Trauma Intervention Bibliography (under construction)
Winter 2005 Graduate Seminar
Jennifer J. Freyd & Pamela Birrell
University of Oregon
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Focus books for the course:
Bloom, Sandra. (1997) Creating Sanctuary: toward the evolution of sane societies.
Brewin, Chris (2003) Post-traumatic stress disorder: malady or myth?
Yale University Press.
Recommended books for this course and your personal library:
Herman, J.L. (1997). Trauma and recovery. Basic Books.
Wison, J.P. & Keane, T.M. (Eds) (2004) Assessing Psychological Trauma
and PTSD, Second Edition. Guilford.
Some other books and readings include:
Birrell, P.J. & Freyd, J.J. (in press) Betrayal Trauma: Relational Models
of Harm and Healing. Journal of Trauma Practice.
Burstow, B. (2003) Toward a radical understanding of trauma and trauma work.
Violence Against Women, 9, 1293-1317.
Cohen JA, Deblinger E, Mannarino AP, Steer R (2004), A multi-site randomized
controlled trial for multiply traumatized children with sexual abuse-related
PTSD. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 43(4):393-402.
Cohen J, Mannarino AP (1996a), A treatment outcome study for sexually abused
preschool children: initial findings. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 35(1):42-50.
Cohen JA, Mannarino AP (1996b), Factors that mediate treatment outcome of
sexually abused preschool children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 35(10):1402-1410.
Cohen JA, Mannarino AP (1997), A treatment study for sexually abused preschool
children: outcome during a one-year follow-up. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry
Cohen JA, Mannarino AP (1998a), Factors that mediate treatment outcome of
sexually abused preschool children: six- and 12-month follow-up. J Am Acad Child
Adolesc Psychiatry 37(1):44-51.
Cohen JA, Mannarino AP (1998b), Interventions for sexually abused children:
initial treatment findings. Child Maltreat 3(1):17-26.
Cohen JA, Mannarino AP (2000), Predictors of treatment outcome in sexually
abused children. Child Abuse Negl 24(7):983-994.
Cohen JA, Mannarino AP, Deblinger E (2001), Child and Parent Trauma-Focused
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Treatment Manual. Philadelphia: Drexel University
College of Medicine (available from authors).
Cohen JA, Mannarino AP, Knudsen K (in press b), Treating sexually abused children:
One year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Child Abuse Negl.
Deblinger E, Heflin AH (1996), Treating Sexually Abused Children and Their
Nonoffending Parents: A Cognitive Behavioral Approach. Thousand Oaks, Calif.:
Deblinger E, Lippmann J, Steer R (1996), Sexually abused children suffering
posttraumatic stress symptoms: initial treatment outcome findings. Child Maltreat
Deblinger E, Stauffer LB, Steer RA (2001), Comparative efficacies of supportive
and cognitive behavioral group therapies for young children who have been sexually
abused and their nonoffending mothers. Child Maltreat 6(4):332-343.
Deblinger E, Steer R, Lippman J (1999), Two-year follow-up study of cognitive
behavioral therapy for sexually abused children suffering post-traumatic stress
symptoms. Child Abuse Negl 23(12):1371-1378.
Downing J, Jenkins SJ, Fisher GL (1988), A comparison of psychodynamic and
reinforcement treatment with sexually abused children. Elementary School Guidance
and Counseling 22:291-298.
King NJ, Tonge BJ, Mullen P et al. (2000), Treating sexually abused children
with posttraumatic stress symptoms: a randomized clinical trial. J Am Acad Child
Adolesc Psychiatry 39(11):1347-1355 [see comment].
Trowell J, Kolvin I, Weeramanthri T et al. (2002), Psychotherapy for sexually
abused girls: psychopathological outcome findings and patterns of change. [Published
erratum Br J Psychiatry 180:553.] Br J Psychiatry 180:234-247.
