Planning Analysis:
Qualitative/Quantitative Research and Measurement
Concepts/Evaluation Criteria
Three Categories of Qualitative Methods
Measurement Validity
Indicator is a valid measure of a concept if it accurately measures the concept it is intended to measure. If a indicator contains little error it is valid.
Types of measurement validity:
Measurement Reliability
An indicator is reliable if it consistently assigns the same numbers to some phenomenon. For example, if you were to measure the effectiveness of the police force two different times and arrive at the same value, the indicator would be considered reliable.
Another way to define reliability is that if the values obtained are not affected by who performed the measurement, or by any other factors, then the indicator is considered reliable.
Indicators of Reliability
Measurement Scales
Hierarchy of Measurement
Measurement of Central Tendency |
|||
Level of Measurement | Mode |
Median |
Mean |
Ratio | X | X | X |
Interval | X | X | X |
Ordinal | X | X | |
Nominal | X |
Evaluation Criteria
a. This is a key step in application of the rational model
b. In short....what measures or standards are we going to use to evaluate alternative policies....operationalize definitions
c. Objectives, criteria and measures
d. Example: Efficient transportation system (objective)......Cost (criteria).....NPV (measure)
Typical critera
1. Technical feasibility
Effectiveness: Measures whether a policy or program has its intended effect
- Direct/Indirect/Induced Impacts
- Long term/Short term
Adequacy: measures whether a policy or program fully meets its stated objectives
2. Economic and Financial Possibility
Costs/Benefits: Measures whether the anticiapted costs outweigh the benefits of a policy or program
Measures:
- NPV
- Total Cost
- Total Benefit
- Spillover
3. Political Viability
Measures whether the alternative is acceptable or can be made acceptable to relevant groups
Acceptability = to actors, or are they receptive to new policies
Appropriateness - does it mesh with peoples values
Responsiveness - will the program meet the target groups needs
Legal - is it within existing law
Equity - is it fair
4. Administrative Operability
Authority
Institutional committment
Capability
Organizational support
5. Externatilities
6. Others? ... In part depends on data available...time...budget...will...role
Good Criteria Are...
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October 07, 2003