National and Regional Standards for Topic
ICT as a discipline of study. This discipline is often
called Computer and Information Science.
Computer and Information Science (CIS) is a discipline (a
field of study, a science) that has grown up around the
theory and practice of electronic digital computers.
However, the field of CIS is much older than electronic
digital computers. For example, the U.S. Census data of 1890
was processed using punched cards and a variety of automatic
sorting and counting machines. Alan Turing produced a
mathematics paper in 1936 that provides the mathematical
underpinnings of the capabilities of computers. His
mathematical model of a computer has come to be called a
The first Computer Science Departments were started in
the late 1950s and early 1960s. The University of Oregon
started such a department in 1969, and this start date was
probably among the first 5% of currently existing Computer
Science Departments in the United States.
The International Society
for Technology in Education (ISTE) is this county's
major professional society working in the field of
Information and Communication Technology in precollege
education and teacher education. It was established in 1979
by David Moursund, and its National Headquarters are located
in Eugene, Oregon.
ISTE has developed:
The National Educational Technology Standards (NETS) for
Teachers is broken into six major components.
Click here to access a list of the six components.
By and large, the ISTE standards give short shift to the
discipline of Computer and Information Science (CIS). The
first of the six standards states:
1. TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS AND CONCEPTS.
Teachers demonstrate a sound understanding of technology
operations and concepts. Teachers:
- demonstrate introductory knowledge, skills, and understanding of concepts related to technology (as described in the ISTE National Education Technology Standards for Students);
- demonstrate continual growth in technology knowledge and skills to stay abreast of current and emerging technologies.
An examination of the profiles for students shows lsome
mention of topics commonly considered to be parts of the
field of Computer and Information Science. For example
- Item 8 in the Grades 3-5 Profiles states that
students "use technology resources (e.g., calculators,
data collection probes, videos, educational software) for
problem solving, self-directed learning, and extended
- Item 1 in the Grades 6-8 Ptoflie states that
students: "Apply strategies for identifying and solving
routine hardware and software problems that occur during
- Item 9 in the Grades 9-12 Profiles states that
students "nvestigate and apply expert systems,
intelligent agents, and simulations in real-world
It is evident that for the most part the ISTE National
Education Standards for Students focus on using computres
and place very little emphasis on understanding the
underlying field of Computer and Information Science.
Thus, we must look outside of the ISTE Standards if want
to explore possible CIS knowledge that might be appropriate
for preservice and inservice K-12 teachers. We will look
- The International Technology Education
- The Advance Placement high school course and test in
Standards of the International Technology Education
The following is quoted from the Website of the
International Technology Education Association (ITEA).
There are many definitions of technology and
many misrepresentations of what technology is meant to
be. Below you will find the terms and definitions that we
use in order to discuss this widely misunderstood term.
Technology: 1. Human innovation in action that
involves the generation of knowledge and processes to
develop systems that solve problems and extend human
capabilities. 2. The innovation, change, or modification
of the natural environment to satisfy perceived human
needs and wants.
Technological Literacy: The ability to use,
manage, understand, and assess technology.
Technology education: A study of technology,
which provides an opportunity for students to learn about
the processes and knowledge related to technology that
are needed to solve problems and extend human
ITEA lists 20 Standards for Technological Literacy.
[[[This section remains to be
AP Course and Test in Computer Science
A number of high schools offer an Advanced Placement
course in Computer Science, and many thousand students in
the U.S. take the course and the AP exam each year.
The following is quoted from the Computer
Science AP Website:
The first AP Computer Science Exam was offered
in 1984. This exam essentially covered the AP Computer
Science AB curriculum. In 1988 the original course was
renamed AB, and AP Computer Science A was introduced. A
single three-hour exam was administered; all candidates
completed the A portion of the exam and received an A
score. Those who elected to complete the entire exam
received a second score for the AB material tested. In
1992 the exam split into our present format of two
separate three-hour exams: AP Computer Science A and AP
Computer Science AB. AP Computer Science AB covers the
same content as most first-year college courses; indeed,
with a 4 or a 5 on the AP Computer Science AB Exam,
students often receive a full first-year university
computer science credit.
Both the A and the AB courses are intended to be
introductory courses in computer science. No prior
knowledge is required. However, the AB course is much
more extensive; topics covered include sequence,
repetition, conditions, functions, one- and
two-dimensional arrays, object-based classes, recursion,
pointers, dynamic memory management, linked lists, trees,
and stacks and queues. The current programming language
is C++ but will be changed to Java for the May 2004
Three of the standards that are relevant to Topic 3
2. PLANNING AND DESIGNING LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS AND
Teachers plan and design effective learning environments
and experiences supported by technology. Teachers:
- design developmentally appropriate learning opportunities that apply technology-enhanced instructional strategies to support the diverse needs of learners;
- apply current research on teaching and learning with technology when planning learning environments and experiences;
- identify and locate technology resources and evaluate them for accuracy and suitability;;
- plan for the management of technology resources within the context of learning activities;
- plan strategies to manage student learning in a technology-enhanced environment.
3. TEACHING, LEARNING, AND THE CURRICULUM.
Teachers implement curriculum plans, that include methods
and strategies for applying technology to maximize student
- facilitate technology-enhanced experiences that address content standards and student technology standards;
- use technology to support learner-centered strategies that address the diverse needs of students;
- apply technology to develop students' higher order skills and creativity;
- manage student learning activities in a technology-enhanced environment.
4. ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION.
Teachers apply technology to facilitate a variety of
effective assessment and evaluation strategies.
- apply technology in assessing student learning of subject matter using a variety of assessment techniques;
- use technology resources to collect and analyze data, interpret results, and communicate findings to improve instructional practice and maximize student learning;
- apply multiple methods of evaluation to determine students' appropriate use of technology resources for learning,communication,and productivity.