Brief History of Learning and Leading with Technology and The Computing Teacher.
Given below are some of the editorials I wrote while I was Editor in Chief of the various periodicals mentioned above. More will be added in the future.
All 54 editorials that appeared in Volume 1 # 1 (May, 1974) through Volume 12 # 9 (June,1985) were collected into a 1985 book that is available (free) online. Here is a list of those editorials. The right most numbers in this list are the page numbers from the 1985 book.
Editorial # 1. Where is Instructional Computing Headed? V1 N1 19
Guest Editorial April 1984 by Ken Komoski, Director, EPIE Institute. Note that this Editorial was in V11 N8 of The Computing Teacher and immediately followed the Equity editorial (# 44 in the above list) by David Moursund that appeared in the same issue.
Aug.-Sept. 1985. The Computer-Related Teacher Certification Problem.
October 1985. The New Wave of Educational Software . Guest Editorial. Ludwig Braun.
November 1985. High Tech/High Touch.
Dec./Jan. 1985/86. The Great Computer Drill and Practice Put-down. Guest Editorial. Merle Marsh.
February 1986. The Information Era: What Does It Mean to Education?
March 1986. Logo Revisited.
April 1986. The Two-Bit Chip.May 1986. Computer Literacy: Time for a New Direction. Guest Editorial. John Arch.
June 1986. Strategic Planning Symposium.1986-87
Aug.-Sept. 1986. The Future of Computers in Education.
October 1986. The "Right Ways" to Use Computers. (Guest Editorial by Beth Lowd.)
November 1986. The Installed Base. (With retrospective comment 8/1/05.)December/January 1986/87. The Information Explosion.
February 1987. Lower-Order and Higher-Order Skills.
March 1987. Chesslandia: A Parable.
Aug.-Sept. 1988. Education Would Be Better If .October 1988. CAI or Teachers? Not Either/Or But Both!
November 1988. Standardized Testing and Computer Assisted Instruction.
Dec./Jan. 1998/99. Problem Solving.
May 1989. Teacher Productivity Tools.
October 1989. On Being a Technology Advisor.
November 1989. Effective Inservice for Computers in Education.
March 1990. One Consequence of the Information Age.
April 1990. The Information Age: Evolutionary and Revolutionary Change.
August-Sept 1990. Letter to Students.
October 1990. Letter to Parents.
November 1990. Letter to Teachers.
Dec-Jan 1990/91. Letter to Curriculum Coordinators.
February 1991. Letter to School Administrators.
March 1991. Letter to Teacher Educators.
April 1991. Letter to Business People.
May 1991. Letter to Government Officials
August-Sept 1991. Restructuring Education for the Information Age.
October 1991. Now and 10 Years Ago.
November 1991. What is the Information Age?
Dec-Jan 1991/92. Mimetic and Transformational Approaches.
February 1992. America 2000: An Educational Strategy.
March 1992. A New Definition of Computer Literacy
April 1992. Competition.
May 1992. Measures of Success.
Aug./Sept. 1992. Buying Into the Future.October 1992. What Is a World-Class Education?
November 1992. Crossroads.
Dec./Jan. 1992/93. Empowering Teachers.
February 1993. Questioning Overly Simplistic Solutions.
March 1993. The N-percent Solution.
Aug.-Sept. 1993. Networking the World.
October 1993. A Brief Historical Analysis of Education.
November 1993. Top-down and bottom-up Educational Change.
Dec.-Jan. 1993/94. The Technology in Education Problem: Schools Can't Solve It Alone.
February 1994. Technology Education in the Home.
March 1994. Fat Pencils
April 1994. Pain Versus Gain.
May 1994. Computers and Human Intelligence.
September 1994. Progress and Evidence in Educational Technology.
October 1994. What Computer Should I Buy? What Are Your Thoughts on Donated Equipment?
November 1994. What is the Information Superhighway?
Dec./Jan. 1994/95. How Can We Make Donations Pay Off?
February 1995. Donations: Spending the Money.
March 1995. The School-Home Connection.
April 1995. Learning Software, Construction Knowledge.
May 1995. Computers and Mathematics Education
Aug.-Sept. 1995. The Basics Do Change.
October 1995. Distributed Intelligence.
November 1995. Effective Practices (Part 1): Computers in Schools.Dec./Jan. 1995/96. Effective Practices (Part 2): Productivity Tools.
February 1996. Effective Practices (Part 3): Technology-Enhanced Learning.
March 1996. Effective Practices (Part 4): Problem Solving.
April 1996. Effective Practices (Part 5): The Future.
May 1996. The Connectivity-Based Revolution.
Aug./Sept. 1996. How Long is a Cyberspace Year?
October 1996. How Many Computers Are Enough?
November 1996. Are Research Libraries Dying?
Dec./Jan.1996/97. One Trillion: Is This Number large Enough to Change Education?
February 1997. The Emerging Global Library.
March 1997. Contributing to the Global Library.
April 1997. Robert Logan's The Fifth Language.May 1997. Beyond Amplification. 1997-98.
August-Sept 1997. The Future of Information Technology in Education.
October 1997. The Growth of Instructional Technology.
November 1997. Alternate Histories.
Dec-Jan 1997/98. Professional Development
February 1998. Software Trends.
March 1998. Moore's Laws.
April 1998. Some Hidden Costs of Computers.
May 1998. Project-Based Learning in an Information Technology Environment.
August-Sept 1998. FREE is a good buy.
October 1998. Try itmaybe you'll like it
November 1998. Charter Schools.
Dec./Jan. 1998/99. Is Information Technology Improving Education?
February 1999. The Spreadsheet.
March 1999. The 15% Solution.
April 1999. Enhance your opportunities to learn: A different slant on professional development.
