Judith H. Hibbard


Summary of Interests


I have a particular interest in testing approaches that give consumers and patients more knowledge and control over their health and health care. My studies examine such topics as: how consumers understand and use health care information, how health literacy affects choices, enrollee behavior within consumer driven health plans, and assessments of patient and consumer activation.



Information on Use and Licensing of the Patient Activation Measure


Professional Information


Senior Researcher, Health Policy Research Group, University of Oregon

Professor Emerita, Department of Planning, Public Policy & Management, University of Oregon




B.S. 1974 Health Sciences California State University, Northridge

M.P.H. 1975 Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles

Dr.P.H. 1982 Social and Administrative Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley


Contact Information



(541) 346-3364 Fax (541) 346-2040

Department of Planning, Public Policy & Management

1209 University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403-1209





Recent Publications


Click here for publications through Pubmed

 Mitchell S, Gardiner P, Sadikova BA, Martin JM, Jack BW, Hibbard JH and, Michael K. Paasche-Orlow. Patient Activation and 30-day   Post-discharge Hospital Utilization.  Journal of General Internal Medicine.  November 2013.


 Greene J,  Hibbard JH, Overton V. A Case Study of a Team-Based, Quality-Focused Compensation Model for Primary Care Providers.  Medical Care Research and Review.  November 2013.


 Brenk-Franz K, Hibbard JH, Herrmann WJ, Freund T, Szecsenyi J, Djalali S,                  Steurer-Stey C, Sšnnichsen A, Tiesler F, Storch M,  Schneider N, Gensichen J.

 Validation of the German version of the Patient Activation Measure 13 (PAM13-D) in an

 international multicentre study of primary care patients.  Plos One.  October 2013.


 Greene J, Hibbard JH, Overton V, Sacks R.  Highly Activated Patients Have Better Care Experiences Than Patients With Less Activation When Seeing The Same Clinician.  Health Affairs.  July 2013.

Hibbard JH, Greene J.  What the Evidence Shows about Patient Activation:  Better Health Outcomes and Care Experiences; Fewer Data on Costs.  Health Affairs.  Feb 2013.


Hibbard JH, Greene J, Overton V.  Patients With Lower Activation Associated With Higher Costs; Delivery Systems Should Know Their Patient ŌScores.  Health Affairs.  Feb. 2013.


Marshall R, Beach M, Saha S, Mori T, Loveless M, Hibbard JH, Cohn J, Sharp V, Korthius T.Patient Activation and Improved Outcomes in HIV infected Patients.

J Gen Intern Med  January 2013.


Hibbard JH, Minniti M.  An Evidence-based Approach to Engaging Patients.  Chapter in:

Clarke J,  Nash D, Horowitz M, and Skoufalos A.  Health Care Quality: A ClinicianÕs Primer.  2012.


Hibbard JH and Lorig K.  The DoÕs and DonÕt Of Patient Engagement In Busy Office Practices.  Journal of Ambulatory Care Management.  2012


Hibbard JH, Greene J, Sofaer S, Firminger K, Hirsh J. An Experiment Shows that a Well-Designed Report  on Costs and Quality Can Help Consumers Choose High-Value Care.  Health Affairs.  March 2012.


Mehtova A, Hussey P, Milstein A, Hibbard JH.  Does Public Reporting of Cost and Resource Use Measures to Consumers Make Sense?  Health Affairs. April 2012. 


Pennarola B, Rodday A, Mayer D, Ratichek S, Davies S, Syrjala K, Patel S, Bingen K, Kupst M, Schwartz L, Guinan E, Hibbard JH, Parsons SK.  Understanding the Role of Parent Activation in Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant.  Medical Care Research and Review. December 2011 Medical Care Research and Review.   December 2011. 1077558711431460.


Greene J, Hibbard JH. Why does patient activation matter?  An examination of the relationship between patient activation and health related outcomes.  Journal of General Internal Medicine.  Volume 27, Number 5, 520-526, 2012.   DOI: 10.1007/s11606-011-1931-2.


Hibbard JH and Green J.  Who are we reaching through the patient portal:  Engaging the already engaged.  The International Journal of Person Centered Medicine.  December 2011.


