For a copy of the scale, including adjectives and response instructions, see the Mini-Markers pdf file.


For normative values:

Normative values for some large samples (word file)


If you have difficulty downloading the pdf file mentioned above, try this link to an older htm file.



Scoring instructions:

As it says in table, the * indicates the highest factor loading for each variable (row). To create a scale score, you do the following:

1. Figure out which 8 items go with each scale -- that is clear from the table, talkative through withdrawn are I (Extraversion) etc.

2. For those 8 items, add them up. Except that if it is in the second section (with - on the * loading) you subtract rather than add the response. Thus Extraversion = talkative + bold + extraverted + energetic - shy - bashful - quiet - withdrawn.

3. If you want to compare these to the 'norms' , you should score in a more sophisticated way. For the - items (like 'withdrawn') you should recalculate the responses to that the response to the item is subtracted from a constant that is (1 + the highest number in the response scale) . This is called 'reflecting' a response. Then average the 8 responses for each scale.


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