V. Sinason (2002) (Ed.), Attachment, Trauma, and Multiplicity: Working with
Dissociative Identity Disorder. New York: Taylor & Francis.
Maldonado, J. R., Butler, L. D., & Spiegel, D. (1998). Treatments for dissociative
disorders. In P. E. Nathan & J. M. Gordon (Eds.), A Guide to treatments
that work (pp. 423-446). New York: Oxford University Press.
Trauma and Sexuality: The Effects of Childhood Sexual, Physical, and Emotional
Abuse on Sexual Identity and Behavior by James A., MD Chu, Elizabeth S., Md.
Rebuilding Shattered Lives : The Responsible Treatment of Complex Post-Traumatic
and Dissociative Disorders by James A. Chu (http://tinyurl.com/3se9m)
Subversive Dialogues: Theory In Feminist Therapy by Laura Brown
Child Abuse Trauma: Theory and Treatment of the Lasting Effects (Interpersonal
Violence:The Practice Series) by John Briere
Miller, D. (1996) Challenging self-harm through transformation of the trauma
story. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity. Vol 3(3) 1996, 213-227.
- Abstract (from the journal abstract) Self-injuring behavior in teenagers
and adults is highly correlated with histories of childhood trauma. These
symptoms, including self-mutilation, eating disorders, substance abuse, excessive
cosmetic surgeries, and compulsive exposure to danger, can be understood as
physical and psychological reenactments of trauma-based relationships with
the abuser(s) and the nonprotecting bystanders. Using an integrated three-stage
treatment model, Trauma Reenactment Syndrome (TRS) can be approached through
a narrative focus on the logic and relational functions of the self-harming
behavior. Assessment and treatment guidelines are described.
Peters, L.G. (1994). Rites of passage and the borderline syndrome: Perspectives
in transpersonal anthropology. Anthropology of Consciousness, 5(1), 1-15.
Treating Sexually Abused Children and Their Nonoffending Parents : A Cognitive
Behavioral Approach (Interpersonal Violence: The Practice Series) by Esther
Deblinger, Anne Hope Heflin
Friedrich, W. N. (2002). Psychological assessment of sexually abused children
and their families. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Bisson, J. I. (2003). Single-session early psychological interventions following
traumatic events. Clinical Psychology Review, 23(3), 481-499.
Bisson, J.I., McFarlane, A.C., & Rose, S. (2000). Psychological debriefing.
In E.B. Foa, T.M. Keane, & M.J. Friedman (Eds.), Effective treatments for
PTSD: Practice guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress
Studies. (pp. 317-320). New York: Guilford Press.
Abney, V.D. (2002). Cultural competency in the field of child maltreatment.
In J.E.B. Myers, L. Berliner, J. Briere, C.T. Hendrix, C. Jenny, & T. A.
Reid (Eds.), The American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children handbook
on child maltreatment (2nd ed.), (pp. 477-486). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Kolko's stuff might round out the Cohen readings a bit. I haven't read this
book since prelims. From what I recall, it was useful and easy to read...nothing
incredibly new for me, but perhaps helpful for other clinical folks. This from
my prelim list:
Kolko, D.J., & Swenson, C.C. (2002). A comprehensive individual and family
cognitive-behavioral therapy model. In D.J. Kolko & C.C. Swenson, Assessing
and treating physically abused children and their families (pp. 76-91). Thousand
Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Kolko, D.J., & Swenson, C.C. (2002). Initial treatment considerations.
In D.J. Kolko & C.C. Swenson, Assessing and treating physically abused children
and their families (pp. 92-119). Thousand Oaks,
CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Kolko, D.J., & Swenson, C.C. (2002). Promoting children's effective coping
and social competence. In D.J. Kolko & C.C. Swenson, Assessing and treating
physically abused children and their families (pp. 172-196). Thousand Oaks,
CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Kolko, D.J., & Swenson, C.C. (2002). Treatment outcome studies:Clinical
and research implications. In D.J. Kolko & C.C. Swenson, Assessing and treating
physically abused children and their families (pp. 34-52). Thousand Oaks, CA:
Sage Publications, Inc.
