Golly, A., Sprague, J., Walker, H. M., Beard, K., & Gorham, G. (2000). The First Step to Success program: An analysis of outcomes with identical twins across multiple baselines. Behavioral Disorders , 25 (3), 170-182.


This investigation focuses on effects of the First Step to Success (First Step) early intervention program designed for at-risk kindergartners who show the early signs of emerging antisocial behavior at the point of school entry. First Step is a collaborative home and school intervention designed to address the needs of such children that was developed and evaluated over a four-year period through a federal grant to the third author. Two studies are reported herein involving two sets of identical twins enrolled in regular kindergarten programs. Results of these studies indicated that exposure to the First Step program produced powerful behavior changes upon introduction of the intervention that were maintained throughout the program's implementation. Limitations of the studies reported and future research questions to be investigated are discussed.