E - e

e   Letter representing the Maa front central advanced tongue root (+ATR) vowel /e/.

ɛ   Letter representing the Maa front central non-advanced tongue root (-ATR) vowel /ɛ/.

ɛ-1   gen. Feminine singular gender prefix; variant of ɛn-, occurring before continuant consonants (s, l, r, and nasals). See: ɛn-.

ɛ-2   pn.b. Pronominal prefix for relative clauses designating a location; place where. LING: As a pronominal prefix, this follows the relative clause marker n-. ewúéjì nɛmányà Ole Sokoine a place where Ole Sokoine lives (KS). Néponu ɨlmʉ́rrân enetíi. The warriors come to where he is.

ɛ́   Variant: ; ɛ̀. psr.prt. If the possessed item is pronominal, the particle may carry gender and number prefixes in place of a preceding possessed noun: ɔl 'the (masc) one of ...'; ɨlɛ́ 'those (masc) of...'; ɛnɛ̂ 'the (feminine) one of...'. LING: If the possessed item is masculine, ɛ́ is preceded by l-. The ATR quality of ɛ́ varies according to the ATR value of the following word. The tone of ɛ́ varies according to the following noun, but in ways not yet understood. Compare: entíto è Rónkei daughter of Ronkei. Iyíólò oróréí lé emúá. [lémúá] Do you know the word emúá? (W). olórìkà lɛ̀ Nyɛrɛ́rɛ̀ the seat of Nyerere. olórìkà lɛ̀ kanísà the church's chair (W). olórìkà lé nkisómà the chair of education (W). olórìkà lé nkitejó the hare's seat (W). olórìkà lé mbúkù the chair of books (W). Áísidaîn inkíaasîn ɛ́ lɛ̂ mʉ́rránì ɔɨdɨpá esíáàì ɛnyɛ́. The works of this warrior who had finished his work are good. (Pk). LING: In the preceding example the combination ɛ́ lɛ̂ does not behave tonally like single-word HF forms (which become low in context; see ɨ́nâ 'that', tɔ́mɔ̂n 'ten', ɛ́n-kɨ́rɨ́nâ 'traditional bracelet'). Here ɛ́ lɛ̂ remains H F. Órè aké téípà nɛ́ɨ́dʉ̀rr ɨnkɛ́rà è sukúùl ɨndámùnòt. In the afternoon/evening, school children's [lit: children of school] minds (thoughts) wander (migrate). Áyíéú ɛnâ búkù ɛ Tôm. I need this book of Tom's. (W). Áyíéú kʉnâ búkuí aré ɛ Tôm. I need these two books of Tom's. (W). LING: GENDER OF POSSESSOR: The masculine singular counterpart is ɔ́. LING: GENDER OF POSSESSUM: ɛ́ takes the prefix l- when the preceding possessed item is masculine. LING: NUMBER of POSSESSOR: The plurals ɔɔ́ and ɔ́ɔ̀ occur for both masculine and feminine possessors (see paradigms below). LING: CASE of POSSESSUM: The possessed head noun varies for case depending on its role in the clause. If plural, tone on the the possessive particle varies with case of the head noun. The following possessor noun always occurs in the accusative case. LING: ORTHOGRAPHY: This particle generally cliticizes to the following noun, assimilating to it in ATR quality. Orthographically, TM (213) write it as a separate particle and we have followed that tradition. However, experienced native-speaker writers often write it as a contiguous element with the following word. Népuonu ɨlɛ́ kʉ́ldɔ apá ɔ́ààrɨ̀tà ɔlarinkóí. Those (warriors) of the others came from the side where Olarinkoi was killing. See: lɛ́ Feminine singular possessive particle with Masculine possessed item; ɔ́ Masculine singular possessive particle; ɔɔ́ Plural possessive particle.

ɛ́-1   inter.prt. Contrastive focus question particle, preceding a questioned noun. Ɛ́ntaré íyíéú anáa ilbitiró?" Do you want sheep and goats or warthogs? LING: Often prefixed with k-.

ɛ́-2   pn.b. Plural subject prefix on Imperative verbs. Éɨniniŋó ɔlɔɨrɔrɨ́tà! Listen to the one who is speaking! Lɔ́ mʉ́rrân, ɛ́ntaanyúákɨ̀! Hey warriors, you all wait for me! See: m- Subjunctive.

ɛ̀-   Variant: è-; é-; a-; á-; ɔ-. pn.b. Bound pronoun on verbs indicating third person subject and no object (intransitive verbs); or third person subject with third person or plural object (transitive verbs). Órè ɛyɨkáì ɛ́lɛ̀ dóínyó náà áɨ́tɔrrɔ́nɔ̂. The elevation of this hill is bad. LING: For some dialects (Pk) the third person pronominal prefix tends to be pronounced as a-. In North Maa (Samburu) this prefix undergoes more extensive vowel harmony, particularly with -ATR stem vowels. For example, in SN it is ɔ- preceding an ʉ stem vowel.

-ɛ̀1   voi. Perfect(ive) Singular Middle-voice suffix. With Class 1 roots it co-occurs with the prefix tV-, while with Class 2 roots it occurs alone. Ɛrɔ́k ómòm Pita amʉ̂ ɛtáláíkínè ayámà ɨ́nâ títo. Pita is unfortunate because he was not able to woo that girl. (W). Míkíntókì aurokínó amʉ̂ atanauré sií nanʉ́. Stop leaning on me because I am also tired. (Pk). Ɛtɨgɨ́lɛ̀ ɔlálàì lâî. My tooth broke. (W). Ɛtɨgɨ́làtɛ̀ ɨlalá láinêî. My teeth broke. (W). Káɨ́wɔtɨwɔ́tɛ̀ I have been infected. (S). See: -a Non-perfective Middle suffix.

-ɛ̀2   asp. Variant of the perfect or perfective aspect suffix which occurs after the direcitonal -ʉ́(n). Nɛ́ɨshʉ́nyɛ̀. It (the story) has ended. Órè adé aké peê ɛakʉ́ ɛɨdɨ́pɛ̀ pɔ́ɔkɨ tókî... When everything has been finished... Néshukunyíêî (People) come back (inside). See: -a Nonperfect(ive) Middle suffix.

