋakɨ́   To push out forcefully into.

a-dɨdɨŋʉnyɛ́   To come out forcefully.

ol-díîp   Nom sg: ol-diíp. Acc pl: il-díipí. Nom pl: il-díipí. n. 1 • Acaricide.

2 • Cattle dip. See: tîp Acaricide.

dɨkáɨ̀   pn. Elsewhere. Eitorron ene wueji; maape dikaɨ...ende dikaɨ. This place is bad; let's go elsewhere...to the other one. Etoyíó dɨ́kaɨ. The other (place) is dried up.

ɛn-dɨkáɨ̀   n. Another place. See: áɨ́ Another.

n-dikasó [North]   Nom sg: n-díkasó. n. [North] Yellowish substance that is carried by bees on their legs, as they fly around; pollen.

l-dikíé [North]   n. [North] Type of song sung by a group of boys. See: [North] n-tírrá Warriors' song; [North] l-aparasíyíó Women's song; [North] l-ɔ́dɔ̀ Old men's song; [North] l-ɛbártà Mockery song for almost circumcised boys; [North] l-kíshúrótó Raiders song of victory; [North] l-kulonkóì Night trekkers' song; [North] n-kérèyìò Unexcised girls' song; e-wókò Song to narrate one's achievement.

díkír [North]   help.

n. [North] Help. Mɛátà díkír. He has no help. (S).

en-díkírr1   Nom sg: en-dikírr. Acc pl: in-dikiró, in-dikirró. Nom pl: in-díkìrrò. n. 1 • A long steep slope or cliff at the edge of a plateau or ridge; escarpment; usually formed by erosion; cliff, slope. Ɛɨlɛpákɨtâ endíkírr. They have gone up the escarpment.

2 • Ravine.

3 • [North] Gap between mountains; valley?

en-díkírr e kerio   n.prop. Kerio Escarpment, Kenya. This escarpment is better known to the Maasai as En-dikir oo namuka. See: en-díkírr Escarpment, cliff, slope, ravine.

en-díkírr è kérìò   Nom sg: en-dikírr é kérìò. n.prop. Kerio Escarpment, Kenya. peê kɨ́lɛ́pʉ̂ tè ndikírr (é kérìò) when we ascended the Kerio escarpment. This expression refers to a major event in the history of the Maasai, the ascent of the Kerrio valley. Some other sections of Maa will call it ɛn-dikirr ɔɔ́ namʉ́ka 'escarpment of the sandals.' Historians generally accept this to have been the present-day Kerio Escarpment in Kenya, an important landmark in the early history of Maasai migrations from north to south. This event happened a number of hundred years ago. Other major events are often timed as having occured before or after the climbing of the escarpment. The event is used as a type of 'anno domini' in Maasai history. This is a traditional story accepted as history of the Maa. It serves to explain their origin. See: en-díkírr Escarpment.

en-díkírr naɛni ɨn-kʉ́jɨ́t   n.prop. 1 • Naarɔɔsura Escarpment, Kenya. See: en-díkírr Escarpment; Naarɔɔsura Place name; ɛ-nɛɛni ɨnkʉ́jɨ́t Place name on the top of the Naarɔɔsura Escarpment.

en-díkírr o l-kiloriti   n.prop. Kikuyu Escarpment. See: en-díkírr Escarpment.

en-díkírr oo namuka   n.prop. An escarpment whose climb some hundreds of years ago was a major event in Maasai history; probably the present-day Kerio Escarpment. The ascent of or the climb up this escarpment is a major event in the history of the Maasai. Historians generally accept this escarpment to have been the present-day Kerio Escarpment in Kenya, an important landmark in the early history of Maasai migrations from north to south. This event happened a number of hundred years ago. Other major events are often timed as having occured before or after the climbing of the escarpment. The event is used as a type of 'anno domini' in Maasai history. See: en-díkírr Escarpment.

en-díkírr oo nkurman   n.prop. Escarpment of the cultivated fields. The name is derived from the fields cultivated with grains and other eatables by means of irrigation. These fields were a source of food for many of the early caravans and travellers going through the area in the nineteenth century a.o. Gustave Fischer, the explorer, in 1882. See: en-díkírr Escarpment; en-kurmá Cultivated field, flour.

a-dɨ́r   v. To go upward with gradual or continuous progress; climb; mount. adɨ́r oldóínyó To climb up a mountain. Syn: a-kéd To climb.

a-dɨrakɨ́   To climb for.

l-dɨrɛ́t [North]   n. [North] Small gate used by people at night. Small gate used by people at night when the big gate is closed; built so that cows cannot pass through.

ɔl-dɨrɛ́tàì   Nom sg: ɔl-dɨ́rɛtáì. Acc pl: ɨl-dɨrɛ́tà. Nom pl: ɨl-dɨ́rɛ̀tà. n. Pack-saddle. aɛnaá ilkúkúrtòk tɔɔ́ ldɨ́rɛ̀tà peê mɛ́sʉ́lʉ́nyɛ̀ to tie the calabashes on the pack saddles to stop them from falling. See: sainiâî Pack-saddle.

n-diríòì [North]   Nom sg: n-diríóí. Acc pl: n-diríòn. Nom pl: n-dírìòn. n. [North] Big house. See: ɛnk-ají House.

ol-diríshà   Nom sg: ol-dírìshà. Acc pl: il-dirishaní. Nom pl: il-dírishani. n. Window. Oldiríshà ɛlɛ́. This is a window. Ínkenó oldiríshà méítokí aɨmʉ́ enkíjàpè. Close the window so the cold doesn't keep flowing in. See: e-lúsíé Window.

en-dîs   Nom sg: en-dîs. n.sg. First green grass after rain or fire. Ɛɨpɔ́ngá ɨlashɔ́ e ndîs. The green grass have made the calves' stomachs get full. See: sɔ́rɔ̀ New green grass; em-pílílí New green grass; [North] m-birírì New green grass.