Bolen, R. M. (2003). "Child sexual abuse: Prevention or promotion?"
Social Work, 48(2), 174-185.
- Current child sexual abuse prevention programs assume that, by targeting
potential victims, they can reduce the prevalence of child sexual abuse. This
article presents findings, however, that suggest this assumption is flawed.
First, recent studies indicate that the prevalence of abuse has not decreased
over the history of prevention programs. Second, because of the pervasiveness
of the threat of child sexual abuse, it is doubtful that prevention programs
can adequately prepare children for the diversity of approaches by potential
offenders. It is suggested instead that potential offenders are more appropriate
targets of prevention programs. Because a large portion of abuse appears to
be related to socialized relational patterns gone awry, it is suggested that
a more efficacious method of prevention is a school-based program that promotes
healthy relationship patterns. The article compares the existing victim-based
paradigm with the proposed potential healthy relationships paradigms along
four domains: underlying assumptions, orientation, method, and goals.
Bryant, R. A. (2000). Cognitive behavioral therapy of violence-related posttraumatic
stress disorder. Aggression & Violent Behavior, 5(1), 79-97.
- Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) represents the most common psychiatric
condition following exposure to violence. Although an increasing number of
cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) studies point to efficacy of this approach
in ameliorating PTSD following violence, the methodological rigor of many
studies has not been optimal. Further, a significant proportion of traumatized
individuals does not benefit from CBT. This article reviews CBT outcome studies,
discusses the methodological limitations of CBT studies for PTSD, and offers
suggestions for future research. This review highlights the need for more
systematic studies of components of CBT with a range of trauma populations
to delineate the parameters of effective CBT for individuals with PTSD.
Bryant, R. A., Moulds, M. L., & Nixon, R. V. D. (2003). Cognitive behaviour
therapy of acute stress disorder: a four year follow-up. Behaviour Research
and Therapy, 41, 489-494.
- The aim of this study was to index the long-term benefits of early provision
of cognitive behavior therapy to trauma survivors with acute stress disorder.
Civilian trauma survivors (n = ?80) with acute stress disorder were randomly
allocated to either cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) or supportive counseling
(SC) - 69 completed treatment, and 41 were assessed four years post-treatment
for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with the Clinician Administered
PTSD Scale. Two CBT patients (8%) and four SC patients (25%) met PTSD criteria
at four-year follow-up. Patients who received CBT reported less intense PTSD
symptoms, and particularly less frequent and less avoidance symptoms, than
patients who received SC. These findings suggest that early provision of CBT
in the initial month after trauma has long-term benefits for people who are
at risk of developing PTSD.
Ehlers, A., Clark, D. M. (2003). Early psychological interventions for adult
survivors of trauma: A review. Biological Psychiatry, 53(9), 817-826.
- Psychological interventions after traumatic events have only recently been
evaluated in randomized, controlled trials. Recent systematic reviews concluded
that single sessions of individual psychological debriefing are not effective
in reducing distress or subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms.
The present article reviews trials of early cognitive behavior therapy (CBT)
after trauma. Cognitive behavioral therapy was more effective than supportive
counseling in preventing chronicity of PTSD symptoms; however, in most available
studies it remained unclear whether supportive counseling facilitated or retarded
recovery, compared with no intervention. A brief CBT program given in the
first month of trauma was not superior to repeated assessment; however, a
course of CBT of up to 16 sessions given at 1-4 months after trauma was superior
to self-help, repeated assessment, and no intervention. Possible reasons for
the difference in efficacy between CBT and debriefing or self-help are discussed.
These include the way of working through traumatic memories and the impact
of the interventions on patients' interpretations of their PTSD symptoms.