Cunningham P, Hibbard JH.  Gibbons C. Raising Low Patient Activation Rates Among Hispanic Immigrants May Equal Expanded Coverage in Reducing Access Disparities.   Health Affairs.  30(10): 1888-1894. 2011.


McCormack L, Bann C, Berkman N, Squire L , Schillinger D, Ohene-Frempong J, Hibbard JH

Measuring Health Literacy: Preliminary Results from a New Skills-Based Instrument.  Journal of Health Communication.  Vol 15 No. 2:  2010.


Hibbard JH and Mahoney ER.  Toward a Theory of Patient and Consumer Activation. Patient Education and Counseling.   Vol 78 No. 3:  377-81.  2010.


Hibbard JH, Greene J, Daniel D.  What is Quality Anyway?  Performance Reports Which Clearly Communicate the Meaning of Quality of Care.  Medical Care Research and Review.   Vol. 67: 275-293.  2010.


Hibbard JH.  Community-Based Participation Approaches and Individual Health Activation.  Journal of Ambulatory Care Management.  Vol 32 No 2. 2009.


Dixon A, Hibbard JH, Tusler M.   How do people with different levels of activation self-manage their chronic conditions? The Patient.  2 (4): 257-268.  2009.


Fowles J, Terry P, Xi M, Hibbard JH, Bloom CT, Harvey L.  Measuring self-management of patientsÕ and employeesÕ health: Further validation of the Patient Activation Measure (PAM) based on its relation to employee characteristics.  Patient Education and Counseling.  Vol 77  No.2:116-122.  2009.


Hibbard JH, Collins P, Mahoney E, Baker L.  The Development and Testing of a Measure Assessing Physician Beliefs about Patient Self-Management.  Health Expectations. doi: 10.1111/j.1369-7625.2009.00571.  2009.


Remmers CL, Hibbard JH, Mosen D, Wagenfeld M, Hoye RE, Jones C.  Is Patient Activation Associated with Future Health Outcomes and Health Care Utilization Among Patients with Diabetes?  Journal of Ambulatory Can Management.  Vol. 32 (2):320-327. 2009.


Peters EM, Dieckmann N, VŠstfjŠll D, Mertz CK, Slovic P, Hibbard JH.  Bringing Meaning to Numbers, the Impact of Evaluative Categories on Decisions.  Journal of Experimental Psychology.  Vol 15. No 3:213-227. 2009.


Stepleman LM, Rutter C, Hibbard JH,  Johns L, Wright D, and Hughes MD.  Validation of the Patient Activation Measure (PAM) in a Multiple Sclerosis Clinic Sample and Implications for Care.  Disability and Rehabilitation. 32(19):1558-67. 2010.


Green CA Perrin NA, Polen MR, Leo MC, Hibbard JH, and Tusler M.

Development of the Patient Activation Measure for Mental Health (PAM-MH).  Administration & Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research.  Aug 2009.


Hibbard JH, Greene J, Tusler. Improving the Outcomes of Disease-Management by Tailoring Care to the PatientÕs Level of Activation.  American Journal of Managed Care. Vol 15, No 6: 353-360.   June 2009.


Hibbard JH Using Systematic Measurement to Target Consumer Activation Strategies.  Medical Care Research and Review.  Supplement to Vol. 6. No. 1:9S-27S. 2009.


Ranganthan M, Hibbard JH, Rodday A, de Brantes F, Conroy K, Rogers B, Safran D.  Motivating Public Use of Physician-level Performand Data:  An Experiment on the Effects of Message and Mode.  Medical Care Researach and Review.  Vol 6, No.1:68-81. 2009.


Hibbard JH and Cunningham P.  How Engaged are Consumers in their Health and Health Care and Why Does it Matter?  Center for the Study of Health System Change Research Brief.  October 2008.


Hibbard Jh and Hayes K.  Second-Generation Consumerism:  Increasing Consumer Activation to Improve Health Outcomes and lower Costs for Patients with Chronic Disease.  in The Health Care Delivery System: A


Blueprint for Reform.  Center for American Progress 2008. http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2008/10/health_care_delivery.html.


Hibbard JH, Greene J, Tusler M.  Plan Design and Active Involvement of Consumers in Their Own Health and Health Care.  American Journal of Managed Care.  2008. Vol 14, No. 11:729-36.