ɔl-dísí   Nom sg: ɔl-disí. Acc pl: il-dísií. Variant: il-diisiini. Nom pl: il-dísií. Variant: il-díisiiní. n. DC, District Commissioner. Ɔlkɛjúadɔ oshî ɔ́manya oldísí. The district commissioner resides in Kajiado. (Pk). Etym: < pronunciation of the English letters "D C", for "district commissioner".

a-dɔ́   In some suffixed forms:: dɔr. v.s. 1 • To be red, prototypically blood-red. The precise shade is understood according to collocation, e.g. the color a white person turns when mad or embarrassed, the color of lipstick or a fruit. Ɛdɔ́. It is red. Kɛ́dɔ oshî intápʉ̀kà órŋaróojí. The flowers of the Orŋarooji tree are red. Kédórù oshî ewúéjî nétuduŋokí. The part (of the body) that has been cut becomes red. Órè oshî káràt naó náà kɛ́dɔ̀. A ripe carrot has the red colour. (Pk). Kɨ́dɔ́ enkúmè. Your nose is red. Áɨ́tɔ́dɔr ɛlʉ́kʉ́nyá tɛ̀ réko. I will make the head red by applying red ochre. Ewó ɛlɛ̂ ŋánayíóî amʉ̂ ɛ́tɔ́dɔ́rɔ́. This fruit has ripened because it is red. Kááɨ́tɔ́dɔ̀r. I will make you be red (i.e. hit you until I see blood). Tɔ́dɔ̀rɔ̀. Be red! Átɔ́dɔ́rɔ̀. I have become red (angry, or bloody). Usage: For some speakers (W), a-dɔ́(r) cannot be used for livestock; while a-nyokíé can be. For almost all other referents (including blood) and all red hues, either a-dɔ́(r) or a-nyokíé could be used. For some speakers a-dɔ́(r) might be extended to light reds.. See: a-nyokíé To be reddish; móríjóí Maroon.

2 • To injure. Áɨ́tɔ́dɔ̀rɔ̀. I injured him. Áítódorie orinká. I injured him with a club. (lit: I made him red using a club.).

a-dorú   1 • To become red. Edórù. It becomes red.

2 • To become rusty.

a-dɔ́ mokúá   n. To be reluctant; do sth. unwillingly. Ɛshɔmɔ́ ɛnkɛráí sukúùl kákè kɛ́dɔ́ mokúá amʉ̂ mɛátà imbúkuí e sukúùl. The child has gone to school but she is reluctant because she does not have school books. See: a-dɔ́ To be red.

a-dɔ́ ɔ́ŋʉ̀   In some suffixed forms: a-dɔ́r ɔ́ŋʉ̀. v.s. 1 • To be fierce, angry and dangerous. This designates a complex of being brave, fierce-looking, serious; it is evident that when one designated by this and fights, he wins.

2 • To have a red eye. Usage: lit.

doí   [North] Acc sg: deí. [North] Acc sg: reí. adv. 1 • certainty, urgency, sth. one should take seriously; indeed. Kɛ́ar doí iyíóók ɛlɛ̂ tʉ́ŋání. This man is indeed going to kill us. Káyieu doí nílotú sáâ uní. I want you to come at nine o'clock a.m. (Implication: There will be some major consequence or damage if you don't come at that time.) (lit: I want you indeed to come three hours.) (Pk). The effect of leaving doí out would be to express more of a wish, rather than a command.

2 • Actually. Ɛshɔmɔ́ doí apá? Ɛákʉ̀? He has actually gone long ago. Is it right? (W).

a-doikí   In some suffixed forms: a-doikín. v. 1 • To dive into; drop into or onto. You can combine this with a-otikí. Ɛtadóíkio oltóô eŋúmótó; máítayú The pail has dropped into the well; let us get it out. Tádoikí eŋúmótó Drop into the well!

2 • To alight on. LING: The simple root form *dó(k) does not occur; some suffix must be added to form a complex stem.

áà-dòìkìnò   v.mid.pl. To fall into (fighting, etc); fall onto; drop on to each other. LING: middle/reflexive verb form. LING: This can be combined with a-otikí.

ol-dóínyó   Nom sg: ol-doinyó. Acc pl: il-doinyó. Nom pl: il-dóínyò. n. Mountain, hill. Shɔ́mɔ̀ ɛncʉ́mátá ɔ́ ldóínyó amʉ̂ nɨnyɛ́ etíi inkíshù. Go to the top of the hill because there the cows are. Ɛgɨ́rà aaparɛ́ oldóínyó aló arewú inkíshú. He is going alongside the hill to go and bring the cows. (W).

en-dóínyó   Hill. See: [North] l-ówùà Mountain.

Ol-dóínyó Márà   n.prop. Name of a mountain near Ol-dóínyó ŋirô. This mountain got its name because it is dotted with shrubs and clumps of bushes.

Ol-dóínyó ŋirô   n.prop. Mount Ng'iro. This mountain is situated near South Horr, Samburu District, Kenya. It is 9283 feet high.

Ol-dóínyó ɔ́ɨ́bɔrr   n.prop. Mt. Kilimanjaro.

Ol-dóínyó ónyókíé   Nom sg: Ol-doinyó ónyòkìè. n.prop. 1 • Mt. Suswa.

2 • Name of a conspicuous hill about 20 km north-east of Magadi. On old maps this hill sometimes appears as Mt. Shelford, after one of the earlier engineers of the Magadi company.

a-dokú   v. 1 • To overflow. Etuŋúáyiokí kʉlɛ́ naáyiará mɛtádokú. The milk that is boiling has been left to spill over. (Pk).

2 • To climb up over (e.g. a fence) towards the point of reference.

3 • To come over a boundary, as a person from another tribe or Maa-speaking section. Órè apá peê eponú ɨLaikipíák áàdòku, nɛ́mùt ɨlMáásâɨ̂. When the Laikipiak came over, they finished the Maasai.

4 • To visit a home at night.

5 • [North] To be hysterical. This may describe the shaking of a warrior who is about to attack, but is blocked. See: a-dookí To visit at night; a-rúá To be hysterical.

a-dɔ́l   [Chamus]: dol. PF: átóduá, etodólua. SUBJN (K): tódùàà. SUBJN (Pk): tádùàà. v.prog. 1 • To see, behold. Kórè peê ɛ́dɔ̂l iyioó lósowuaní nɛ́arárì áàɨ̀sɨ̀g. When the buffalo saw us, they ran away fleeing. (SN). Ágɨ́rà abikokí meéù amʉ̂ maló naá ɛ́ɨ́tʉ̂ adúàrɛ̀. [ɛ̀ɨ̀tʉ̀] I am waiting for him to come because I cannot go without seeing him. (Pk). Átódúàà tɔ̀ lpáyìàn. / tà lpáyìàn. I saw it on the man. (S). LING: Irregular verb. TM (57) say: "Note the unique example of dɔl (see): a-tɔ-dua-a (I saw); Imp. tɔ-dua-a; pl. ɛn-tɔ-dɔl." This looks similar to what normally happens with verb stems which end in -ɔk or -ɛk. Átɔ́dúàà Tôm ɛgɨrá arewishó. I saw Tom when he was driving. (either actually driving, or learning to drive) (W). See: a-ɨŋɔ́r(r) To see.