Foa, E. B. (2000). Psychosocial treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder.
Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 61(Suppl 5), 43-51.
- Reviews empirically validated psychosocial treatments for posttraumatic
stress disorder (PTSD) and considers factors associated with successful therapy
outcome. Most of the treatments whose efficacy was studied empirically fall
within the broad category of cognitive-behavioral therapy. These include exposure
therapy, anxiety management programs, and cognitive therapy. These therapy
modalities have been developed to modify conditioned fear and erroneous cognitions
that are thought to underlie PTSD. Exposure therapy has the most empirical
support because it was found to be effective across different populations
of trauma victims with PTSD. Combinations of therapies have also been used,
and the value of these is discussed. In addition, this article presents recent
evidence about the efficacy of eye movement and desensitization reprocessing.
A growing body of evidence supports the use of psychosocial treatments for
PTSD, but not all patients benefit. Future research should develop programs
that increase the motivation of patients to take advantage of these efficacious
treatments. A roundtable discussion follows.
Foa, E. B., Davidson, J. R. T., Frances, A., Culpepper, L., Ross, R., Ross,
D. (Eds.). The expert consensus guideline series: Treatment of posttraumatic
stress disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 60(Suppl 16), 4-76.
- Presents expert consensus guideline recommendations for the treatment of
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) based on the survey responses of 52 experts
on the psychotherapy treatment and 57 experts in the medication treatment
of PTSD. The guidelines are organized so that clinicians can quickly locate
the experts' treatment recommendations. The recommendations are presented
in 11 easy-to-use tabular guidelines that are organized into four sections:
(1) diagnosis, (2) selecting initial treatment strategies, (3) what to do
after the initial trials, and (4) other treatment issues. A primary care treatment
guide summarizing the key recommendations in an easy-to-use format for primary
care practitioners is also included. Finally, a patient-family educational
handout that can be reproduced for distribution to families and patients is
Foa, E. B., Hearst-Ikeda, D., Perry, K. J. (1995). Evaluation of a brief cognitive-behavioral
program for the prevention of chronic PTSD in recent assault victims. Journal
of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 63(6), 948-955.
- The efficacy of a brief prevention program (BP) aimed at arresting the development
of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was examined with 10 recent
female victims of sexual and nonsexual assault who received 4 sessions of
a cognitive-behavioral program shortly after the assault. Their PTSD and depression
severity was compared with that of 10 matched recent female assault victims
who received repeated assessments of their trauma-related psychopathology
(assessment control; AC). The BP program consisted of education about common
reactions to assault and cognitive-behavioral procedures. Two months postassault,
victims who received the BP program had significantly less severe PTSD symptoms
than victims in the control condition; 10% of the former group met criteria
for PTSD versus 70% of the latter group. Five and a half months postassault,
victims in the BP group were significantly less depressed than victims in
the AC group and had significantly less severe reexperiencing symptoms.
Geeraert, L., Van den Noortgate, W., Grietens, H., & Onghena, P. (2004).
The Effects of Early Prevention Programs for Families With Young Children At
Risk for Physical Child Abuse and Neglect: A Meta-Analysis. Child Maltreatment,
- In this article, a meta-analysis is presented on 40 evaluation studies of
early prevention programs for families with young children at risk for physical
child abuse and neglect with mostly nonrandomized designs. The main aim of
all programs was to prevent physical child abuse and neglect by providing
early family support. For the meta-analysis, a multilevel approach was used.
A significant overall positive effect was found, pointing to the potential
usefulness of these programs. The study demonstrated a significant decrease
in the manifestation of abusive and neglectful acts and a significant risk
reduction in factors such as child functioning, parent-child interaction,
parent functioning, family functioning, and context characteristics.
Gershater-Molko, R. M., J. R. Lutzker, et al. (2003). Project SafeCare: Improving
health, safety, and parenting skills in families reported for, and at-risk for
child maltreatment. Journal of Family Violence, 18(6), 377-386.