Hibbard JH, Greene J, Tusler M. Does enrollment in a CDHP stimulate cost effective utilization? Medical Care Research and Review. 2008.  Vol 65 No 4:437-449.


Greene J.  Peters EM, HIbbard JH.  Comprehension of Choice of a Consumer-directed Health Plan:  An Experimental Study.  American Journal of Managed Care.  2008.  Vol 14 No. 6:369-376.


Hibbard JH. What Can We Say about the Impacts of Public Reporting? Inconsistent Execution Yields Variable Results. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2008; 148(2): 160-161.


Hibbard JH, Greene J, Painter M, Perez D, Burbank-Schmitt E, Tusler M.  Racial and Ethnic Disparities and Consumer Health Activation? Health Affairs. 2008; 27, No 5; 1442-1453.


Schmittdiel J, Mosen D, Glasgow R, Hibbard JH, Sobel D, Remmers C, and Bellows J. Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) and Improved Patient-Centered Outcomes for Chronic Conditions. Journal of General

Internal Medicine. 2008; Vol 23, no. 1.


Greene J., Hibbard JH, Murray J, Teutsch S, Berger M. The Impact of Consumer Directed Health Plans on Prescription Drug Utilization? Health Affairs. 2008. 27; No 4:  1111-1119.


Dixon A,  Greene J, Hibbard JH.  Do Consumer Directed Health Plans Drive Change in Enrollees' Health Behaviors? Health Affairs.  2008.  27; No 4:1120-1131. 


Elwyn G, Buetow S, Hibbard JH, Winsing M. Measuring quality through performance. Respecting the subjective: quality measurement from the patient's perspective. British Medical Journal. 2007; 335(7628): 1021 Š 1022.


Hibbard JH. Improving the Quality of Care through Research: Measuring Patient Activation
Chapter in: Patient Advocacy: Patient-Centered Strategies for Improving Healthcare Quality,  Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Inc. and edited by Jo Anne Earp, Elizabeth French, and Melissa Gilkey. July 2007.


Davis M, Hibbard JH, Milstein A. Consumer tolerance for inaccuracy in physician performance ratings: One size fits none. Center for the Study of Health System Changes Issue Brief. March 2007.


Peters EM, Hibbard JH, Slovic P, Diechmann N. Numeracy skill and the communication, comprehension, and use of risk and benefit information. Health Affairs. 2007; 26(3):741-8.


Hibbard JH, Peters EM, Dixon A, Tusler M.  Consumer Competencies and the Use of Comparative Quality Information:  It isn't Just About Literacy.  Medical Care Research and Review.  2007:  64 (4): 379-394.


Hibbard, JH, Mahoney E, Stock R, Tusler M. Do Increases in Patient Activation Result in Improved Self-management Behaviors? Health Services Research. 2007; 42(4):1443-63.


Hibbard JH, Tusler M. Assessing Activation Stage and Employing a ŌNext StepsÕ Approach to Supporting Patient Self-Management. Journal of Ambulatory Care Management. 2007; 30(1):2-8.


Mosen D, Schmittdiel J, Hibbard JH, Sobel D, Remmers C, Bellows J. Is Patient Activation Associated with Outcomes of Care for Adults with Chronic Conditions? Journal of Ambulatory Care Management. 2007; 30(1):21-9.


Peters EM, Dieckmann N, Dixon A, Hibbard JH, Mertz CK. Less is More in Presenting Quality Information to Consumers. Medical Care Research and Review. 2007;64(2):169-90.


Hibbard JH, Greene J, Tusler M. An Assessment of Beneficiary Knowledge of Medicare Coverage Options and the Prescription Drug Benefit. AARP Public Policy Institute May 2006.


Peters EM, Slovic P, Hibbard JH, Tusler M. Why worry? Worry, Risk Perceptions, and Willingness to Act to Reduce Errors. Health Psychology. March 2006; 25(2) 144-52.


Hibbard JH, Mahoney ER, Stockard J, Tusler M. Development and testing of a short form of the patient activation measure.  Health Services Research. 2005 Dec;40(6 Pt 1):1918-30.


Hibbard JH, Peters EM, Slovic P, Tusler M. Can Patients Be Part of the Solution? Views on Their Role in Preventing Medical Errors. Medical Care Research and Review. October 2005;62(5):601-16.