2 • To watch out (for), take care (of). Tóduakákɨ̀ ɛnâ gárrɨ̀ mashɔ́mɔ̀ ainyaŋú kʉlɛ́. Watch this car for me; I am going to buy milk. (W). Shɔ́mɔ̀ tɨ́pɨ̀kà ilkeék ɛnkɨ́má nɨ́dɔl aké mɨ́sʉláà ɨ́nâ motí. Go put firewood in the fire and take care so that you do not knock over the pot. (Pk). Tódùàà (va: tádùàà) aké mɨ́sʉlakínó atúá engúmótó. Take care lest you fall into a hole. (Pk). Tádùàà amʉ̂ kéítókì taá awoyú. Take care because it will bleed again. (Pk). Tádùàà ɨ́lɔ̂ sóít mɨ́kɨbatat. Take care so that you do not fall because of that stone. (Pk).

3 • To think, perceive, forsee on the basis of a collection of cues. Etódúá Kɨ́mɛ̀lɨ̀ ajó kégól ɛntɛmatá. Kimeli perceived that the test would be hard. (W). Átódúàà ajó káabatát ɛná báɛ̂ tɛnáas I have foreseen that this issue will stumble me if I do it. LING: Mol (96 066) says that all plural forms of this verb take on a reciprocal meaning: 'to see each other'.

a-ɨtɔdɔ́l   To show s.o. sth.

a-ɨtɔdɔlʉ́   To talk around sth. without wanting to say it (lit: To make s.o. see it).

a-dɔlɨshɔ́   To see.

a-dɔlishoré   To see with. Kíàtà ɨnkɔnyɛ́k nikídolishórè. We have eyes to see with.

a-duaayá   To see going away; see off.

áà-dùàà   To be seen (sg); to see each other (pl). Etodúààtɛ̀ They saw each other.

a-duaarɛ́   To meet with. Áyíéú nádúáárɛ́ ɔláításhéíkínònì. I want to meet with the man in charge.

a-dɔlʉ́   To see approaching. Todɔlʉ́! Watch out! Ɛdɔlʉ́nɨ. He is seen coming.

a-dolunoyú   To be seen, be visible. Edolúnoyú. It is visible approaching. Medolúnoyú. It cannot be seen approaching.

a-dɔlíé   To see with/at.

a-duaakɨ́   To see at, for. Mátoduaakɨ́! Let us watch for (s.o.)!

a-duaakɨ́ olŋûr   To feel sorry for (lit: To see mercy for).

a-duaakɨ́ olôm   To feel envy for.

n-dólólít [North]   n. [North] Long cylindrical club. See: ɔl-cʉrtɛ́t Cylindrical club.

l-dondó [North]   n. [North] Shrew.

a-dookí   In some suffixed forms: a-dookín. v. 1 • To climb over to. Káadookí. He will climb over it (e.g. a mountain) to me.

2 • To jump over into. Edoókì olówùàrù inkíshú tɛ̀ bɔ́ɔ̀. The beast will jump over (the fence) into the kraal to (get) the cows. Edoókì ɨ́sááî aré. He will jump over into it for two hours. Áaitadoókì bɔɔ́. He will drop me into the kraal (e.g. as in an elephant throwing me over the fence into the kraal). LING: This verb takes the endpoint as the object. The item to be jumped over is implicit and does not appear in the sentence. This is demonstrated by edoókì ɔlpááshíé 'He will jump over and land in the fence' (not '*He will jump over the fence.' ) To overtly indicate the item jumped over, the Instrumental applicative is added: Edookínyìè ɔlpááshíé. 'He will jump over the fence into it [= sth. else].'. See: a-ipíd To jump.

2 • To move over to another village or place where one will no longer be visable.

3 • To move to another home at night. Ɛshɔmɔ̂ áàdòòkì ɛndâ áŋ áànyà inkírí. They have gone at night to that home to eat meat. Ɛshɔmɔ́ ɔláyíóní adookí ɔlɨkâɨ̂ tɛ̀ nkâŋ ɛ́nyɛ̀. The boy has gone to visit the other ones in their home. (Pk). This has the connotation of someone "jumping over the fence", though one need not actually jump over any fence in order to visit. LING: When motion toward the point of reference is intended, the otherwise-same sense is indicated by the ventive form a-dokú. Again, the simple root form *a-dó(k) does not occur. LING: Cannot take Antipassive suffix: *adookisho.

n-dɔ́ɔ́r [North]   Nom sg: n-dɔɔ́r. n. [North] Early morning grazing. See: pɛ́rpɛ̀r Early morning grazing; línká Early morning grazing.

a-dooríé   1 • To find unexpectedly; "come across" Etadoórie ɛnkɨ́tɛ̀ŋ modooní ɛnkárɛ.́ The blind cow has happened to find water.

2 • To go over with. adooríé ɔlcatá ɛnkárɛ́ To cross the water using the log. See: a-dooyó To cross over.

n-dóótó [North]   n. Far. Kɛ́ar nkíyôk ndóótó. An ear can fight far. (S).

a-dooyó   v. 1 • To climb over; move to the other side of sth. where the one who moved is no longer visable.

2 • To overflow.

3 • To visit a village at night. LING: With adooyó, you don't have to say where one has moved to. With a-dooki, you do have to say where.

a-itadooyó   To throw over.

ɛn-dɔrɔ́n   Nom sg: ɛn-dɔ́rɔ̀n. n. 1 • Redness.

2 • Rust.

3 • [North] Meat when still raw. See: in-kírí Meat; a-dɔ́ To be red.

n-dɔ́rɔ́tɔ́ [North]   Nom sg: n-dɔrɔtɔ́. Acc pl: n-dɔrɔ́t. Nom pl: n-dɔ́rɔ̀t. n. [North] Bare ground. See: ɔl-pʉrâ Bare ground.

a-dorú   In some suffixed forms: dorun. See: a-dɔ́ To be red.

dɔ́rrɔ́p   Nom sg: dɔrrɔ́p. Acc pl: dórrópú. Nom pl: dorropú. [North] Acc sg: dɔrɔp. adj. Short in height, length, temporal duration. Ɛɨ́dɔrrɔp ɛnkáyíóní aláŋ ɔlpayíán kákɛ̀ eadó tɛ nkɛráí. The boy is shorter than the man but taller than the child. ɔlpayíán dɔ́rrɔ́p the short man. ɛmbáíkínó dɔ́rrɔ́p a short visit. ɛncatá dɔ́rrɔ́p a short stick. Mará dɔ́rrɔ́p. I am not short. (W). See: en-dórrópó Shortness; kinyí Small, young.

l-dɔ́rrɔ́p [North]   n. [North] Upper arm.