ɛbáɨ́kɨ̀   v.aux. Perhaps, might, it may be. Ɛbáɨ́kɨ̀ nílo. You might go. ɛbáɨ́kɨ̀ táatá hitherto. LING: This verb does not inflect for person, but requires a following verb to inflect for person and occur in the n-complement form. See: a-baɨkɨ́ To suffice, reach, visit, happen.

l-ɛbártà [North]   n. [North] Type of song sung for boys who are almost getting circumcised to mock them. See synonyms at. See: [North] l-aparasíyíó Song by women.

eé   interj. Affirmative interjection; yes. Néjò "Eé kɛ́sɨ́pà taá." He said, "Yes it is true.".

eé páé  

eé payé   Yes, of course.

ɛɛ́-   pn.b. Plural pronominal prefix for relative clauses designating a location; places where. Kéduŋókì aké ɨnkárn ánàà iwuejitín nɛɛ́manyá. They are given names according to the places they live. (KS).

eeíto   [North]: áítò. voc. Term of address from a man to a circumcised man or agemate. Usage: Mostly used by an elderly person addressing a younger person.. See: eéro Boy.

Eéro   Acc pl: (l)óyîê. voc. Term of address used by a man or another boy to an uncircumcised boy; or used between men of the same age-set. Eérò, sʉ́pà! Boy, hello! Lóyîê, ɛ́ntasʉ́pà! Boys, hello! Óyìè, ɛ́ntɨ̀gɨ̀l ɛlɛ̂ óìtò peê ɨdɔlɨdɔ́lɔ̀ entólit natíi. Boys, break this bone so that you can see the marrow that is in it. (Pk).

éro   Term of address used in a teasing, but friendly, way. Usage: very informal. See: eeíto Boy.

eétò   voc. Vocative greeting used between men of the same age, or with a man younger than the speaker; 'you'. eétò árà ŋaníà you of so-and-so (KS). LING: The form árà is apparently also specific with reference to men. Syn: érò vocative greeting between men. See: ɔlɛ̂ son of.

en-egól ɛ́ nkɨ́ɔ́ɔ́k   [ènèɡól ɛ́ŋkɪ̄ɔ̄ɔ̄k] n. Hard cartilage in the outer ear which is cut out to make the lower ear hole in e-ségèrùà. See: e-ségèrùà Ear lobe; a-gól To be hard.

ɛɨ-   interj. Introdctory particle. See: áî Introductory particle.

éɨ́ŋaɨ   pn.inter. Who?, Who is it? Ɛ́ɨ́ŋaɨ ɔ́ɔwá ɛnkɨlâ áɨ́? Who took my cloth? See: ŋáɨ́ Who.

ɛɨtʉ́   v.aux. Negative perfect(ive) aspect auxiliary verb, indicating that sth. is not yet done or complete. This auxiliary does not inflect for person. Ɛɨtʉ́ ŋolé alotú esíáì. I did not come to work yesterday. (Pk). Ɛɨtʉ́ áámɨ́rákɨ̀ ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ. I did not sell you the cow. (W). Ɛɨtʉ́ kɨ́mɨ́rákɨ̀ ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ. You did not sell me the cow. (W). Kórè peê éításhê, ɛɨtʉ́ ɛ́dɔ̂l ɔlásʉ́ráí. When he stopped, he didn't see the snake. (W). Ɨ́tɔ́dúaa inkíshú? Á'a. Ɛɨtʉ́ adɔ́l kákè átɔ́nɨŋɔ. Did you see the cows? No. I didn't see (them), but I heard (them). Ɨ́tɔ́dúaa inkíshú? Ɛɨtʉ́. Did you see the cows? No (I didn't see them). Ágɨ́rà abikokí meeû amʉ̂ maló naá ɛ́ɨ́tʉ̂ adúààrɛ̀. I am waiting for him to come because I cannot go without seeing him. (Pk). Kótupukuro; ɛ́ɨ́tʉ́ eikén. She capped it; she didn't close it. (SN). Shɔ́mɔ̀ ɛɨtʉ́ ɛ́shá. Go before it rains. Ɛátà ɨná kɛráí ɛlʉ́kʉnyá amʉ̂ eipírríó sokónì néshukúnyè ɛ́ɨ́tʉ̂ èlò aɨmalɨmál. That child is responsible because she ran to the market and returned without going to goof off. (W).

ɛ-ɛ́ɨ́tʉ̀   Not yet. See: ɛ̀-tɔ̀n ɛ̀ɨ̀tʉ̀ Before; m- not.

ɛɨ́tʉ̀   adv. Not yet.

ejî   Restrict: This does not inflect for first and second person.. v.pass. 1 • It is said (that...). Ejî óù enê. It is said come here. (Pk).

2 • To be named. Ejî Móríntát. He is called (named) Móríntát. (Pk). See: a-jó To say.

a-ɛ́k   Variant: a-yɛ́k. v. 1 • To weigh down, exhaust. Ɛ́ɛ́k. It will tire him. Áagɨrá ɛlɛ̂ bɛnɛ́ aɛ́k. This bag is weighing me down (exhausting me).

2 • To bore. Moókire aás ɛnâ síààì amʉ̂ áatɛɛká. I am no longer going to do this work because it has bored me. Majó kíriamárì sukúùl amʉ̂ áɛ́kɨshɔ. I don't think we will go to school (together) because I am boring. (e.g. you won't enjoy my company) (W). Átɛ́ɛ́kʉ́nyɛ̀ tɛnkárakɨ́ kʉlɔ̂ omón lɛnyɛ́nak lɛ́mɛ́ɨ́shʉ́nyɛ̀. I am bored because of these words of his that don't end.

3 • To repeatedly bother; trouble; psychologically make uncomfortable. Áagɨrá ɛnâ kɛráí aɛ́k amʉ̂ kɛ́batátà ɛnaaké tɛ̀ súkùùl. This child is troubling me because he is failing everyday in school. Áatɛɛká ɛnâ gárrɨ̀ amʉ̂ képukú ɛnkɛ́jʉ̀ This car is troubling me because the wheel is getting (coming) off.

a-ɨtɛɛ́k   To bore down with.

a-ɛká1   v.mid. To be bored. Áɛ́kà. I am bored. (W). Ɛɛ́kà. He is bored. (W). Átɛ́ɛ́kɛ̀. I have become bored. (W). ɔltʉŋánì ɔɛ́kà person who is bored.