Hibbard JH, Greene J, Tusler M. Screening Medicare Beneficiaries for Health Literacy: Is a Short Screening Test Feasible? AARP Public Policy Institute June 2005; Report 2005-01


Greene J, Hibbard JH, Tusler M. How Much Do Health Literacy and Patient Activation Contribute to Older AdultsÕ Ability to Manage their Health? AARP Public Policy Institute. June 2005.


Hibbard JH, Stockard J, Tusler M. ŅThe Long-Term Effect of Public Performance Reporting on Hospital Quality Improvement, Market Share, and Reputation: Evidence from a Controlled Experiment. Health Affairs. July/August 2005 24(4):1150-60.


Hibbard JH, Stockard J, and Tusler M. It isn't Just about Choice: The Potential of a Public Performance Report to Affect the Public Image of Hospitals. Medical Care Research and Review. June 2005;62(3):358-71.


Hibbard JH. Perspective: Moving Toward a More Patient-Centered Health Care Delivery System. Health Affairs. Web-exclusive. October, 2004


Hibbard JH, New Roles for Patients and Consumers in Assuring High Quality Care
Virtual Mentor, American Medical Association. http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/12490.html June 2004.


Hibbard JH and Pawlson LG, Why Not Give Consumers a Framework for Understanding Quality? Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Safety. June 2004 30(6): 347-351.


Hibbard JH, Stockard J, Mahoney ER, and Tusler M. Development of the Patient Activation Measure (PAM): Conceptualizing and Measuring Activation in Patient and Consumers. Health Services Research. 2004 39(4): 1005-1026.


Hibbard JH, Stockard J, and Tusler M. Does Making Hospital Performance Public Increase Quality Improvement Efforts? Health Affairs. March/April 2003 22(2): 84-94.


Shaller D, Sofaer S, Findlay SD, Hibbard JH, Lansky D, and Delbanco S. Consumers and Quality-Driven Health Care: A Call to Action. Health Affairs. March/April 2003 22(2): 95-101.


Hibbard JH and Peters E. Supporting Informed Consumer Health Care Decisions: Data presentation approaches that facilitate the use of information in choice. Annual Review of Public Health. 2003 Vol. 24: 413-433


Hibbard JH, Engaging Health Care Consumers to Improve the Quality of Care. Medical Care. 2003 Jan;41(1 Suppl):I61-70. 


Leatherman S, Hibbard JH, McGlynn E. A Research Agenda to Advance Quality Measurement and Improvement. Medical Care. January 2003, 41(1 Suppl):I80-6


Short PF, McCormack L, Hibbard JH, Shaul JA, Harris-Kojetin L, Fox M, Cleary, PD, Damiano P, Uhrig, JD. Similarities and differences in choosing health plans. Medical Care. April 2002 40(3): 289-302


Hibbard JH, Slovic P, Peters EM, Finucane M. Strategies for Reporting Health Plan Performance Information to Consumers: Evidence from Controlled Studies. Health Services Research. April 2002 37(2): 291-313


Finucane ML, Slovic P, Hibbard JH, Peters E, Mertz CK, MacGregor DG. Aging and Decision-Making Competence: An Analysis of Comprehension and Consistency Skills in Older Versus Younger Adults Considering Health Plan Options. Journal of Behavioral Decision-Making. April 2002 15(2): 141-164


Hibbard JH, Berkman N, McCormack L, Jael E. The Impact of a CAHPS Report on Employee Knowledge, Beliefs, and Decisions. Medical Care Research and Review March 2002 59(1): 104-116


McCormack, L Garfinkel S, Keller S, Hibbard JH. Health Insurance Knowledge Among Medicare Beneficiaries. Health Services Research February 2002 37(1): 43-63


Hibbard JH, Greenlick MR, Jimison, H, Capizzi J. Kunkel LE. The Impact of a Community-Wide Self-Care Information Project on Self-Care and Medical Care Utilization. Journal of Evaluations and Health Professions. December 2001 24(4): 404-423


Hibbard JH, Peters EM, Slovic P, Finucane ML, Making Health Care Report Cards Easier to Use. The Joint Commission Journal on Quality Improvement. November 2001 27(11): 591-604


Wagner TH, Hu T, Hibbard JH. The Demand for Consumer Health Information. Journal of Health Economics. November 2001.20: 1059-1075


Hibbard JH. Being Strategic with Public Reports. The International Journal for Quality in Health Care. October 2001 13(5): 353-355.