ɛn-dɔ́rrɔ́p sésên   Nom sg: ɛn-dɔrrɔ́p sésên. Acc pl: ɨn-dórrópú sésénì. Nom pl: ɨn-dorropú sésénì. n.f. 1 • Deceased uncircumcised girl.

2 • Deceased woman, of the age to have children (though possibly still without children). The idea is that the woman did not live her life fully; she did not have all the children she should have (though she might have had some children). LING: The masculine counterpart would be ɛ-masáɨtá; *ɔl-dɔ́rrɔ́p sésên does not occur. See: ɛ-masáɨtâ Deceased man in prime of life; ɛn-taŋátaŋâ Deceased old woman; ɔl-kɨmáɨ́tà Deceased old man; ɔl-áɨ́mówúárànì Deceased uncircumcised boy.

en-dórrópó   Nom sg: en-dorropó. n. Shortness. See: dɔ́rrɔ́p short.

a-dót   v. 1 • To weed (a field); remove weeds. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlpáyìàn adót ɛnkʉrmá adotú endíátí. The man is cleaning the field of weeds. LING: The surface cleaned must be the primary object of the simple verb. See a-dotú below. See: a-sɨ́p To thoroughly clean.

2 • To strip off the outer skin layer. adót osésèn To strip off (the outer skin layer from) a body.

3 • To pull apart. adót ɔlkɛ́mpɛ̀ To pull apart a hoe (i.e. separate the stick from the metal).

4 • To exchange an original idea, belief, or plan for a radically different one. Édót entúmò, moókire áâ NEGST. He will change the meeting; it will no longer be in NEGST.

5 • (of a defendant) To successfully argue in favor of one's self, such that the complainant's case, which was originally presumed to be correct, is dismissed or rejected as wrong. Usage: law. Ɛ́tádótó ɔlmʉrraní ɨmbáà naátejokí tɛ̀ ntúmô 1)The warrior has successfully argued in favor of himself whatever has been said about him in the meeting. 2)The warrior has changed whatever has been said in the meeting. Etym: From Proto-Eastern-Nilotic, from Central Sudanic *-ɗɔ 'to weed' (C. Ehret 2003:149, "Language Contacts in Nilo-Saharan Prehistory." Language Contacts in Prehistory, Studies in Stratigraphy, ed. by Henning Andersen, 135-157. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.).

a-dotó   v.mid. To be stripped off of the outer skin layer; have the skin off. Ɛtadótè ɛnkɛ́ráí ɛnkaɨná The (outer layer of) skin of the child's hand has come off.

a-dotú   v.dir. To take out, uproot, pull out, remove (e.g. a pot from the fire). Edotú. He will take it out / pull it out. Edotúnì It will be pulled out. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlpáyìàn adotú endíátì tɛ̀ nkʉ́rma. The man is uprooting the weeds from the field. LING: With dot, the directional suffix -ʉ(n) acts as an Applicative, requiring the primary object to be the item uprooted or removed.

a-dóú   v. To descend towards the point of reference; come down.

a-doyíó   v. 1 • To go down; drop down, descend. Edóyìò ɛnkɔ́lɔ̀ŋ ɛ́naakɛ́. The sun goes down (sets) everyday. May include going from a high land to a low land (e.g. toward Mombasa from Nairobi).

2 • To go south (e.g. to Tanzania from Kenya).

3 • [North] To go east, toward the sunrise. See notes at a-ɨlɛ́p, 'to ascend.'.

4 • To decrease in intensity. Ɛgɨ́rà adoyíó ɛnyɔratá. Love is decreasing.

5 • To become worse. Ɛgɨ́rà olkúáâk adoyíó. His behavior is becoming worse. Kótodóyìè ɛlɛ́ tʉ́ŋání. The man has descended. (S) The man (e.g. his health) has gotten worse. (S). LING: This can be combined with a-otikí.

a-itadoyíó   1 • To drop sth.

2 • [North] To rest. See: a-bóri To be at or move to a lower level; a-ɨlɛ́p To go up, west.

en-dóyíórotó   Nom sg: en-doyíórotó. n. West.

en-dóyíórotó   Nom sg: en-doyíórotó. Acc pl: in-doyiorót. Nom pl: in-dóyiorót. n. Going down. endóyíórotó ɛ́ nkɔlɔ́ŋ The going down of the sun (i.e. sunset). Káyíéú endóyíórotó aló Suswa I want to go down to Suswa (i.e from Nairobi). See: a-doyíó To go down.

ɔl-drâm   Variant: ol-dam. n. Drum. Ɛ́ntaguatʉ́ inkeék naáoshíékì ɔldrâm. Carve the sticks that are going to be used to beat the drum. (Pk). See: ol-wúlùl Drum; o-sínkólio Drum; n-câ [Chamus] Drum.

a-dúá   [North]: a-duá. In some suffixed forms: a-dúár. v.s. 1 • To be bitter in taste; be sour. Ɛdúá ɔlcánì lɛ́ nkɔjɔŋánì. The medicine for malaria is bitter. Ɛdúá ɛndáa náɨ́rràgá ɨnkɔ́lɔ̀ŋɨ̀ kúmok. The food that has laid for many days is bitter. Kédúá sháŋaá. Whiskey is bitter. See: en-duarán Bitterness.

2 • To be overly sweet, so as to be disagreeable. Kɛ́dúá ɛná sháì tɛ̀ súkárì. This tea has too much sugar.

3 • To be angry, bitter, hot-tempered. ɔltʉŋánì odúá a mean, bitter, hot-tempered person.

4 • [Chamus] To be envious.

a-duaá   v.mid. To be seen. Moókire ɛɨdɨ́m olpurrishóí atupúrrìshò amʉ̂ edúàà. The thief can no longer be able to steal because he is seen. See: a-dɔ́l To see.

a-duaakɨ́   v. To see as s.o. does sth. aduaakɨ́ atûâ ají To see him as he gets into the house. See: a-dɔ́l To see.

a-duaarɛ́   v. To see s.o.; meet with. Káyieu nádúaarɛ olkitók lè sukúùl. I want to see the principal of the school. See: a-dɔ́l To see.

