Home Page

 

Rationale for Instruments

Increasing ICT Expertise

Search Engines

Workshop Based on this Website.

Dave Moursund's ICT in Education Home Page

Oregon Technology in Education Council

Click here to send Email to Dave Moursund

Craft and Science of ICT in Education

This section provides a brief discussion of the Craft and Science of "traditional" teaching and learning, versus the Craft and Science of Teaching and Learning in environments that thoroughly integrate ICT.

Definition of ICT

Brief Overview of ICT in Education

The 3Rs and ICT

Craft and Science of Teaching and Learning

Final Remarks

Top of Page

Definition of ICT

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) includes the full range of computer hardware, computer software, and telecommunications facilities. Thus it includes computing devices ranging from $4 handheld calculators to multimillion dollar super computers. It includes the full range of display and projection devices used to view computer output. It includes the local area and wide area networks that allow computer systems and people to communicate with each other. It includes digital cameras, computer games, CDs, DVDs, cell telephones, telecommunication satellites, and fiber optics. It includes computerized instruments, computerized machinery, and computerized robots.

In brief summary, ICT is a huge, rapidly changing, and rapidly growing field.

Top of Page

The 3Rs and ICT

One way to understand the educational implications of ICT is to look back at the development of reading, writing, and arithmetic by the Sumerians approximately 5,000 years ago. These developments changed the world. A few of the key reasons for this are:

  • Reading and writing facilitate the accumulation of human knowledge and the transmission of this knowledge over time and distance.
  • Reading and writing are a powerful aid to the human brain.
  • Arithmetic (mathematics) helps to overcome the limited innate human capabilities in a particular area that is especially important in science, business, government and many other aspects of everyday life.

Now think about ICT in the same vein.

  • ICT facilitates the development of huge libraries (such as the Web) that can be accessed by large numbers of people, and that large numbers of people can contribute to. That is, ICT is a powerful aid to the accumulation of human knowledge in a manner that can be shared over time and distance.
  • ICT provides new forms of documents that can be "written" and "read" (developed and viewed). For example, we now have interactive multimedia.
  • ICT allows an accumulation of knowledge and skills in an "I, the ICT system, can do it for you." mode. That is, an increasing part of accumulated human knowledge and skills can be automated in a manner so that ICT systems can actually carry out some or all of the work of solving many problems and accomplishing many mental and physical tasks.

It is important to understand the close parallel between the 3Rs and ICT. ICT builds upon and extends what the 3Rs have brought to the people and societies of our world.

Top of Page

Craft and Science of Teaching and Learning

As educators, we know and understand about the Craft and Science of teaching and learning. We understand the challenges of deciding on "traditional" curriculum content, instructional processes, and assessment. We know that there is a huge amount of accumulated educational Craft and Science knowledge and skills.

Similar observations hold for ICT in education.

  • The Craft and Science of ICT in education builds upon the accumulated Craft and Science of education that has been developed during the past 5,000 years of formal educational systems. It is not being developed in a vacuum. It addresses the same problems, but it also brings new problems to the field.
  • ICT first began to enter precollege education in the late 1950s. We now have nearly 55 years of accumulated ICT in education Craft and Science knowledge and skills. There are two aspects to this:
    • There is a huge amount of ICT in education Craft and Science that is closely aligned with the non-ICT aspects of educational Craft and Science.
    • There is a Craft and Science specific to the new dimensions that ICT brings to education. This is of significant size and is steadily growing.
  • It takes a long time to adequately prepare a person to be a well qualified teacher. Nowadays, it takes approximately 12-13 years of precollege education, 4-5 years of college education, and 5-6 years of on-the-job experience that is accompanied by appropriate inservice education.
  • For a number of reasons (including the fact that ICT is not well integrated into K-12 education, college education, and into a teacher's job), we have relatively few teachers who are well qualified to work in educational environments that include the thorough integration of ICT throughout the "traditional" curriculum, instruction, and assessment. Because of the continued rapid pace of change of ICT, it will take a number of generations to solve this educational problem.

In brief summary, the Craft and Science of ICT in education is large, complex, and growing. It takes a significant amount of formal education and experience for a preservice teacher to gain a level of expertise that meets the contemporary standards being established by school districts, states, and organizations such as the International Society for Technology in Education.

Top of Page

 

Final Remarks

The general flavor of this Craft and Science of Teaching and Learning section is summarized by:

  • We expect all K-12 teachers to have a reasonably high level of expertise in the 3Rs. We cannot adequately educate K-12 students in the 3Rs by having just a few specialists in these areas, and having students go to "labs" a couple of times a week to receive instruction by these specialists. The same comment applies to college and university students and faculty.
  • If we want to prepare K-12 students, their teachers, and the teachers of teachers adequately in ICT in education, then we need all preservice teachers and all of their faculty to have a reasonable level of expertise in ICT in education. We need to integrate routine use of ICT throughout all curriculum, instruction, and assessment.
  • This will require a very long term commitment by a large number of faculty and programs of study that will extend over many decades.

Top of Page