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Staff Development. What staff development is
needed to achieve the goal of substantially increasing the
integration of ICT into curriculum, instruction, and
assessment? An introduction to staff development, with an
emphasis on one-on-one staff development. We will also
briefly discuss two three topics that are closely related to
staff development: 1) Needs Assessment; 2) Future of ICT in
education; and 3) Long-Range Strategic Planning
Some Specific Objectives and Topics for Week # 2
- Review three key aspects of getting ready to do staff
- Needs Assessment;
- Future of ICT in education; and
- Long-Range Strategic Planning
- Provide a solid introduction to Staff Development
with an emphasis on:
- Small and large group staff development.
- One-one-one staff development.
- Just in time staff development.
- Staff development done by role modeling in a
- Formative, summative, and residual impact evaluation
of staff development. Keep in mind that the goal is
changes in teacher behavior that lead to better education
for students and improved professional life for
- Research strongly supports the need for highly
qualified teachers. Good teachers continually learn--they
build capacity through Action Research, careful analysis
of their performance and the results they achieve, formal
and informal education, and striving to do well.
- The ICT knowledge and skills of the average teacher
are woefully inadequate for making effective use of ICT
facilities available to themselves and their students, in
helping their students to get a better education
- There are a variety of approaches to determining the
ICT staff development needs of teachers in a school.
These include informal and formal observations, use of
assessment instruments, and self assessment by the
teachers, However, one also draws on whatever Long-range
Strategic Planning has been done by the school and
district, school improvement plans, and insights into the
future of ICT in education.
- Staff development is most effective when it is
relevant to the needs and interests of the teachers
(think about motivation) and in situations where the
teachers will make immediate use of the ideas and
materials being covered.
- It takes a concerted and long term effort to
significantly change a teacher's curriculum, instruction,
assessment, and other professional activity.
- Click here for some
notes developed on staff development in last year's
version of the DAE2 course.
- Click here for
the slides of a 1992 talk that Dave Moursund gave on the
future of computers in education. Examine this talk from
a point of view of successes and failures in long-range
In very brief summary, some of the points to be covered
on this topic include e topic include:
- Professional development for IT in education is a
major problem. Our educational system was not designed to
deal with the pace of change and the potential magnitude
of change that IT brings to education. However, this
problem exists even without IT. The pace of progress in
educational research overwhelms the implementation
abilities of our educational system.
- For a number of years, guidelines from many sources
have suggested that schools need to be spending 30% of
all of their IT in education resources on PD. One example
of this sort of guideline is found in the Computer
Literacy Challenge Fund grants that Oregon awards using
federal money. A guideline in the RFP for these grants is
that at least 30% of the funds must be used for PD. This
30% figure seems to be a relatively arbitrary rule of
thumb. Research suggests that in the US in the late
1990s, the actual level of expenditures for IT-oriented
professional development was in the range of 15%. What we
actually need is a better measure of how much;
professional development is needed to support effective
integration of IT into the curriculum , and then good
measure so what this costs. That would provide a basis
for decision making on how to divide IT funds amount
- Curriculum, instruction, and assessment
- Technical support for teachers and students
- Professional development
- There is a lot known about how to organize and run
effective PD. By and large, actual PD for IT in education
tends to violate much of what we know is effective. That
is, PD is a relatively well developed component of SoTL.
However, actual implementation tends to not take
advantage of what we know about ways to design and
implement effective inservice. This is true both in
IT-related professional development and in non
IT-oriented professional development.
- Standards for what teachers should know and be able
to do (and actually do) are not well established. ISTE
has a large federally funded project to develop such
standards for preservice teachers. The ISTE National
Educational Technology Standards for Teachers (NETS for
Teachers) can be accessed at http://cnets.iste.org.
Although these are standards for preservice teachers,
they serve as a good starting point for specifying
standards for inservice teachers. Some states are
adopting the ISTE NETS for (preservice) teachers as their
standards for inservice teachers.
Just in time inservice, one-on-one inservice, informal
inservice, and other "personal" approaches are highly
effective. Each individual teacher can be of help to his/her
fellow teachers in professional development. One model of PD
for a school is that each teacher has PD responsibilities
(in areas of their own expertise). Thus, each teacher is
responsible for developing and maintaining a level of
expertise in some area of general interest to other staff,
and helping the staff to learn that area.
Whole Class Exercise: Share some examples in which
you informally or formally have helped an adult learn some
IT. What works and what does not work in this informal adult
education type of situation? How is it applicable to
professional development of teachers?