- Project SafeCare was a 4-year, in-home, research and intervention program
that provided parent training to families of children at-risk for maltreatment,
and families of children who were victims of maltreatment. Parents were trained
in treating children's illnesses and maximizing their own healthcare skills
(Health), positive and effective parent-child interaction skills (Parenting),
and maintaining low hazard homes (Safety). The effectiveness of these training
components was evaluated as the change in the parents' scores on roleplay
situations for child health problems, hazards present in the home, and the
frequency and quality of parent-child interactions during activities of daily
living. Statistically significant improvements were seen in child health care,
home safety, and parent-child interactions.
Guterman, N. B.(1999). Enrollment strategies in early home visitation to prevent
physical child abuse and neglect and the "Universal versus targeted"
debate: A meta-analysis of population-based and screening-based programs. Child
Abuse & Neglect, 23(9), 863-890.
- Conducted a meta-analysis to examine enrollment approaches in early home
visitation studies and their reported outcomes. Quantitative meta-analytic
techniques were used to compare effect sizes from 19 controlled outcome studies
across screening-based (SB) and population-based (PB) enrollment strategies.
Effect sizes were calculated on protective services data and on child maltreatment
related measures of parenting. On protective services report data, PB studies
reported a weighted mean effect size attributable to early home visitation
of +3.72%, in comparison to -0.07% for SB studies. On child maltreatment related
measures of parenting, PB studies reported a weighted mean effect size (r)
attributable to early home visitation of +0.092 vs +0.020 for SB studies.
PB enrollment strategies appear favorable to SB ones in early home visitation
programs seeking to prevent physical child abuse and neglect.
Hembree, E. A., Street, G. P., Riggs, D. S., & Foa, E. B. (2004). Do Assault-Related
Variables Predict Response to Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for PTSD? Journal
of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72(3), 531-534.
- This study examined the hypothesis that variables such as history of prior
trauma, assault severity, and type of assault, previously found to be associated
with natural recovery, would also predict treatment outcome. Trauma-related
variables were examined as predictors of posttreatment posttraumatic stress
disorder (PTSD) severity in a sample of 73 female assault victims with chronic
PTSD who completed treatment in a comparative outcome study (E. B. Foa et
al., 1999). Results indicated that after controlling for initial severity
of PTSD symptoms, the experience of trauma in childhood and sustaining physical
injury during the adult assault were predictive of greater PTSD severity following
Litz, B. T., Gray, M. J., Bryant, R. A., Adler, A. B. (2002). Early intervention
for trauma: Current status and future directions. Clinical Psychology: Science
& Practice, 9(2), 112-134.
- Notes that although psychological debriefing (PD) represents the most common
form of early intervention for recently traumatized people, there is little
evidence supporting its continued use with individuals who experience severe
trauma. This review identifies issues in early intervention that need to be
addressed in resolving the debate over PD. It critiques the available evidence
for PD and the early provision of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Based
on available evidence, it is proposed that psychological first aid is an appropriate
initial intervention, but that it does not serve a therapeutic or preventive
function. When feasible, initial screening is required so that preventive
interventions can be used for those individuals who may have difficulty recovering
on their own. Evidence-based CBT approaches are indicated for people who are
at risk of developing posttraumatic psychopathology. Guidelines for managing
acutely traumatized people are suggested and standards are proposed to direct
future research that may advance our understanding of the role of early intervention
in facilitating adaptation to trauma.
Renk, K., Liljequist, L., Steinberg, A., Bosco, G., Phares, V. (2002). Prevention
of child sexual abuse: Are we doing enough? Trauma Violence & Abuse, 3(1),
- In response to an increase in public awareness and interest in the problem
of child sexual abuse, programs have been developed to promote the awareness,
prevention, and treatment of sexual abuse. These programs have been varied
in scope, focus, and effectiveness. This article reviews the child sexual
abuse literature, with particular emphasis on efforts aimed at the prevention
of child sexual abuse. Prevention efforts targeting potential victims as well
as parents, teachers, and offenders, are reviewed and evaluated. Overall,
there is not enough adequate work being done to prevent child sexual abuse.