ɛká-   pn.b. Variant of first person singular verb prefix á- (or a-).

ɛ-ɛ́kà   n. Boredom. Áɨ́bá ɛɛ́kà. I hate boredom. (W).

ɛkɛ-   pn.b. Alternative form of third person bound pronominal ɛ̀-. Órè oldíà ɛkɛ́nyáɨ́tà apá ɨnkɨdɔŋɔ́ ɔɔ́ nkɛrrá áâ nɨnyɛ́ ɛndáâ. The dog used to eat the tail of sheep as its food. (KS).

ol-ekelél   Nom sg: ol-ékelél. n. 1 • Circle. Máítashó tò lékelél. Let's stand on a circle.

2 • Steering wheel. olekelél lɛ́ ngárrì Steering wheel of a car.

a-ɛkɛnyá   v. To work hard, toil, struggle; be wearied. Ágɨ́rà aɛkɛnyá aɨdɨ́p esíáàì ɛ́ɨ́tʉ̂ ɛ́mútû. I am struggling to finish the work before dusk.

ɛkɨ-   pn.b. Variant of second person bound pronoun ɨ-. "Órè tɛnákatá ɛkɨ́ákʉ̀ iyíé oldîâ ɔ kɛnyá otúá. Now you will become a dog forever until you di.e.' (KS).

ɛ́kɨ́-   pn.b. Variant of first person plural bound pronominal prefix on verbs; we. Ɛ́kɨ́gɨrá áàjò mátayioló iróreí lɔɔ́ lMáásâɨ̂. We are trying to learn about Maasai words. See: kɨ́- 1PL.

ol-ékíŋúóŋúórè   n. Sense of smell. Nɨ́nyà inkík ɨntarasɨ́ móítíé kákè káɨ́shɔ siî nanʉ́ olékíŋúóŋúórè. You will eat faeces forever, but I will also give you the sense of smell. (KS).

ekitarri   Nom sg: ol-ekitarrí. n. [West] Doctor. Emúítà Páàpà lâî néjò olekitarrí ɛtɛ́ɛ́kʉ́nyɛ̀ encotó nábo. My father is sick and the doctor said that one of his sides is paralyzed. (W).

ɛn-ɛ́kɔ́kɛ́sɛna   n. Bat.

a-ɛkʉnyɛ́   v. 1 • To weigh down, trouble, due to ill-function (typically used of body parts); be paralyzed. Káatɛɛkʉ́nyɛ̀ nkaɨná. My hand is troubling me (e.g. it is hurting or is no longer strong). (SN). Emúítà Páàpà lâî néjò olekitarrí ɛtɛ́ɛ́kʉ́nyɛ̀ encotó nábo. My father is sick and the doctor said that one of his sides is paralyzed. (W).

2 • To be bothered; be troubled. Átɛ́ɛ́kʉ́nyɛ̀ tɛ̀ nkárakɨ́ ésíáàì nɛ́mɛ́ɨ́dɨ́pà I am bothered by the unfinished work.

ol-ékúrúí   Acc pl: ɨl-ekúrú. n. Very dry animal droppings. See: e-modíêî Dung (cow, etc.); in-kíík Faeces.

a-ɛ́l   PF: class II. Restrict, Sense 1: The Object must be the surface on to which the liquid is smeared.. v.prog. 1 • To smear with sth. (typically oil); annoint. Ɛgɨ́ráɨ́ áàɛ̀l ɛnkɛ́ráí tɛ̀ ɨlatá. The child is being smeared by oil. (Pk). Káɛ̀l nkɛ́ráí. I will smear the child (with oil). (SN). Káɛ́là nkɛ́ráí ŋolé. I smeared the child (with oil) yesterday. (SN). Ɛgɨ́rà entitó ajút entúrótó naelíékì. The girl is rubbing off the chalk painted on her. (Pk).

2 • To assimilate other(s) into the group. Ɛ́ɛ́lâ apá ɨlMaasáɨ́ ilorérén ɔɔ́tɨmɨrâ tɔ̀ lárrábâl. The Maasai assimilated the people they defeated in war. (Pk).

3 • To speak in nice words in order to be less blunt; speak indirectly. Míntókì dúóó aɛ́l ɛmbáɛ̀ tólimú aké ánàà ɛ́nátîû. Stop avoiding telling the truth of the matter as it is; say exactly what it is. (Pk).

a-elíé   Variant: a-yelíé. To smear or paint with sth. Káélìè nkɛ́ráí látá táatá. I will smear the child with oil now. (SN). Eyelíékì ɛldɛ̂ mʉ́rránì entúrótó amʉ̂ ɛ́ɨ́dɨ́pá intaléŋò. That warrior has been painted with chalk because he is done with the ceremony. (Pk). Ɛgɨ́rà ɨnkɛ́rá áàèlìè átɛ́ erékò. The children are painting themselves with the red ochre. (Pk).

ɛldɛ̂   Nom sg: ɛldɛ́. dem. Masculine singular 1st distal demonstrative; that. Ɛldɛ́ payíán oirórokí ɛlɛ̂. That man is greeting this one. (Pk). Tálàŋà amʉ̂ etíi ɨntárè ɛldɛ̂ kékún lɔ́ɔ́ lkɛjʉ́. Cross, because the goats and sheep are on that (other) bank of the river. (Pk). See: Pronouns-Demonstratives.

ɛlɛ̂   Nom sg: ɛlɛ́. [North] Acc sg: alɛ́. dem. Masculine singular proximate demonstrative; this. Ɛlɛ̂ payíán eirɔ́rɔ́kɨ ɛldɛ́ lɨ́kàɨ̀. This man is being greeted by that other one. (Pk). Ɛlɛ̂ síkírìà ótorúá enkíné. This particular donkey is the one that kicked the goat. (Pk). Ɔlɔ́ lkɨ̀tɛ̀ŋ ɛlɛ̂ tualá This bell belongs to the ox. (Pk). LING: lit: This bell is that which belongs to an ox. Ɔlɔ́ rkɨtɛŋ ɛlɛ̂ kɛ́ɛ̀nɛ̀. This huge big leather strap belongs to the ox. (Pk). Ɔlɛ́ nkɨtɛŋ ɛlɛ̂ kɛ́ɛ̀nɛ̀. This big leather strap belongs to the cow. See: Pronouns-Demonstratives.

