Bibliography in Eco-Phenomenology
Compiled by Ted Toadvine
All Corrections or Additions Welcome!
Last Updated: 4/16/01




Although I have limited my selection to works in English, a quick glance at the Philosopher's Index will show that considerable work in Ecophenomenology is already widely available in other languages. I have also not included classic works of the phenomenological tradition that are relevant to the topic, e.g., from the writings of Husserl, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty, and Levinas.
 

Abram, David. "Merleau-Ponty and the Voice of the Earth." Environmental Ethics 10, no. 2 (Summer 1988): 101-20.

------. "The Mechanical and the Organic: On the Influence of Metaphor in Science." In Scientists on Gaia, edited by Stephen Schneider and Penelope Boston. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1991.

------. "The Perceptual Implications of Gaia." The Ecologist 15, no. 3 (1985).

------. The Spell of the Sensuous: Perception and Language in a More-Than-Human World. New York: Vintage Books, 1996.

Berleant, Arnold. Living in the Landscape: Toward an Aesthetics of Environment. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1997.

Bernstein, J. M. "Re-enchanting Nature." Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 31, no. 3 (2000): 277-299.

Berthold-Bond, Daniel. "Can there be a 'Humanistic' Ecology? A Debate between Hegel and Heidegger on the Meaning of Ecological Thinking." Social Theory and Practice 20, no. 3 (1994): 279-309.

Bigwood, Carol. Earth Muse: Feminism, Nature, and Art. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993.

Borgmann, Albert. Crossing the Postmodern Divide. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.

Braine, David. The Human Person: Animal and Spirit. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1992.

Brown, Charles. "Anthropocentrism and Ecocentrism: The Quest for a New Worldview." The Midwest Quarterly 36 (Winter 1995).

------. "Humanism and the Voice of Nature: Challenges for a Universal Metaphilosophy." Dialogue and Universalism 8, no. 1-2 (1998).

Callicot, J. Baird, and Roger T. Ames, eds. Nature in Asian Traditions of Thought: Essays in Environmental Philosophy. Albany: SUNY Press, 1989.

Carter, Robert E. Becoming Bamboo: Western and Eastern Explorations of the Meaning of Life. Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press, 1992.

Casey, Edward S. Fate of Place: A Philosophical History. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.

------. Getting Back Into Place: Toward a Renewed Understanding of the Place World. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993.

Casey, Timothy. "The Environmental Roots of Environmental Activism." In Environmental Philosophy and Environmental Activism, edited by Don E. Marietta Jr. and Lester Embree, 37-49. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield, 1995.

Cave, George. "Animals, Heidegger, and the Right to Life." Environmental Ethics 4 (1982): 249-254.

Clark, David. "On being 'the last Kantian in Nazi Germany': Dwelling with Animals after Levinas." In Animal Acts: Configuring the Human in Western History, edited by Jennifer Ham and Matthew Senior. New York: Routledge, 1997.

Cohen, Robert and Alfred Tauber, eds. Philosophies of Nature: The Human Dimension. Honoring Erazim Kohák. The Hague: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998.

Colony, Tracy. "Dwelling in the Biosphere? Heidegger's Critique of Humanism and Its Relevance for Ecological Thought." International Studies in Philosophy 31, no. 1 (1999): 37-45.

Compton, John J. "On the Sense of There Being a Moral Sense of Nature." Personalist Forum 2 (1986): 38-55.

------. "Phenomenology and the Philosophy of Nature." Man and World 21, no. 1 (1988): 65-89.

Corrington, Robert S. Nature and Spirit: An Essay in Ecstatic Naturalism. Bronx: Fordham University Press, 1992.

Dauenhauer, Bernard P. Elements of Responsible Politics. Norwell: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991.

------. "Heidegger, the Spokesman for the Dweller." Southern Journal of Philosophy 15 (1977): 189-199.

Diehm, Christian. "Facing Nature: Levinas Beyond the Human." Philosophy Today 44, no. 1 (Spring 2000): 51-59.

Dreyfus, Hubert L. and Charles Spinosa. "Highway Bridges and Feasts: Heidegger and Borgmann on How to Affirm Technology." Man and World 30, no. 2 (1997): 159-177.

Embree, Lester. "The Constitutional Problematics of Non-Relativity or How to Dump Garbage in Nobody's Backyard." In Phenomenology and Skepticism: Festschrift for James M. Edie, edited by Brice R. Wachterman. Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1996.