Debrief: If we reframe this as "Just in time
education." we can better understand the importance and
potential for such a one-on-one approach to professional
development. Referring back to Bloom's study, we see the
power of individual tutoring coming into play. Since the
one-on-one intervention tends to focus on a topic in which
the learner really wants to learn, there tends to be a high
level of intrinsic motivation. By and large, one-on-one
inservice education in IT is highly effective.
The Future of Computers in
Education (July 1992)
The contents of the "overhead projector slides" for this
hour-length talk are given below.
Slide 1: Title
The Past, Present, and Future of Computer-related
Technology in Education:
The Best is Yet to Come
International Society for Technology in Education
University of Oregon
1787 Agate Street
Eugene, Oregon 97403
Work Phone: (503) 346-4414
Home Phone: (503) 344-3347
Fax: (503) 346-5890
Part 1: Introduction
We know that change has been occurring.
We know that the totality of human knowledge is growing
We know that the future is difficult to predict.
Part 2: Powerful Technologies
1. The automobile is an example of a "powerful technology."
2. A powerful technology, such as the automobile, can have a very
long life time.
3. A powerful technology that is widely adopted produces far
4. In retrospect, it is clear that automobile technology has had a
major impact on our schools and society.
5. It requires relatively good and careful thinking to "see"
clearly into the future as one analyzes a powerful technology.
Computers are a powerful technology.
The history of the development of computers has been relatively
Living histories have been collected.
Recently the Association for Computing Machinery helped develop a
five-part video that is really good.
As we look at some of that video, try to imagine being there at
the time of the developments being shown.
Part 3: The Present
It is not easy to "really know" the present--there is so much
This leads to narrow specialization in areas where people are
trying to do leading edge research.
It also creates a major problem for education.
- For the most part, the "real world" is interdisciplinary.
- Our educational system was not designed for rapid change.
- Our educational system is very complex and is resistant to
Part 4: The Future
Some approaches to predicting the future.
- Wishful thinking: Imagine how you would like the future to be,
and forecast that it will be that way.
- Historical: Forecast by analogy with the past.
- Delphi techniques: Facilitate knowledgeable people to work
cooperatively toward developing forecasts.
- Mathematics: Gather data representing past and present, and
extrapolate into the future.
- Megatrends: Identify major current trends and forecast that
they will continue.
Part 5: Megatrends in Computer-Related Technology in
Summary: There will be continued rapid progress in improving
student and teacher access to technology to support learning and
- Distance education will increase rapidly.
- In the area of telecommunications and electronic networking we
will see major increases in:
- Administrative support systems
- Students and teachers being part of a Global Village
- In the area of computer-integrated instruction &endash;
computer as tool to aid in problem solving &endash; we will see
continued increase in use of a balanced variety of:
- Learner-centered tools (tools, requiring some
- Subject-based tools in each discipline
- Generic tools such as word processor, databases,
- Integrated learning systems (computer-assisted learning) will
become a routine part of the instructional delivery system.
- We will see continuing movement toward merger of the
integrated learning system and the computer-integrated instruction
- Multimedia, and hyper-multimedia will have an increasing
impact on the content and pedagogy of education. Students will
increasingly be expected to be multimedia literate.
- We will see artificial intelligence, and especially expert
systems, having an increasing impact on the content and pedagogy
- Voice input systems
- Intelligent Computer-Assisted Instruction systems
- Intelligent job performance aids
- Teacher training programs will (quite likely) continue to lag
behind in preparing teachers to move into computer-rich
- There will be a gradual change in the roles that classroom
teachers play in the overall instructional delivery system.
(Teacher as facilitator--as "guide on the side.")
Part 6: Mega-megatrends
- The idea of the Accumulated Knowledge of the human race. One
solves problems by building on previous work of oneself and
- More and more knowledge will be stored in electronic
- The computer will become more and more useful in helping
one to make use of accumulated knowledge.
- The idea of use of aids to communication.
- Hypermedia in its broadest sense is "merely" an extension
of reading and writing, speaking and listening, and math.
- Hypermedia, tied in with global telecommunications and lots
of compute power, is the leading edge of a mega-megatrend.
Part 7: Conclusion
- Using a variety of techniques, we can forecast the future of
computer-related technology in education well enough to be of
considerable value to current decision makers.
- Everything that has been implemented so far in the field of
computers in education is, in total, a modest fraction of what
will transpire over the next fifty years.
- Think globally--act locally.
- Think long term--act now.
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