ɛ́m-   Variant: ɛ́-. pn.b. Variant of plural iPlural subjunctive pronominal prefix, occurring before the negative m- and other labial consonants. Básì émintókì áàɨ̀shɔ̀ ɛɨdapáshà So don't let them disperse. náà tɛnáà émeyiolóro and even if they do not know each other. See: ɛ́n-.

Ɛmálì   n.prop. Name of a famous cattle market for the Maasai, located in Kajiado District, Kenya.

ol-empéì   n. Hippo. See: ɔl-makáʉ̀ Hippo; ɔl-tʉrʉ́kà Hippo.

a-ɛ́n   Variant: a-yɛ́n. v. 1 • To tie, bind, fasten. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkáyíóní aɛ́n ɨnamʉ́kà. The boy is tying his shoes. (Pk). Tɛ́ɛ̀nà enetuduŋó ɛnkalɛ́m méítokí awó. Put a bandage on the area that the knife has cut so that it won't keep on bleeding. (Pk). Tɛ́ɛ̀nà ɛnkisunkúu ɛ́ nkɨlâ. Button your shirt. (Pk). Tɛ́ɛ̀nà ɔlkáráshá médoyio. Tie your sheet (shuka) so that it does not fall. (Pk). Tɛ́ɛ̀nà ɔláshê peê méló. Tether the calf so that it does not go. (Pk). Ɨncɔɔ́kɨ̀ ɛnkɛɛnɛ́ náéníé ɛlɛ̂ áshê. Give me a strap for tying this calf. (Pk).

2 • To protect with charms or magic, in order to ward off evil from persons, animals, or objects; be ritually or cremonially tied against disease or bad luck. Protection with a charm is done by special people, e.g. of a certain clan, though it need not be il-oibonok. Ɛɛnɨ́ inkíshú. The cows are ritually tied (against disease or ill-luck). [This is done to make the bulls docile, when the long rains come and they are well fed.]. Tɛ́ɛ̀nà intaré naáɨ́mɨnâ peê mɛ́nyá ilowuarák. Invoke a charm to protect the flock that is lost so that the wild beasts won't eat them. (Pk). aɛná peê mémúóyù to be tied ritually against diseases (Pk). Ɛshɔmɔ́ dúóó entúáà nɛ́yà ɔɛnɛ́t mɛtɛ́ɛ̀nɨ̀. The pregnant woman went with the fee to have herself charmed. (Pk). ɔltʉŋánì ɔɛ́nɨshɔ a person who is tied against disease/bad luck.

3 • To plait. aɛ́n ɨlpápɨ́t to plait hair (Pk).

4 • To arrest; seize and detain someone by legal authority. Ɛtɛɛnákɨ̀ olpúrríshóí. The thief was arrested.

a-ɛná   v.mid. To be tied, bound. Áɛ́nà tɛ̀ ɔlmʉ́màì. I am tied by oath.

a-ɛnaá   To tie away.

a-ɛnarɛ́   To be fastened with, tied with; tied down (to). aɛnarɛ́ ɛnkɛɛnɛ́ to be fastened with a leather strap (Pk). aɛnarɛ́ ɛncaní to be tied down to a tree (Pk).

a-ɛ́n emotí   To perform ceremony of tying the drinking pot soon after circumcision (lit: To tie the pot). See: a-lɨ́d To tie.

ɛn-   Variant: ɛ-; ɛm-; ɛnk-; n- after vowel-final clitics. gen. Feminine singular gender prefix. LING: ɛn- is composed of two morphemes, ɛ- F.SG and n- F. In Central Maa the vowel ɛ- is dropped when any vowel-final morpheme is cliticized to it, but the n- remains. In Northen Maa (Samburu, Camus), no ɛ- occurs. Ɛnɛ́ nkɨtɛŋ ɛnâ kɛ́ɛ̀nɛ̀. This leather strap (normal size) belongs to the cow. LING: In Central Maa the quality of the prefix vowel changes according to the ATR value of the following stem. In all dialects the nasal changes according to the manner and place of articulation of the stem-initial sound. Briefly, /)ŋk-/ occurs before some vowel-inital stems; /ɛ-/ (in Samburu, nothing) before continuant consonants, nasals, and high vowels; /ɛm-/ before bilabial stops; and /ɛŋ-/ before velar stops (this last is consistently written as |ɛn-| since the assimilation is completely predictable in this environment). LING: The prefix may occur be prefixed to the possessive particles to create a noun referring to "the feminine referent of N"; see ɔ́ 'of'.

ɛn-   gen. Gender prefix for place.

ɛ́n-   pn.b. Plural imperative and subjunctive pronominal verb prefix. Ɛ́ncɔ̀m áŋ! Go home!

ɛna-   dem. Cliticized variant of ɛnâ.

ɛnâ   [ɛnnâ] Variant: ɛ̀nà. Nom sg: ɛná. [North] Acc sg: aná. pn.dem. 1 • Feminine singular proximal demonstrative; this. Ɛnâ kitók náípòtìtò ɛndâ. This woman is calling that one. ɛnâ ayíóni this boy. Ɛákʉ̀ ɛná kɨ́tɛ̀ŋ ɛnaáí. This cow will become mine. Kɔ́bɔ́r aná kɨ́tɛ̀ŋ. This cow is calm. (SN). Ɔlɔ́ rkɨtɛŋ ɛnâ kɛ́ɛ̀nɛ̀. This leather strap (normal size) belongs to the ox. (Pk). Enkíné natorúá osíkírìà ɛná. This is the goat that was kicked by the donkey. (PK). LING: Enkíné natorúá osíkírìà forms the predicate, and ɛná is the subject. Compare the following which is simply a noun phrase: Ɛnâ kíné natorúá osíkírìà This goat that has been kicked by the donkey (Pk). Káɨ́nyɔɔ ɛná? What is this? (W). Ɛnaáí ɛná kɨ́tɛ̀ŋ. [From ɛna + áí] This cow is mine.