ɛn-dúáátá   Nom sg: en-duaatá. Acc pl: in-duaát. Nom pl: in-duaát. n. Vision; opinion; view. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlpáyìàn aituŋeikí ɔlɨkâɨ̂ ɛndúátá tɔrrɔ́nɔ̂. The man is discouraing the other from the bad opinion. See: a-duaá To be seen; a-dɔ́l To see.

a-duaayá   v. 1 • To see sth. as it goes away. aduaayá ɔlɔmɔ́nɨ̀ mɛshɔ́mɔ̀ to see the guest as he goes away.

2 • To see sth. far away. Náduaáyà olowuarú ɛ́jɨ́ŋɨ́tâ ɔ́sánâg. And then I saw a beast getting into the thicket.

3 • To watch s.o. in order to learn to be more like that person; emulate. Tóduáái ɔláɨ́tɛ́ŋɛ́nànì linó. Imitate your teacher. See: a-dɔ́l To see.

en-duarán   Nom sg: en-dúárán. n. 1 • Bitterness, as of coffee, certain leaves and fruits. Mɛɨshɔ́rʉ̀ enduarán ɛnyáɨ́ ɛnâ dáà. You cannot eat this food because of its bitterness.

2 • Meanness (of people); bitterness, resentment. ɔltʉŋánì odúá a bitter, mean, resentful person. See: ɛ-sayíét Cruelness.

ɛn-dúátá   n. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlpáyìàn aituŋeikí ɔlɨkâɨ̂ ɛndúátá tɔrrɔ́nɔ̂. The man is discouraging the other from doing something evil. (Pk).

ɔl-dʉ́kà   Nom sg: ɔl-dʉ́kâ. Acc pl: ɨl-dʉ́kaí. Nom pl: ɨl-dʉ́kaí. [Purko] Acc pl: ɨl-dʉ́kayí. n. A shop. Ɛshɔmɔ́ olkirikóí aiwúsh tɔɔ́ ldʉ́kayí. The loiterer has gone to loiter in the shops. See: pʉnʉ́kà Town.

a-dʉkɛnyá   v. 1 • To hesitate, be timid, fearful. ɔltʉŋánì ɔdʉkɛ́nyà person who is timid, fearful.

2 • To be tired, weary.

dʉ́kʉ́ny1   Nom sg: dʉkʉ́ny. Acc pl: dúkúnyí. Nom pl: dukunyí. adj. 1 • Short. Usage: insulting; humorous.

2 • Sth. that looks like ɛndʉ́kʉny.

ɛn-dʉ́kʉ́ny2   n. A short calabash for holding or drinking beer (once it's been brewed). See: en-kúkúrí Calabash; ɛ-málà Brewing gourd.

ɛn-dʉkʉ́yà   Nom sg: ɛn-dʉ́kʉ̀yà. Acc pl: ɨn-dʉkʉyaní. Nom pl: ɨn-dʉ́kʉyaní. n. 1 • n. The head of a person or animal. Etíí ɨlpapɨ́t ɛndʉkʉ́yà ó ltʉŋánì. There is hair on the head of the man. en-dúkúyà ɛ́ lʉ́kʉ́nyá [ɛ́lʉ̀kʉ̀nyà] forehead (W -K).

2 • n. The front (of a crowd, a line, front rows of students in a classroom); the "front" of a car where the driver and bonnet are oriented; the entrance to an ɛnkajɨ́ 'house'. Ɛɨtáshɛ̀ ɔláígúɛ́nání tɛ dʉ́kʉ̀yà entúmò. The chief is standing in front of the meeting.

3 • n. First in ranking (eg, head of the class, the top of a list). Ɛnkɛ́ráí ŋɛ̀n nátií dʉkúyà ɨnkulíè tɛ súkuúl ɛ́nyɛ. The bright child is first in his school.

4 • n. First in order. enkitók ɛ̀ dʉkʉ́yà First wife (first married; not first in preference or in priviledge).

5 • n. Head of a bed (or bedroom), where a person's head usually rests.

6 • prep. Before. peyíê étûm aáwà iyíóók dʉkʉ́yà ɔlaitórìànì so that he could take us before the Lord.

tɛ̀ dʉ́kʉ̀yà   in front (of). See: a-iturúk To precede; ɛ-lʉ́kʉ́nyá Head; ɛn-aɨsʉɨ́ Head; en-kúé Head.

dʉkʉ́yà   Nom sg: dʉ́kʉ̀yà. n.r. 1 • n.r. Ahead. Nélò aké nɨ́nyɛ̀ Menyé dʉkʉ́yà ɛgɨrá aké nɨ́nyɛ̀ arrɛtɛn olêŋ He, the Father, went ahead preparing everything.

2 • prep. [North] Before. peyíê étûm aáwà iyíóók dʉkʉ́yà ɔlaɨtɔ́rìànì so that he could take us before the Lord.

ɛn-dʉkʉ́yà ɛ́ nkárɛ́   n. Leading edge of flowing water. See: l-ɔɨŋɔ́nɨ̀ lɛ́ nkárɛ́ [North] Leading edge of flowing water.

en-dúlé   Nom sg: en-dulé. Acc pl: in-dúlên. Nom pl: in-dulén. n. Flute.

a-dʉ́m   To steal and drink milk (mostly by warriors). Eétùò ɨlmʉ́rrân áàdʉ̀m ɛnkají métíi ɛnɔ́pɛ̀ny. Warriors have come to steal and drink milk when the owner is not there.

a-dʉmaá   v. 1 • To pick up and carry away; take.

2 • [North] To push. See: a-dʉ́m To steal and drink milk; a-dʉmʉ́ To pick up; a-rrúm To push.

a-dʉmʉ́1   In some suffixed forms: a-dʉmʉ́n. v. To collect; pick up, lift up. Tʉ́dʉmʉ́ ɔlmaisurí! Pick up the banana! Tɛ̀ néoshi tɛ̀ manyatá esékékùà nɛ́dʉmʉ ɨlmʉ́rrân pɔ́ɔkɨ ɨnarɛ́tà ɛnyɛ̂. When a trumpet is blown in the ceremonial village, all the warriors pick up their weapons. Nɛ́dʉmʉ ɨlártatí ɔ́ ɨlkɨláni ɔ árè They will pick up two ceremonial sticks and robes. Tɛ́ bɔ́ɔ̀ átúdúmùà. I collected it outside. (Pk). Nɨ́dʉmʉ́ emodíêî oó nkíshú. You (will) pick up cow dung. Nɛ́dʉmʉnɨ́ ɛnáíshó najî ɛnkɨ́rɔ́rɛ́t. They get beer called the "talking one" [for marriage negotiations]. See: a-dʉ́m To steal milk; [North] a-rrapʉ́ To pick up, lift; a-ɨlɛ́p To climb. LING: Though they almost certainly involve the same root dʉm 'pick/lift up', we have treated 'pick up' and 'dance' (= pick up [self]?) as separate entries because of the apparent difference in synchronic transitivity.

a-dumunyíé   To use for picking up.

a-dʉmaá   1 • To pick up and carry off.

