Things to think about:
- contribution of ideas
- cooperation (includes respecting, listening to other group members)
Provide justification for points you gave each group member
Turn in class after presentation
Ross, Lepper, Strack & Steinmetz, 1977
Control condition --
read Acase history,@then rate likelihood of 5 outcomes
Explanation condition (2 version) --
read same case history,then asked to explain either: suicide outcome or peace corps outcome
then told outcome actually not known
finally, rate likelihood of 5 outcomes.
Dependent Variable: likelihood rating of outcomeFound explaining an outcome increases likelihood estimate of explained outcome.
Study 2: Half subjects explain outcomes; other half explain hypothetical outcomes
Study 3: Additional outcomes tested; increases generalizability of results
To understand a statement requires temporarily believing it.
Descartes= model: Comprehend, then accept or reject
Gilbert=s/Spinoza=s model: Comprehend and accept
[possibility for interruption]
AUnbelieve,@ if necessary; ACertify@ if not.
unbelieving requires effort
Both models yield same result under ideal circumstances: reject belief
However, under non-ideal circumstances, Gilbert/Spinoza=s model predicts bias to believe.
Gilbert, Krull, & Malone (1990) -- Hopi translations studycognitive load -- condition under which people=s mental processing is taxed, usually because they are attending to an additional task.
lab manipulations (examples):
- subjects count backwards by odd number (e.g., 7)
- keep a multi-digit number in mind, or respond to a stimulus periodically.
A twyrin is a doctor.
Most errors: mistakenly called words that had been previously labelled false under cog. load as true
Wegner, Coulton, & Wenzlaff (1985) --
people influenced by information even when told in advance it is false