Wagner, TH, Hibbard, JH. Who uses self-care books, advice nurses, and computers for health information? International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care. Fall 2001 17(4): 590-600.


McCormack L, Anderson W, Kuo M, Daughtery S, Bann C, Hibbard J. Measuring Beneficiary Knowledge in Two Randomized Experiments. Health Care Financing Review Fall 2001 23(1): 47-62.


McCormack LA, Garfinkel S, Hibbard JH, Kilpatrick K, Kalsbeek W. Beneficiary Survey-Based Feedback on New Medicare Informational Materials? Health Care Financing Review. Fall 2001 23(1): 37-46


Wagner, TH, Hibbard, JH. Greenlick, MR, Kunkel, L. Does providing consumer health information affect self-reported medical utilization? Evidence from the Healthwise Communities Project. Medical Care. August 2001 39(8): 836-47.


McCormack LA, Garfinkel S, Hibbard JH, Norton EC, and Bayen U. Health Plan Decision-Making with New Medicare Information Materials. Health Services Research. July 2001 36(3): 537-554.


Hibbard, JH, Slovic, P, Peters EM, Finucane M, and Tusler, M. Is the Informed-Choice Approach Appropriate for Medicare Beneficiaries? Health Affairs. May/June 2001 20(3): 199-203.


Hibbard JH, Greenlick MR, Kunkel LE, Capizzi J. Mode of Payment, Practice Characteristics, and Physician Support for Patient Self-care. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. February 2001 20(2): 118-123.


Jewett JJ, Hibbard, JH, Engelmann S, Tusler M. The Implications of Plan Design Options for Medicare Beneficiaries. Medical Care Research and Review. December 2000 57(4): 464-90.


Hibbard JH, Harris-Kojetin L, Mullin P, Lubalin JS, Garfinkel SA, Increasing the Impact of Health Plan Report Cards by Addressing Consumer Concerns. Health Affairs. September/October 2000 19(5): 138-143.


Hibbard JH, Slovic, P, Peters EM, Finucane M, Older ConsumersÕ Skill in Using Comparative Data to Inform Health Plan Choice: A Preliminary Assessment. AARP Public Policy Institute #2000-14 September 2000.


Hibbard JH, Greenlick MR, Jimison H, Kunkel L., Tusler M. Prevalence and predictors of self-care and the use of self-care resources. Journal of Evaluations and Health Professions. 1999 22(1): 107-122.


Hibbard JH, Jewett JJ, Engelmann S, Tusler M. Can Medicare Beneficiaries Make Informed Choices? Health Affairs. 1998 17(6): 181-193. Reprinted in Medicare and Managed Care. Ed John K. Iglehart A Primer from Health Affairs. 1999.


Hibbard JH. Use of Outcome Data by Purchasers and Consumers: New Strategies and New Dilemmas. The International Journal for Quality in Health Care. 1998 10(6): 503-508.


Hibbard JH and Jewett JJ. An assessment of BeneficiariesÕ understanding of the differences between the Traditional Medicare program and HMOÕs. Public Policy Institute AARP. #9805 June 1998.


Hibbard JH, Jewett JJ, Legnini M, and Tusler M. The use of health care performance information by large purchasers. Health Affairs 1997 16(6): 172-80.


Hibbard, JH, Slovic P, and Jewett JJ. Increasing informed consumer decisions in health care. Milbank Quarterly. 1997 75(3): 395-414.


Hibbard, JH and Jewett JJ. Will quality report cards help consumers? Health Affairs. 1997 16(3): 218-228.


Recent Service to the Profession/Community


International Visiting Scholar at the KingÕs Fund, London 2013-2014.

Fellow Center for Patient and Consumer Engagement,  American Institutes of Research, 2012-2013.

Ziff Fellow, Center for Advancing Health, Experts on Patient Engagement. 2010-13

National Advisory Committee Member, Aligning Forces for Quality Initiative, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2006-2010

Member, National Advisory Council to AHRQ, 2004-2007

Member, UnitedHealth Group Physician Advisory Committee, 2005-2010.

Mentor to Harkness Fellow from London School of Economics 2005-2006


Last Revised December 8, 2013