More efforts need to address child sexual abuse prevention by targeting adults
who can help children avoid such an experience and adults who may perpetrate
against children. Suggestions about future preventive endeavors, based on
this review, are offered.
Resick, P. A., Nishith, P., & Griffin, M. G. (2003). How well does cognitive-behavioral
therapy treat symptoms of complex PTSD? An examination of child sexual abuse
survivors within a clinical trial. CNS Spectrums, 8(5), 342-351.
- Are brief cognitive-behavioral treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder
(PTSD) also effective for the wider range of symptoms conceptualized as complex
PTSD? Female rape victims, most of whom had extensive histories of trauma,
were randomly assigned to cognitive-processing therapy, prolonged exposure,
or a delayed-treatment waiting- list condition. After determining that both
types of treatment were equally effective for treating complex PTSD symptoms,
we divided the sample of 121 participants into two groups depending upon whether
they had a history of child sexual abuse. Both groups improved significantly
over the course of treatment with regard to PTSD, depression, and the symptoms
of complex PTSD as measured by the Trauma Symptom Inventory. Improvements
were maintained for at least 9 months. Although there were group main effects
on the Self and Trauma factors, there were no differences between the two
groups at posttreatment once pretreatment scores were covaried. These findings
indicate that cognitive-behavioral therapies are effective for patients with
complex trauma histories and symptoms patterns.
Ross, G., & O'Carroll, P. (2004). Cognitive behavioural psychotherapy intervention
in childhood sexual Abuse: Identifying new directions from the literature. Child
Abuse Review, 13(1), 51-64.
- The short- and long-term consequences of childhood sexual abuse have been
extensively reported. However, for many years there has been an absence of
psychological conceptual frameworks for understanding and treating abuse trauma
symptoms. This paper reviews a number of outcome studies for the treatment
of child sexual abuse where a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) conceptualization
was used to plan treatment interventions. The paper concludes that, contrary
to some concerns expressed by clinicians, sexually abused children and their
non-abusing carers can significantly benefit from cognitive behavioral interventions
which use reliving and confrontation of the abusive experience. Notwithstanding
this, there is a need for further controlled outcome research of cognitive
behavioral interventions using reliving techniques to explore how and why
these interventions help in reducing abuse-related PTSD symptoms.
Sabol, W. J., C. J. Coulton, et al. (2004). Building community capacity for
violence prevention. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 19(3), 322-340.
- The capacity of communities to prevent violence is examined from three perspectives:
youth violence, child maltreatment, and intimate partner violence. The analysis
suggests that community social control and collective efficacy are significant
protective factors for all three types of violence, but these need to be further
distinguished for their relationships to private, parochial, and state controls.
It is argued that strong interpersonal ties are not the only contributor to
collective efficacy and violence prevention. Weak ties, including those outside
the community, and organizational ties are also seen as necessary. Violence
prevention programs should be structured in ways that contribute to the communities'
own capacity to prevent violence.
Saunders, B. E., Berliner, L., & Hanson, R.F. (Eds.). (2004). Child Physical
and Sexual Abuse: Guidelines for Treatment (Revised Report: April 26, 2004).
Charleston, SC:, National Crime Victims Research and Treatment Center. (see
- Solomon, S. D. and D. M. Johnson (2002). Psychosocial treatment of posttraumatic
stress disorder: A practice-friendly review of outcome research. Journal of
Clinical Psychology, 58(8), 947-959.