2 • Preface to a common noun when the noun is used as a form of address. Tápàlà siî siî ɛná áyíóní empúrórè. Please, lad, stop stealing! (Pk). ɛncɔlatá ɛ́nà ɨ́láta melting of this fat. LING: From [ɛ́ + ɛ̀nâ] 'of this'; or from [ɛ̀ ɛ̀nâ] 'of this'.

ɛnadúóó   Previously-mentioned.

tɛnâ   At this. See: Pronouns-Demonstratives; ɛlɛ̂ This (masc.).

a-ɛnaá   v. To wrap. See: a-ɛ́n To tie.

ɛnadoí   dem. An indefinitely short time back. Ɛ́kúɛ́tá ɛnadoí tárákùèt nágɨra adaá aɨŋataá oldîâ. The impala that was grazing has run away from the dog. See: dúóó Earlier.

ɛnárɛ   adv. Appropriate; ought to; suitable; desirable. Ɛnárɛ nɛ́nyɔ̀k inkɛ́râ pɔ́ɔkɨ náatií sukúùl. All the children in school ought to work hard. See: a-narɛ́ To be fitting.

ɛncɛ̂ [Chamus]   pn.psr. [Chamus] Their. ɨnkárn ɛncɛ̂ their names. See: ɛnyɛ̂ Their.

ɛndâ   Nom sg: ɛndá. dem. Feminine singular demonstrative, 1st degree of distalness; that. Ɛndâ kitók éípòt ɛná. That woman is being called by this one. (Pk). ɛnâ búkù nárɔ́k ɔ ɛ́ndà this black book and that one (i.e. another black book) (W). LING: In this example, the normally high tone of ɔ́ 'and' appears to be displaced rightwards causing surface tone ɛ́ndà. See: Pronouns-Demonstratives.

endê   Nom sg: endé. dem. 2nd Distal locative demonstrative, indicating a place away from both speaker and addressee; there. Túŋuai enê, shɔ́mɔ̀ endê. Leave here; go there. (Pk). Ɨ́yakákɨ̀ enturét náló aturíé endê. Bring me a hoe so that I can go and dig there. LING: [èndè]. See: Pronouns-Demonstratives.

enê   Nom sg: ené. Variant: énè. dem. Proximal locative demonstrative, indicating area where the speaker is; here. Óù enê nátíi. Come here where I am. Ɛgɨ́rà aɨrrɨʉ́ ɛnkayíónì enê natíi. She is sending the boy where I am. Mɛmányà enkúukuû énê. No wild animal lives here. (W). See: Pronouns-Demonstratives.

ɛnɛ-   Acc pl: ɨnɛ-. psr.prt. The one(s) of; used with a following demonstrative or gender-prefixed noun. LING: This is often used with a following time expression. ɛnɛɨ́́lɔ̀ árì of that year. Ant: ɔ́lɛ̂- Of (masculine). See: ɛ́ Feminine singular possessor.

ɛ́nɛ̂   Variant: ɛ̀nɛ̀-. psr.prt. Of, belonging to; this form indicates a feminine possessor and a feminine possessed item. Ɛnɛ́ nkitojó ɛná kɛ́jʉ̀. This leg belongs to the hare/rabbit. (lit: This leg is of the rabbit.). Órè ɛná kɨ́tɛ́ŋ náà ɛ́nɛ̂ Tima. This cow belongs to Tima. Kéúlù apá ɛnɛ́ nkɨŋasíá. He was an interesting glutton. (lit: He was a glutton of a wonder.). Ɛ́nɛ̂ ŋáɨ́ ɛná kɨ́tɛ̀ŋ. [ɛ̀nɛ̀ ŋáɨ́] Who's heifer is this? ɛ̀nɛ̀ ɛɨ́kɨ̀ŋà. It is s.o. else's. (W). See: ɔ́lɛ̂ Of a masculine referent.

ɔ-ɛnɛ́t   Nom sg: ɔ-ɛ́nɛ́t. Acc pl: ɨ-yɛnɛ́tà. Nom pl: ɨ-yɛ́nɛ̀tà. n. 1 • Knot. ɔɛnɛ́t lɛ́ nkɛɛnɛ́ Knot of a strap.

2 • Small fee (perhaps 30 to 100 Ksh) made to compensate a flock or herd (CHECK) which has been protected by ɛɛnarɛ́ when one member of the protected flock or herd is given away. If the fee is not paid, it is believed that the charm is broken. If the owner sells an animal from the herd or flock, he does not need to pay himself because the charm against harm does not apply to the owner. Ɨmɛrɛyɨ́ oshî intarɛ́ mɛ́átaɨ ɔɛnɛ́t. Sheep can not be taken away without a tying fee.

3 • Small fee paid by a pregnant woman to a traditional medicine man for a charm to protect herself and the unborn child against illness and misfortune. Ɛshɔmɔ́ dúóó entúáâ nɛ́yà ɔɛnɛ́t mɛtɛ́ɛ̀nɨ̀. The pregnant woman went with the fee to have herself charmed. See: ɛ-lɨ́dátá Knot; ɛ-yɛ́nátá Knot.

ɛnk-   gen. Variant of the feminine singular gender prefix ɛn-, occurring before some vowel-initial noun stems. See: ɛn-.

ɛnɔ́-   Acc pl: ɛnɔɔ́-. gen. 1 • Feminine prefix on a gender-inflected noun, indicating "that belongs to [noun]" or "pertaining to [noun]" Enólkerretí apá léméló sukúùl ɛndá kítòk. That woman is of the tradition (in which people) never used to go to school. Ɛtalákɨ̀ apá áɨ́ ɔlɔ́ŋ ɛnɔɔ́-silân tɛndá âŋ. That home had a girl who died the other day. (lit: There was a loss the other day of one of the girl-types at that home.) (Pk). ɛnɔɔ́-silân is a euphemistic way of referring to a girl that has died without having to say her name.

ɔlɔɔ́-  

ɛ́ntʉrʉj [South]   num. [South] Nine. See: nááùdò Nine; [North] sáâl Nine.