2 • To sit on s.o. else's seat.

a-dʉmɨshɔ́   To steal. Ádʉ́mɨshɔ. I can steal. (*I can jump up and down/dance.).

a-dʉmʉ́2   In some suffixed forms: a-dʉmʉ́n. v. To jump up and down in a dance. Ɛdʉmʉ́ ɛlɛ̂ mʉrraní This warrior can jump high (higher than normal height). Kɛ́ɨ́dɨ̀m ɛlɛ̂ áyíóní atʉdʉ́mʉ̀ ɛ́sáâ nabô This boy can jump up and down for one hour. Áaitudumúá osinkólìò. The song has made me jump. [This is completely homophonous with Kɛ́ɨ́dɨ̀m ɛlɛ́ áyíóní atʉdʉ́mʉ̀ ɛ́sáâ nabô. 'This boy can pick up one watch.']. Usage: See synonym list at a-ipíd 'To jump'. See: a-ɨ́d To jump; a-itíám To jump; a-ɨpɨrɨ́ To jump. LING: This verb has the frozen Ventive -ʉ(n), and so cannot take the Progressive which is otherwise a marker of an active verb.

a-dʉmʉnyɛ́   v.mid. 1 • To set off on a journey. Kɨ́dʉmʉ́nyɛ̀ tɛldɛ́ ápâ áàpùò America We will travel next month to go to America.

2 • To get up, wake up; arise. Ádʉ́mʉ́nyɛ̀ tɛ̀ ɛmpɔ́lɔs ɛ́nkɛwarié aló bɔɔ́. I (habitually) wake up in the middle of the night to go out. Nɛ́dʉmʉ́nyɛ̀ ɨntásatí árè ɛ́ ɨ́nà áŋ. Two old ladies of that home get up. See: a-dʉmʉ́ To pick up.

ol-dundúlà   Nom sg: ol-dúndùlà. Acc pl: ɨl-dundulaní. Nom pl: ɨl-dúndulaní. n. Abnormally swollen navel. See: súrúm Abnormally large navel; ɔl-mʉkɔ́nyɔ̀ Swollen navel.

a-dúŋ   v.prog. 1 • To sever, cut into pieces. Néduŋuní ɛncatá náádó. They cut (off) a long stick. Níkìdùŋùdùŋ. We shall cut it into pieces. adúŋ inkírí tɛ̀ nkalɛ́m to cut meat using a knife. Máapɛ́ aké níkìpùò áàdùŋùdùŋ ɨlɛ́nyɔ́k lɔɔ́ ɨlkɨdɔŋɔ́ lɔɔ́ isirkôn. Let's just go and cut into pieces hair from the donkies' tails. adúŋ ɛnkɛ́rr ɨlpápɨ́t to sheer sheep (W). Áadûŋ nɨ́ncɛ̀. They will cut me. (W).

2 • To cut into the surface of sth., make an incision. Nɛ́atáɨ̀ kʉlɨ́kaɨ ɔɔŋâm enkíòk nabô, nédùŋ ɛnkáɨ́. There are other people who notch one ear and they cut the other (to mark which animals are theirs). Edúŋisho ɨnkálɛ́mà. The knives will cut (i.e. they are sharp).

3 • To divide into subgroups, partition. adúŋ inkíshú / ɨntárɛ́ i. to divide cows / goats+sheep from one herd into separate herds. ii. to paddock female cows / goats+sheep (so they cannot be impregnated). Separating female animals is particularly done in times of drought, when multiplication of a herd cannot be sustained. Some find it unnecessary to do this for cattle as their reproduction is naturally moderated in times of drought. Nɛ́akʉ naá órè peê epuonú iláshumpá áàrʉ̀ iyíóók, nédùŋ naá kát aré. So when the Europeans came and forced us out, they divided us into two. (This refers to the migration from the Northern part of Kenya. When the Maasai were forced out of their land, one group passed east of Mt.Kenya and other west.). Néduŋokí ɔlpáyìàn kítòk ɨlapá tʉ́ŋánák lɛnyɛ́nak. The old man divides (his wealth) to all his people.

4 • To stop a physical or metaphorical stream (e.g. water, animals) from continuing to flow. adúŋ ɛnkárɛ́ to stop water from flowing. adúŋ ɨltáaɨ́ / ɔltáà to cause a power blackout. Nérukúnyè aké ɨntárè. Néjokí "Túdùŋò." Then just so many sheep and goats came out. He said, "Cut." (i.e. stop the stream of animals from coming). Nérukúnyè aké inkíshù. Órè aké peê édùŋ nkíshú... Cows just flowed out. Now when he stopped the (stream of) cows...

5 • To intersect, cross. adúŋ enkóítóí to cut across a path. adúŋ ingárrìn to cut across a road where cars are travelling. aitudúŋ engárrì ingárrìn To make one's car pass other cars. Médûŋ intóyîê áŋ ɔlɔsɨnkɔ́. Our girls do not cross the center of the home (kraal).

6 • To interrupt or cease an ongoing activity. Kíntúdúŋò osínkólìò. You have interrupted my song. (Pk). Átúdùŋò osínkólìò. I stopped singing (i.e. I interrupted the song). Kéítúduŋi táatá entíto táatá sukúùl. The girl will be caused to miss school [due to early marriage]. adúŋ injíó to interrupt sleep. adúŋ esíáàì to interrupt the work one has been doing. Usage: rude. Túdùŋò lɛ̀lɔ̀ omón. Stop talking! Túdùŋò ɨ̀lɔ̀ róréi. Stop talking! (Pk). Áaituduŋóò. He will become an obstacle to me accomplishing it. (lit: He/she will cause me to cut it away from myself.). Náaitudúŋ emoyíán darásà. The disease made me miss the class (e.g. for several weeks). (Pk). A class could also be 'cut' (i.e. interrupted) by the teacher leaving in the middle of teaching, or a student leaving class before the lecture is finished.