------. "An Environmental Phenomenological Examination of Electric Vehicle Technology." In Technology and Environmental Philosophy, edited by Marina Banchetti, Lester Embree, and Don Marietta. Research in Philosophy and Technology 18 (1999): 115-130.

------. "The Non-Worldly Grounding of Environmentalism." Pondicherry University Journal of Social Science and Humanities 1 (2000).

------. "Phenomenology of Action for Ecosystemic Health or How to Tend One's Own Garden." In Environmental Philosophy and Environmental Activism, edited by Don E. Marietta Jr. and Lester Embree, 51-66. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield, 1995.

------. "The Problem of Representational Adequacy or How to Evidence an Ecosystem." In The Prism of the Self: Philosophical Essays in Honor of Maurice Natanson, edited by Steven Galt Crowell. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1995.

------. "Problems of the Value of Nature in Phenomenological Perspective or What to do about Snakes in the Grass." In Phenomenology of Values and Valuing, edited by James G. Hart and Lester Embree (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997).

Evernden, Neil. The Natural Alien: Humankind and Environment. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1985.

------. "Nature in Industrial Society." In Cultural Politics in Contemporary America, edited by Ian Angus and Sut Jhally, 151-164. New York: Routledge, 1989.

------. The Social Creation of Nature. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.

Foltz, Bruce V. Inhabiting the Earth: Heidegger, Environmental Ethics, and the Metaphysics of Nature. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1995.

------. "On Heidegger and the Interpretation of Environmental Crisis." Environmental Ethics 6, no. 4 (Winter 1984): 323-342.

Foltz, Bruce and Robert Frodeman. "Inhabiting the Earth: Heidegger, Environmental Ethics, and the Metaphysics of Nature." Environmental Ethics 19, no. 2 (1997).

Fox, Warwick. Toward a Transpersonal Ecology: Developing New Foundations for Environmentalism. Boston: Shambhala, 1990.

Fuller, Steve. "Sophist Versus Skeptic: Two Paradigms of Intentional Transaction." In Perspectives on Mind, edited by Herbert R. Otto, 199-208. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1988.

Garrard, Greg. "Heidegger, Heaney and the Problem of Dwelling." In Writing the Environment: Ecocriticism and Literature, edited by Richard Kerridge and Neil Sammells. London: Zed Books, 1998.

Glazebrook, Trish. "From physis to Nature, techne to Technology: Heidegger on Aristotle, Galileo, and Newton." Southern Journal of Philosophy 38, no. 1 (2000): 95-118.

Godway, Eleanor M. "The Being which Is Behind Us: Merleau-Ponty and the Question of Nature." International Studies in Philosophy 30, no. 1 (1998): 47-56.

Grange, Joseph. "Being, Feeling, and Environment." Environmental Ethics 7 (1985): 351-364.

------. "On the Way Towards Foundational Ecology." Soundings 60, no. 1 (1977).

Haar, Michel. The Song of the Earth: Heidegger and the Grounds of the History of Being. Translated by Reginald Lilly (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993).

Hallman, Max. "Nietzsche's Environmental Ethics." Environmental Ethics 13, no. 2 (Winter 1991): 99-125.

Ham, Jennifer. "Taming the Beast: Animality in Wedekind and Nietzsche." In Animal Acts: Configuring the Human in Western History, edited by Jennifer Ham and Matthew Senior. New York: Routledge, 1997.

Hart, James and Lester Embree, eds. Phenomenology of Values and Valuing. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997.

Higgs, Eric, Andrew Light, and David Strong, eds. Technology and the Good Life? Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.

Holden, Meg. "Phenomenology Versus Pragmatism: Seeking a Restoration Environmental Ethic." Environmental Ethics 23, no. 1 (2001): 37-56.

Holland, Nancy J. "Rethinking Ecology in the Western Philosophical Tradition: Heidegger and/on Aristotle." Continental Philosophy Review 32 (1999): 409-420.

Holler, Linda D. "In Search of a Whole-System Ethic." Journal of Religious Ethics 12 (1984): 219-239.

Howarth, Jane M. In Praise of Backyards: Towards a Phenomenology of Place. Lancaster: Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, 1996.

------. "The Crisis of Ecology: A Phenomenological Perspective." Environmental Values 4, no. 1 (1995): 17-30.

Howe, Lawrence W. "Heidegger's Discussion of 'The Thing': A Theme for Deep Ecology." Between the Species 9, no. 2 (1993): 93-96.

Ihde, Don. Technology and the Lifeworld: From Garden to Earth. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.