ɛnyɛ́   Nom sg: ɛ́nyɛ̀. Acc pl: ɛnyɛ̂. Nom pl: ɛnyɛ. pn.psr. Third person singular possessive pronoun of a feminine singular possessed item; 'his, her (feminine thing)'. Nɛ́nɨŋ entíto ɛnyɛ́ bótór ɛranyakɨ́ enkáɨ́ ajokí. He heard his older daughter singing to the younger one. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɛráí aishóp ɛnkɨlâ ɛnyɛ́ sídáí. The child is wearing his best shirt. (Pk). See: ɛnyɛ́na(k) His; Pronouns-Possessives.

ɛn-ɛnyɛ́   Nom sg: ɛn-ɛ́nyɛ̀. Acc pl: ɨn-ɛnyɛ́nà. Nom pl: ɨn-ɛ́nyɛná. pn.psr. His, hers. Ɛnɛnyɛ́ ɛná kɨ́tɛ̀ŋ. This cow is his. See: ɛnyɛ́ His.

ɛnyɛ̂   pn.psr. Third person plural possessive pronoun of a feminine plural or singular item; 'their (feminine thing(s))'. Nɛ́yá inkíshú ɛnyɛ̂ ó isirkôn. He took their cows and donkies. See: ɛncɛ̂ Their.

ɛnyɛ́na(k)   Nom sg: ɛ́nyɛná. pn.psr. Third person singular possessive pronoun of a plural (feminine) possessed item, 'his, her (feminine things)'. If the prefix l- occurs, the possessed item is masculine, but otherwise it is feminine. Ɛshɔmɔ́ dúóó areú inkishú ɛnyɛ́na. He went to bring his cows. (Pk). Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlpáyìàn akarsisú amʉ̂ ɛ́tʉ́bʉ́lâ intókìtìn ɛ́nyɛná pɔ́ɔkɨ. The man is getting rich because his things (plants, animals)are increasing. (Pk). Átɛ́ɛ́kʉ́nyɛ̀ tɛnkárakɨ́ kʉlɔ̂ omón lɛnyɛ́nak lɛ́mɛ́ɨ́shʉ́nyɛ̀. I am bored because of these words of his that don't end. (W). Órè ɔltʉŋánì pɔɔkɨ́ ólô amány ɛnkɔ́p nɛ́mɛ̂ ɛnɛnyɛ̂ náà ɔyátì tɛ̀ ɨ́nâ kɔ̂p. All persons who migrate to some country which is not theirs is a non-native resident of that area. (Pk). See: ɛnyɛ́ His; ɛnɛnyɛ́ His; Pronouns-Possessives.

a-ɛnyɨɛ́ny   [aɛnyɨɛ́ny - two moras at end] v.s. 1 • v.s. To be bouncy, springy. This cannot be used of a ball. Kɛ́ɛnyɨ́ɛ̀ny olóríkà. The seat is bouncy (soft).

2 • v. To be bloated or inflated from eating too much.

3 • v. To be full of impatience. See: a-sɨ́ To be impatient.

ɨl-ɛ́nyɔ́k   Nom pl: ɨl-ɛnyɔ́k. [West] Acc sg: ɨl-ɛ́ŋyɔ́k. n.pl. Hairs of an animal's tail, like that of a cow or zebra. Restrict: Not for cat's tail. Níkìpùò áàdùŋùdùŋ ɨlɛ́nyɔ́k lɔɔ́ ɨlkɨdɔŋɔ́ lɔɔ́ isirkôn. We will go cut into pieces hair from the donkey's tails. See: ɔl-pápɨ́tá Hair.

a-eŋú   v. To be deprived of; lack. Ɨ́wà ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ inó amʉ̂ maéŋù Take your cow because I will not lack. See: a-ɨtɛɛ́ŋ To deprive of.

ɛ́paɛ́ɛ̀   Of course.

a-ɛpʉ́   v. To sleep beside s.o. Áépua ɛnkɛ́ráí. I slept beside the child.

a-eré   PF: a-taerió. In some suffixed forms: a-erek. v.s. To stop breastfeeding. Eére ɛnkɨ́tɛ̀ŋ oláshê The cow has stopped breastfeeding the calf. Eérèkì ɛnkɛ́ráí The child is weaned. Ágɨ́rà aeré. I am stopping breastfeeding him/her. Áére ɛnkɛ́ráí. I will stop breastfeeding the child.

érò   voc. Vocative greeting used between men of the same age, or with a man younger than the (male) speaker. Érò árà Konené You of Konene! (W). Syn: eéto vocative greeting between men.

l-ɛ́rɔ́mpɔ́ [North]   n. [North] Hyena. See: ɔl-ŋɔjɨ́nɛ̀ Hyena; n-kasɛ́lɛ̀nkɛ̀ Hyena; porkoríò Hyena.

ésaí   Variant: ésaáí. interj. Amen. amʉ̂ tɛ̀ Yesu Kristo kíomón iyíé. Ésaí. because it is in Jesus Christ that we pray. Amen.

a-ɛsɛ́k   v. To outsmart s.o.; get the better of sth. by craftiness; outwit; wangle; achieve sth. by trickery or devious methods. Ɛ́sɛ́k. He will wangle / get the better of... (W). Ɛɛ́sɛ̀k. He will get the better of her. aɛsɛ́k ɔltʉŋánì ayá inkíshú ɛnyɛ́nà to trick somebody to take his cows.

éserîân [North]   greeting. [North] Greeting to women. See: takúɛ́nyà Greeting to women; sʉ́pà Greeting.

l-ésómúá [North]   Nom sg: l-esomúá. n. [North] Companionship. See: en-cólìèk Companionship.

a-ɛ́sh   v. To make things overlap.

a-ɛ́t   v.prog. 1 • To empty a container completely or partially (of things), removing one by one. aɛ́t olbɛ́nɛ́ To remove items from a bag. In the simple form aɛ́t, the Verb takes the Source as the grammatical object. In the directional form aɛtʉ́, the verb takes the Theme (item removed) as the grammatical object.

2 • To remove chunks of food from a boiling pot. aɛ́t emotí To remove chunks of food from a pot.

a-ɛtʉ́   To remove items one by one. aɛtʉ́ inkuashên tɔ́ lbɛnɛ́ To remove potatoes one by one from the bag. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɛráí aɛtʉ́ ilmósòr tɔ̀ lbené adány The baby is removing eggs one at a time from the bag to break them. See: a-ɨt To do sth. in installments.