7 • To diminish, reduce sth. Eyéwùò olmórûô ɔ́àtà esílè aɨshɨ́r metúduŋokiní. The debtor has come to complain so that he may have the debt reduced. (lit: The old man who has a debt has come to complain so that it will be reduced for him.) (Pk).

8 • To perform; achieve; do. Imíkíntókini doí áàdùŋìè ɨntaléŋò. You will no longer be a participant (do anything) in the ceremonies. Káà doí ídúŋítò tené? What are you doing here? adúŋ ɨntɔná to do a specific piece of work required to be done as a duty (lit: To cut the roots).

9 • To decide. Kítuduŋô áàjò peê kípûô Karen We have decided to go to Karen.

a-duŋú   v.dir. 1 • To cut out.

2 • To cross over toward the point of reference.

3 • To decide to give false information.

a-duŋó   v.mid. 1 • To be cut or severed completely (e.g. a string; a rubberband from too much stretching).

2 • To be stopped, dry up (e.g. water from flowing, woman from giving birth).

a-duŋoó   v.dir. 1 • To cut off, cut away (e.g. a necklace).

2 • To leave behind, exclude. Usage: Metaphorical.

3 • To get an alternative rather than use what has been spared for future use.

a-dúŋ enkigúɛ́nà   To decide a matter, by a recognized authority such as a judge or arbitrator. Usage: legal. This may involve simply making a decision, without sentencing anyone.

a-duŋokí enkigúɛ́nà   To sentence (for a crime); condemn. This involves handing down a decision with a sentence, which could range from a fine to being sentenced to death. Néíguɛnárèkì, néduŋokiní enkigúɛ́nà ɨncɛ́rɛ̀ kégorí. He was charged, he was sentenced in the law case that he would be hanged.

a-dúŋ induŋétà ɛ́ ráshé   To say a proverb. Néponu áàdùŋòkìnò induŋétà ɛ́ ráshé They come to say proverbs.

a-dúŋ ɛnkárná   To select a name for, give a name to. Meékure kímpótíékì ɨ́nâ árná níkímpótíékì apá ɨrá entíto; níkípónúnui áàdùŋòkì ɛnkárná níkímpótìè ɨnkɛ́râ. You are no longer called by the name you were called when you were a girl; you come to be given a name that children will call you by. (i.e. when you are married).

a-duŋó táʉ̀   v.mid. To die (lit: To be cut to the heart).

a-dúŋ ɛnkɔ́p   1 • To divide land into sections (one's own land into paddocks using fencing, or to be owned by various people).

2 • To go on a very long treck (i.e. to go so far that one is separated far from where others are and they cannot catch up). Kóreê Leonard? Etúdúŋo dúóó ɛnkɔ́p. Where is Leonard? He has gone far away.

a-dúŋ ɛnkɔ́làt   To do a specific piece of work required to be done.

a-dúŋ ɨlɔmɔ́n   To make a resolution. See: [Camus] a-ŋɨ́c To cut; en-duŋótì A piece; en-duŋét Knife, decision.

a-dúŋ síádí   v. To go to the opposite direction, leaving those with whom one is supposed to walk do things. See: a-iŋuáá To leave.

en-duŋét   Nom sg: en-dúŋèt. Nom pl: in-dungéta; in-duŋetá. Acc pl: in-dúŋètà. n. 1 • Knife. Ɨ́yaʉ́ enduŋét mátùdùŋìè ɛnâ kiriŋó. Bring a knife that we can use to cut this meat.

2 • Decision. enduŋét ɔɔ́ mbáà a resolution. See: a-dúŋ To cut.

en-duŋét ɛ́ ráshé   Nom sg: en-dúŋèt ɛ́ ráshé. Acc pl: in-duŋétà ɛ́ ráshé. Nom pl: in-dúŋètà ɛ́ ráshɛ́. n.phrase. Proverb, wise saying; reference. A long time ago, elders made in-duŋétà ɛ́ ráshé. This happens at a ceremony where everybody is called to come and witness the 'cutting of the hide'. The cutting is done only when a certain issue has been proved to be the truth and will never change. It becomes a reference. Ɛ́táá apá ɨnâ báɛ̂ enduŋét ɛ́ ráshé. That thing has become a proverb (a reference).

en-duŋete   Acc pl: in-duŋet. n. A cut.

a-duŋó tàʉ̀   v.mid. To die. See: a-dúŋ To cut.

en-duŋón   Nom sg: en-duŋón. n.sg. Craving for sth. by a pregnant woman. Kɛ́átà enkítòk nánʉta enduŋón. The pregnant woman has a craving for sth. See: ŋamán Craving for sth. by a pregnant woman.

ol-dúŋórét   Nom sg: ol-duŋorét. Acc pl: il-dúŋorètà. Nom pl: il-duŋórètà. n. Last born child.

en-dúŋórét   Last born girl. See: ɔl-kɨkáʉ́ First born.

en-dúŋórotó   Nom sg: en-duŋórotó. Acc pl: in-duŋorót. Nom pl: in-dúŋorót. n. 1 • Partition; small sub-fence used within a large fence (ol-pááshé). Kɨ́naʉrátɛ̀ amʉ̂ kɨ́nkarrâ ɔlpááshíé néméékure kɨndɨ́m áaɨkarrá endúŋórotó. We are tired because we have fenced the fence and we will are no longer able to fence the partition.

2 • Compound created by a partition within a larger compound. endúŋórotó oó sirkôn Small compound for donkeys (not usually mixed with cows).

3 • Cutting-off point. Einépua apá lɛ́lɔ̂ enduŋórotó ɛ́ ntɛ́mátá. Those were eliminated (found) by the cut-off point of the exam.

en-duŋótì   Nom sg: en-dúŋòtì. Acc pl: in-duŋót. Nom pl: in-duŋót. n. Piece, portion. enduŋótì ɛ́ nkiriŋó piece of meat. enduŋótì oó nkishu small part of the herd.

ol-duŋótì   Big piece (of meat). See: a-dúŋ To cut.

en-dúŋótó   Nom sg: en-duŋotó. Acc pl: in-duŋót. Nom pl: in-duŋót. n. 1 • The division, cutting (e.g. of spoils) into portions; a cut.

2 • Partitioning, as of land into individually-owned plots, a house into rooms, etc. ɨlmʉ́rràn induŋót section of warriors.