A review of the treatment research indicates that several forms of therapy
appear to be useful in reducing the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder
(PTSD). Strongest support is found for the treatments that combine cognitive
and behavioral techniques. Hypnosis, psychodynamic, anxiety management, and
group therapies also may produce short-term symptom reduction. Still unknown
is whether any approach produces lasting effects. Imaginal exposure to trauma
memories and hypnosis are techniques most likely to affect the intrusive symptoms
of PTSD, while cognitive and psychodynamic approaches may address better the
numbing and avoidance symptoms. Treatment should be tailored to the severity
and type of presenting PTSD symptoms, to the type of trauma experience, and
to the many likely comorbid diagnoses and adjustment problems.
Stauffer, L. B., Deblinger, E. (1996). Cognitive behavioral groups for nonoffending
mothers and their young sexually abused children: A preliminary treatment outcome
study. Child Maltreatment, 1(1), 65-76.
- The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of concurrent
11 wk cognitive behavioral groups for 19 nonoffending mothers (aged 23-65
yrs) and their young sexually abused children (aged 2-6 yrs). Evaluation included
standardized assessment of maternal distress levels and maternal reports of
children's behavioral functioning at initial contact, pretreatment, posttreatment,
and 3 mo follow-up. Results of this preliminary treatment outcome study suggest
that these cognitive behavioral group interventions may be effective in decreasing
symptomatology exhibited by young sexually abused children and their nonoffending
mothers. In addition, the parent intervention appeared to be effective in
assisting nonoffending mothers to improve their self-reported parenting practices.
The improvements achieved during treatment were maintained at 3 mo follow-up,
and were a function of group participation.
Taylor, T. L., Chemtob, C. M. (2004). Efficacy of treatment for child and adolescent
traumatic stress. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 158, 786-791
- Background: Despite the expenditure of large sums of public monies to ameliorate
the consequences of childhood trauma, little is known about the efficacy of
treatment for traumatized children and their families. Objective: To review
the efficacy of treatment for child and adolescent traumatic stress. Data
Sources: An extensive literature search identified 102 studies addressing
child and adolescent trauma treatment. Study Selection: Only 8 studies met
the minimal inclusion criteria of (1) using a comparison group and (2) including
symptoms of traumatic stress as a treatment outcome. Data Extraction: These
studies are critically evaluated for adherence to standards of good efficacy
research using formal criteria of treatment research quality. Data Synthesis:
Treatment for traumatic stress appears to lead to greater improvement than
either no treatment or routine community care. Conclusions: Child and adolescent
posttraumatic stress disorder treatment research lags behind both adult posttraumatic
stress disorder treatment research and other child treatment research. There
is considerable need to establish a programmatic approach to developing evidence-
based child trauma treatment. Barriers to conducting child trauma treatment
research include sensitivity to the rights of victims and child service models
that perceive research as intruding on vulnerable children at critically sensitive
points in their development.
Wheatley, M., J. Plant, et al. (2004). Clozapine treatment of adolescents with
posttraumatic stress disorder and psychotic symptoms. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology,
- This study investigates the efficacy of clozapine in treatment-resistant
abused adolescents detained in a secure environment who present with chronic
posttraumatic stress disorder and psychotic symptoms. All participants had
received at least 2 trials of conventional neuroleptic medication prior to
starting clozapine. Efficacy was assessed by using single case methodology
across 6 participants employing predependent and postdependent measures of
psychiatric symptoms and behavioral observations. Subjective self-reports
were also sought after treatment had been established. Evaluation of the data
suggests that 4 of the participants demonstrated substantial improvements
in psychiatric symptoms and behavioral presentation once a therapeutic dose
of clozapine had been achieved. Questionnaire responses from 5 participants
indicated that clozapine treatment was associated with a reduction in hallucinatory
experiences. The most troubling side effects were those of excessive salivation,
dizziness, and weight gain. These findings indicate that clozapine may be
effective in decreasing psychiatric symptoms and risk behaviors in traumatized
adolescents presenting with psychotic symptoms.
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