-ɛ́t   Acc pl: -ɛ́tà. nmlz. Nominalizer creating a noun referring to the instrument with which an action is done. ɛnáíshó najî ɛnkɨ́rɔ́rɛ́t beer that is called "the talking-one" (lit: beer that is called 'thing to talk with').

ɛ́tɔ̂n   v.aux. Still.

ɛ́tɔ́n ɛ́ɨ́tʉ̂ (+L tone on following verb)   [ɛ̀tɔ̀n ɛ̀ɨ̀tʉ̀] v.aux. 1 • Defective auxiliary verb combination with a frozen third-person subject form, indicating still, not yet, before. This auxiliary combination also imposes the Temporal/Subjunctive Low tone subordinator on the following verb. (The Low tone is marked by [L] in this entry.). Áyíéú sháì ɛ̀tɔ̀n ɛ̀ɨ̀tʉ̀ [L]adáà. I want tea before I eat. (W). Ɛɨnyáŋua sháàì ɛ Kɛnya ɛ̀tɔ̀n ɛ̀ɨ̀tʉ̀ [L]elotú. He bought Kenyan tea before he came. (W). Áínyáŋua sháàì ɛ Kɛ́nyà ɛ̀tɔ̀n ɛ̀ɨ̀tʉ̀ [L]alotú. I bought Kenyan tea before I came. (W). A: Íkúɛ́t ɔpá? B: Ɛɛ́, naárrɨ́ tɛ̀ sukúùl ɛ̀tɔ̀n ɛ̀ɨ̀tʉ̀ [L]anatáyù. A: Did you used to run? B: Yes, those days in school, before I became pregnant. (W). See: ` Low Tone Temporal/Subjunctive Conjunction.

2 • Not yet. Kéírébùk ɨnkɨ́laní amʉ̂ ɛ̀tɔ̀n ɛ̀ɨ̀tʉ̀ [L]etoyú olêŋ. The cloths are damp because they are not yet completely dry. (Pk). See: a-tɔ́n To sit; still, (not) yet.

-etú   Plural form of a-éù 'to come (perfect/perfective aspect)'. See: a-éù To come; a-lotú To come (sg subject).

-étuo   v.pf.pl. Irregular perfect(ive) plural of a-lotú 'to come'. Kíetûô. We came. Íétùò. You (pl) came. Eétùò. They came. Néyiolouní áàjò eétùò ɛnadúóó áŋ. It was known that they came to that home. See: -euo Came; a-éù come; a-lotú To come (sg); a-puonú To come (pl).

l-ɛ́tʉ́rŋʉ́ŋ [North]   n. [North] Type of bee.

-éu   [North]: a-yíéw. [North]: iwon. [Chamus]: íwʉ̀. PF.PL: e-étuo. SUBJN, PF: óu. In some suffixed forms: -eun. v.pf. To have come. Subjunctive or perfect(ive) suppletive form of the verb a-lotú 'come'. Káɨ́dɨ̀m ayíéw táísèrè. I will be able to come tomorrow. (S). Ágɨ́rà abikokí meéu amʉ̂ maló naá ɛ́ɨ́tʉ̂ adúààrɛ̀. I am waiting for him to come because I cannot go without seeing him. Shɔ́mɔ̀ tɔ́rɔ̀jɔ̀ sútúó linó meéù bɔɔ́. Go and signal your friend to come out. (SN). Laɨŋɔ́nɨ̀ ɔ́rɔ́k óeúó nkáŋ. It is the black bull that came home. (SN). Áaeúó ɛldɛ̂ páyìàn aisilén iropiyíán áinéí. That man has come to borrow money from me. (Pk). Eéùò olákúyìà tɛ̀ mísimísi ŋolé. The old man came in the darkness (i.e. at night) yesterday. (W). Nɛ́dɛk ajokí:Tɔ́rrɔ́bɔnɨ́, kéyíé óeúo adúŋ ɛnkɛɛnɛ́ ɛ́nkáí? Táa aɨsɨ́nanɨ ánaa apá aké peyíê ɨrá. He cursed him by saying: "Hunter, is it you who came to cut the strap of God? Become poor like you've always been![óewúo]  Máɨ́dɨ̀m aéù. I can not come. Mɨ́ndɨ́m aéù. You can not come. Mɛ́ɨ́dɨ̀m aéù. He can not come. Óu enêǃ [wóu] Come hereǃ (W). LING: Phonetically this sometimes has an epenthetic /w/, as in [eyéwùò] 'it came'.

áa-etú   To come (pl.). Mɛ́ɨ́dìm áaetú They can not come. See: e-étùò They came; a-lotú To come.

-euo   Variant: -ewuo; -yewûô. v.pf. To have come. Suppletive past-perfect(ive) aspect form of a-lotú 'to come'. Áèùò. I came. Íèùò. You (sg) came. Eéùò He/she came. Ḱetûô. We came. Íètù. You (pl) came. Eétùò. They came. Kéyéwùò dúóó aké nɨ́nyɛ̀ ɛlɛ̂ páyìàn. This man just came. Nɛ́dɛk ajokí: Tɔ́rrɔ́bɔnɨ́, kéyíé óewúo adúŋ ɛnkɛɛnɛ́ ɛ́nkáí? Táa aɨsɨ́nanɨ ánaa apá aké peyíê ɨrá. He cursed him by saying: "Hunter, is it you who came to cut the strap of God? Become poor like you've always been! Eyéwùò dúóó oltúkútùk ónàpɨ̀tà ɔlpayíán obô. A motor-cycle that was carrying one man came. (Pk). See: a-ló To go.

áà-èyèpò   v.pl. To copulate, have sexual intercourse.

a-eyú   Variant: a-yeyú. [North]: a-eyí. v. To go dry of milk. Usage: cows, women. Eyó. It has dried up (of milk). Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɨ́tɛ̀ŋ aeyú. The cow is drying up.