3 • Gash. Eímua ɔsárgɛ̀ endúŋótó ɔ́ lálɛ́m. Blood flowed out of the gash made by the sword.

4 • Decision; resolution. Éísidai ɨnâ duŋotó ɔ́ɔ̀ lɔmɔ́n That resolution of the news (discussion) is good.

dúóó   adv. 1 • adv. Earlier on the same day, some hours back. Nɛ́ɨm ɨ́nâ óítóí nɛ́ɨ́tʉ̀ dúóó ejokiní. He passed the way that he had earlier not been told (i.e. told not to go). Mɨ́ncɔ kɨ́lɛ́jɨ́, amʉ̂ mɛátà ɔltʉŋánì ójô etubúlua dúóó. Do not let anyone deceive you, because no one knows when he grows.

2 • adv. Any longer. Kálɔ̀ árì apá ɨlɔ̂? Imeékure dúóó ayíólò. Which year was that? I no longer know it.

3 • adj. Previously mentioned; relevant. Néponunûî áàrànyɨ̀shɔ̀ tɛ́nâ dúóó ájì And people come to sing in the relevant house. See: Pronouns-Demonstratives. Ant: adé Later on in the day. See: ɔl-adúóó Previously mentioned one; táatá Today; [North] anapârr Today.

a-dʉ́p   v. 1 • To be effective in doing sth. and do it well; competent; have good ability to. adʉ́p inkírí (i) To be able to chew meat (i) To be able to cut meat. adʉ́p imbúkuí To be able to read books. adʉ́p atedíàà To be able to curse (i.e. sth. unpleasant will be sure to follow). adʉ́p atamayíánà To be able to bless (i.e. sth. pleasant will be sure to follow). Kádʉ́p eyíérárɛ́. I really know how to cook very well. See: a-ɨdɨ́m To be able.

2 • To affect the bowels so they excrete or evacuate; purge. Restrict: food, medicine. Áatʉdʉpá ɔlcánì. Medicine has purged me. See: a-rót To purge.

a-dʉpɨshɔ́   To be proficient, able in doing sth. (typically sth. that affects a patient, like chewing meat, cutting trees, witchcraft, inducing pain in others).

a-dʉpá   v.mid. 1 • To be effective, reliable, dependable. ɔltʉŋánì ɔdʉ́pà reliable, dependable person. Káadʉpá ɛnkɛráí. My child is dependable.

2 • To be efficient. ɔltʉŋánì ɔdʉ́pà i) person who is efficient ii) person who is effective.

3 • To abound. Kɛ́dʉ́pà ɛlɛ́ lɛ́ɛ̀ náà sídáí shoréíshò ɛ́nyɛ̀. This man is great and his friendliness is good. (Pk). See: a-dʉ́p To affect.

ɛn-dʉpâî2   Nom sg: ɛn-dʉ́pàì. n.sg. The trait of being dependable or reliable. Enóto olórìkà tɛ̀ nkárakɨ́ ɛndʉpáì ɛnyɛ́. He got the seat because of his dependability. See: a-dʉpá To be reliable.

ɛn-dʉpâî1   Nom sg: ɛn-dʉ́pàì. Acc pl: ɨn-dʉpá. Nom pl: ɨn-dʉ́pà. n. Sisal plant. Sansevieria intermedia. Kéuní ɛndʉpâî tɛ̀ Tanzania. Sisal is planted in Tanzania.

a-dʉpakɨ́   v. 1 • To mount.

2 • [North] To follow. See: a-sʉ́j To follow; a-rʉbarɛ́ To walk with.

a-dupó   v.mid. To prosper; benefit. Átúdúpè tɛná síáàì. I have benefited from this work.

a-dupoyú   To be prosperous; benefit from.

(en-)dúpótó   n. Favor, goodness.

a-dupoyú   v.mid. To prosper.

n-dûr [North]   n. [North] African pied wagtail. See: [North] n-cekût Yellow wagtail (non-breeding).

ol-dúrùk   Acc pl: il-dúrùkì. Nom pl: il-dúrúkì. n. 1 • Uncleanness; dirt, impurities. Meishópoyu ɛnâ kɨ́lâ amʉ̂ kétii ildúrúkì. This cloth can not be worn because there are stains on it.

2 • Defilement. Órè ɛ́nkɨ́pɨ́rtâ ɛ́nà kérr náà ɛnɛ́lɛdúrùk lɛ́ntɔ́mɔ́nɔ́nɨ lɛ́mɛɨshɔ ɛnyɨkakɨ́ ɔlɛ́ɛ̂. The reason for this sheep is the uncleanness of the woman who has just given birth which does not allow men to keep close to her. LING: The feminine gender form of this word would be quite rare. See: a-idurúk To be unclean.

a-dʉ́t   v.prog. 1 • To choose, select. Tʉ́dʉ́tà nkitábù kíní oó nkítòk. Choose either this book or the big one. (S). Tʉ́dʉ́tà nkitábù o ncásèt. Choose either the book or the cassette. (S). Túdútìè nkitábù ncásèt. Choose either the book or the cassette. (S). Túdútìè nkitábù kíní nkítòk. Choose either this book or the big one. (S). Tʉ́dʉtá aná saé ɔ́ ánà nkáɨ́. Compare this (string of) beads with this other (to choose the one you want). (SN). Ɨ́dʉ́tʉ́dʉ̂t kʉná saɛ̂n. You (pl) choose among these beads. (SN).

2 • To compare.

3 • [North] To bite (like a hyena biting another animal).

a-dʉtaá   To choose, select; prefer more than. Kádʉ́táà aló sukúùl aláŋ tɛnátɔn tiâŋ. I will choose going to school than staying at home.

a-dutíé   To prefer. amʉ̂ ɔltáʉ́ láí aké ádútíé because it's second to my heart.

ɔl-dʉ́taɨ́   n. Boil. Mmetumókì ɛná áyíóní atɔtɔ́nà aɨtɔbɨrakɨ́ amʉ̂ ɛ́tɨ́jɨ́ŋá ɔldʉ́taɨ́ ɔltúlìì This boy cannot sit well because he has a boil on his buttock. (Pk).

ɔl-dʉtʉtâî   Nom sg: ɔl-dʉ́tʉtâî. Acc pl: ɨl-dʉtʉtá. Nom pl: ɨl-dʉ́tʉ̀tà. n. Swelling on the body that contains pus; boil. Kémé ɔldʉ́tʉtáì ɔ́ɨ̀mʉ̀ enkumé. A boil on the nose is painful. See: ol-gúsà Swelling.