May 1999. IT-assisted Project-based Learning.
August-Sept 1999. Ten powerful ideas shaping the present and future of IT in education.
October 1999. Powerful Lesson Plans.
November 1999. Lifelong Learning: A Powerful Idea Shaping Education.
Dec./Jan. 1999/00. A Typical Student in 2016.
February 2000. IT as Language and Content.
March 2000. Communication in Cyberspace: Powerful Ideas Shaping Our Educational System.
April 2000. Information Appliances: Powerful Ideas Shaping Our Educational System.
May 2000. Problem Solving: Powerful Ideas Shaping Our Educational System.
August-Sept 2000. Introduction to the Science of Teaching and Learning.
October 2000. Compelling Applications.
November 2000. More About Compelling Applications.
Dec./Jan. 2000/01. Brain and Body Tools.
February 2001. The Learner and Teacher Sides of the Digital Divide.
March 2001. Creating HumanComputer Teams.
April 2001. Highly Interactive Computing in Teaching and Learning.
May 2001. Educational Innovator's Dilemma.
August-September 2001. And? And . [Note: This was the final editorial I wrote for Learning and Leading with Technology.]
Each of us will read this month's The Computing Teacher within a context that gives the issue of computers and equity a special meaning for us individually. Some of us are concerned with computer equity across schools within a county or across the entire country, others with equity within a specific school or school district, still others with equity of computer use among the disadvantaged or between the sexes. However, remember that together these separate contexts are part of a larger context and a larger issue-equity of access to education throughout our entire society. It is within this larger context of the still unresolved educational inequity throughout our entire society that the problems of inequitable access to computers for education must be acted upon and solved.
Clearly, as a society, we are not providing our students equal access to computers. If we were, a recent National Science Foundation study would not have found that 31% of the students in affluent urban areas have access to computers in schools as contrasted with only 12% of their counterparts in rural areas. Nor would it have found that disadvantaged students and females are much less likely to have ready access to computers in schools. Rural, disadvantaged, and female students have generally suffered from educational inequities throughout this country's educational history.
The undeniable truth is that the specific issue of access to computers simply reflects the long-standing historical inequities operating within American education in general. But inequity is not simply an educational problem to be solved in our schools and by educators alone: it is a societal problem that is being exacerbated by the enormous educational potential of the computer. Once we realize and decide to face this larger social truth and this broader social-educational problem, we will find that efforts to provide equitable access to computers in schools can, at best, provide only a partial solution to a problem that goes far beyond classroom walls.
To understand the broad societal dimensions of this problem, all we need do is ask: to what degree are educators responsible for-or able to do anything about:
What is an educator's responsibility in the equity issue? How educators answer this question depends on how local school administrators and school boards view their school's role in the community and in society.
If one has a view that a school's role is merely to reflect society (i.e., the status quo within the communities that make up society), then one can argue that because some parents in the society and within each local community will inevitably out-invest other parents when it comes to computers for their children, that schools, too, will inevitably reflect this discrepancy-and should take little or no responsibility for making overall (school and home) access to computers equitable for all students.
If one takes the view that schools should provide leadership in stimulating and operating cooperative school-home programs aimed at improving education for all school-aged members of the community, then one can argue that the school should provide equitable access to computers in the school and be an evolutionary force for equitable access in homes.
However, those who espouse and act on this second view are working in the face not only of the traditional interpretation of the school's role as a mirror of society, but in the face of a marketplace juggernaut driven by hundreds of millions of advertising dollars aimed at convincing parents that their child's educational success depends on that child's personal, at-home access to a computer-with no mention (quite understandably) of the equity issue.
Now, of course, one can take the position that this marketing will eventually saturate all levels of the society with home computers, just as, in time, all levels of society have become saturated with television sets. One might then argue that the problem of equity of access to computers does not need to be solved by schools stimulating and operating cooperative school-home computer programs because equity of access to computers is built into the workings of the free marketplace.
As attractive as this argument may seem, it is educationally, and therefore societally unsound because only a small portion of the potential of educational computing resides in computer hardware. The great educational value of the computer will reside in (1) high-quality software of educational merit and (2) effective educational use of such software by learners in school and particularly at home. "At home" is especially important because of the very great likelihood that market forces seem destined to succeed in providing one-to-one access to a computer for students at home long before schools can provide the same sort of one-to-one access at school-if, indeed, they may ever, or even should, do so. Recognizing this fact, schools should look to the responsibility they have to identify high-quality software that is fully integrated with the local school curriculum and facilitate parents' learning about and acquiring such software for their children's use at home. Local communities urgently need educational leadership regarding software and its use with home computers.
Educators should not only applaud but emulate those few of their colleagues who have begun to provide the educational and social leadership that is generating integrated, cooperative programs for the effective school-home use of educational computing. This sort of leadership is evidenced in three interrelated home-school education computing programs in the Houston Intermediate School District, one of which provides poverty-level families with after school parent/child training in computer use and on loan, at-home computers and software for these families. Other school districts in New York City, Ohio and California are developing similar community outreach programs. In some cases, local and state PTA's are getting involved in these efforts.
This month a national clearinghouse and electronic network to facilitate a flow of information and practices about such cooperative, school-home programs dealing with the issue of equitable access to computers is being established as part of the Excellence and Equity through Electronic Education Project funded in part by the San Francisco Foundation and coordinated by EPIE Institute. Educators who want information about what school districts are doing about computers and equity or who would like to report on what their district is doing and join an electronic network of like-minded districts, should contact: EPIE 4E Project, Richard Wenn, P.O. Box 786, Kenwood, CA 95452. Telephone 707/833-4621 or CompuServe WCC111.
[Ken Komoski, Director, EPIE Institute, Box 839, Water Mill, NY 11976.]