ɛn-katampóì [Purko]   Nom sg: ɛn-kátampôî. Acc pl: ɨn-katampó. Nom pl: ɨn-kátàmpò. n. Cloud. Átódúàà ɛnkatampôî nárɔ́k tɛ̀ nkáí. I have seen a black cloud in the sky. (Pk). Etíi ɛnkátampôî nárɔ̀k ɛnkáí. A black cloud is in the sky. (Pk). See: en-kidís Cloud.

en-kigúánà [Purko]   Nom sg: en-kigùɛ̀nà. Acc pl: in-kiguɛnát. Nom pl: in-kígùɛ̀nàt. n. Consultation, law case; meeting. Ɛshɔmɔ̂ ɨlpáyianí enkigúɛ́nà ó loshô. The men have gone to the consultation of the society. (Pk). See: a-igúɛ́n To advise; ɔl-kiú Meeting; en-túmò Meeting, consultation; ɔl-caní Meeting.

en-keperût [Purko]   Nom sg: en-kíperût. Acc pl: in-keprutí. Nom pl: in-képerutí. n. Eve of the house, where the roof hangs over the wall.

form   n. 1 • Authority. Nɛ́tɔn táatá tɛ nkaɨná ɛ tatɛnɛ o lórika lɛ nkɨtɔɔ ɛ ɛ́nkAi. He sat today at the right hand of the seat of authority (throne) of God.

2 • Elders.

ɛ-masáitâî [Purko]   Nom sg: ɛ-másaaɨtâ. Acc pl: ɨ-masáà. Nom pl: ɨ-másàà. n. 1 • Treasure, something precious.

2 • Personal ornament.

3 • Wealth.

ɛ-masáɨtá [Purko]   Nom sg: ɛ-másáɨtâ. Acc pl: ɨ-masáɨtá. Nom pl: ɨ-másáɨtá. n. Deceased man in the prime of life, from the age of a warrior to about middle-aged. This word especially connotes someone who died at the age of a courageous warrior; he was ɔltʉŋánì ɔtɨ́ ɔdʉ́pà [a young very competent man] and the society treasured him. Someone still very important in his family and society. See: ɛ-masáaɨtâ Treasure; ɛn-dɔ́rrɔ́p sésên Deceased woman; ɔl-kɨmáɨ́tà Elderly deceased man.

enk-oileelíò [Purko]   Nom sg: ɛnk-óíleélio. Acc pl: ɨnk-oileelioní. Nom pl: ɨnk-óíleelioní. n. Dew. Ɛɨtáshálá ɛnkóíleélíó ɨnkʉ́jɨ́t Dew has made the grass watery (wet). At dawn cows are taken to feed on grass when they are still watery. This is mainly done in the wet season.

kɔjɔŋɔ́nì [Chamus]   Nom sg: ɛnk-ɔ́jɔ́ŋání. Acc pl: ɨnk-ɔjɔŋá(k). Nom pl: ɨnk-ɔ́jɔ̀ŋà(k). [Purko] Nom sg: ɛnk-ɔ́jɔŋánì. [North] Acc sg: kajɨŋánɨ̀. 1 • Mosquito.

2 • Malaria.

enk-olíâî [Purko]   Nom sg: enk-ólìàì. Acc pl: ink-olíá. Nom pl: ink-ólìà. n. Widow; woman without husband. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlpáyìàn aitotí enkolíâî ɔ́ laláshɛ̀ otúá. The man is supporting the widow of his late brother. (Pk).

en-koilií [Purko]   Variant: enk-oilií. Nom sg: ink-oliîn. Acc pl: ink-oliîn. Nom pl: ink-óliîn. n. Gazelle, antelope. "Kénkoliîn íyíéú anáà kénkinejí?" Nérukúnyìè aké inkóliîn. "Do you want antelopes or goats?" Antelopes just flowed out. kʉnâ oliîn ~ kʉnâ koliîn ~ kʉnâ koiliîn these antelopes (W). See: ɔl-wúárgàs Grant's gazelle; ɛnk-ɔ́ɨ́bɔ́rr-siadí Grant's gazelle.

ɔrɛ́t [Purko]   Nom sg: e-órèt. Acc pl: i-orétà. Nom pl: i-órètà. n. Broom. See: a-ór To sweep; ol-áràò Broom; l-piríyeét Broom.

em-pírbíl [Purko]   Nom sg: em-pilbíl. Acc pl: im-pílbílí. Nom pl: im-pilbilí. n. Tin, can, vessel, cup. Empírbíl bárláí etíi olchánì. The medicine is in the orange tin. (Pk). See: ɛn-kɨkɔ́mpɛ̀ Cup.

in-tírmàn [Purko]   Nom sg: en-tírmà. Acc pl: in-tirmân. Nom pl: in-tírman. [North] Acc sg: n-tirimá. n. Walking stick, typically used by old people to support themselves. Ɛ́ncɔ̀ɔ̀ ɛnâ ayíónì náyá ɛnkɛ́jʉ̀ ɛntirmá natirmán. Give this boy with an aching leg a walking stick to support him as he walks. (Pk). Ɛ́ŋʉrakɨ́ ɛnkayíónì tárrʉ̀sh entirmá ɛnyɛ́ peê kipuoópùò. Get the lame boy his walking stick so that we can go slowly together. (Pk). See: ɛn-tɨrrɨmá Stick; e-ŋúdì Stick; ɔl-cátʉ́rlá Stick; ɔl-átàrt Stick; o-sebua Stick.

e-úásò [Purko]   Nom sg: e-wúásò. Acc pl: i-wúásòn. Nom pl: i-wuasón. [Purko] Nom sg: e-wúásô. [Purko] Acc pl: i-úásòn. [Purko] Nom pl: i-uasón. [Chamus] Acc sg: wúásʉ̀. n. River. Ɛ́ncɔ̀m táatá ɛ́ntookó ɨlashɔ́ ewúásò. Today go cause the calves to drink at the river. (Pk). Ɛɨlɛ́putúâ iwuasón. The rivers have risen. Átɔ́dùàà ɛnkárɛ́ sápʉ̀k nayɨmá ɛwúásò ŋirô. I have seen a lot of water running in the brown river. (Pk). See: ɛnk-árɛ́ River; o-reyíét River; ɔl-kɛjʉ́ River; sɛ́rɛ́ River.