------. "Whole Earth Measurements: How Many Phenomenologists Does It Take to Detect a 'Greenhouse Effect'?" Philosophy Today 41 (1997): 128-134.

Jackson, Arthur F. "Nature and Human Nature in an Existential Perspective." Contemporary Philosophy 18, no. 4-5 (1996): 3-6.

James, Simon P. "Thing-Centered Holism in Buddhism, Heidegger, and Deep Ecology." Environmental Ethics 22, no. 4 (2000): 359-376.

Jonas, Hans. The Phenomenon of Life: Toward a Philosophical Biology. New York: Harper and Row, 1966.

Jung, Hwa Yol. "The Orphic Voice and Ecology." Environmental Ethics 3 (1981): 329-340.

Klaver, Irene J. "The Implicit Practice of Environmental Philosophy." In Environmental Philosophy and Environmental Activism, edited by Don E. Marietta Jr. and Lester Embree, 67-78. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield, 1995.

------. "Silent Wolves: The Howl of the Implicit." In Wild Ideas, edited by David Rothenberg. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1995.

Kohák, Erazim. "Of Dwelling and Wayfaring." In The Longing for Home, edited by Leroy Rouner, 30-46. Notre Dame: Notre Dame University Press, 1977.

------. The Embers and the Stars: A Philosophical Inquiry into the Moral Sense of Nature. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984.

------. "Forest Lights: Notes on the Conceptualization of the Unconscious." Journal of Religion and Health 22, no. 1 (Spring 1983): 49-57.

------. The Green Halo: A Bird's Eye View of Ecological Ethics. Chicago: Open Court, 2000.

------. "Human Rights and Nature's Rightness." Lyceum 2, no. 2 (Fall 1990): 22-36.

------. Idea and Experience: Husserl's Project of Phenomenology in Ideen I. Chicago: University of Chgicago Press, 1982; 2d. ed., 1985.

------. "Knowing Good and Evil." Husserl Studies 10, no. 1 (Summer 1993): 31-42.

------. "Of Marmots, Beavers and Architects." In The Yearbook of the Czech Chamber of Architects, edited by Petr Bílek, 25-28. Prague: eská komora architekt, 1999.

------. "The Phenomenology of Nostalgia." Terra Nova 2, no. 1 (December 1996): 6-14.

------. "Red War, Green Peace." In Ethics and Environmental Policy, edited by Frederick Ferré and Peter Hartel, 163-77. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1994.

------. "Sigmund Freud by Moonlight." Journal of Religion and Health 19, no. 4 (Winter 1980): 260-67.

------. "Speaking to Trees." Critical Review 6, no. 2-3 (Summer 1993): 371-88.

------. "Transcendental Experience, Everyday Philosophy." In Transcendental Philosophy and Everyday Experience, edited by Tom Rockmore and Vladimír Zeman, 43-51. Newark, N.J.: Humanities Press, 1997.

------. "Transitions: The Ploughman, The Pilgrim and the Distressed Conqueror." Transitions, a thematic issue of The Psychoanalytic Review 81, no. 1 (Spring 1994): 101-27.

------. "Varieties of Ecological Experience." Environmental Ethics 19 (Summer 1997): 153-171.

Kolb, David. "Home on the Range: Planning and Totality." Research in Phenomenology 22 (1992): 3-11.

Kress, J. "From Metaphysics to Inhabitation. Review of Inhabiting the Earth: Heidegger, Environmental Ethics, and the Metaphysics of Nature by Bruce Foltz." Research in Phenomenology 26 (1996).

La Chapelle, Dolores. Earth Wisdom. Los Angeles: Guild of Tutors Press, 1978.

Langer, Monika. "Merleau-Ponty and Deep Ecology." In Ontology and Alterity in Merleau-Ponty, edited by Galen A. Johnson and Michael B. Smith, 115-129, 192-197. Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1990.

Leiss, William. "Husserl and the Mastery of Nature." Telos 5 (1970): 82-97.

Light, Andrew and Jonathan M. Smith, eds. Space, Place, and Environmental Ethics. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 1997.

Lingis, Alphonso. The Community of Those who have Nothing in Common. Bloomington: Northwestern University Press, 1994.

------. The Imperative. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998.

Llewelyn, John. "Am I Obsessed by Bobby? (Humanism of the Other Animal)." In Re-Reading Levinas, edited by Robert Bernasconi and Simon Critchley, 234-245. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991.

------. The Middle Voice of Ecological Conscience: A Chiasmic Reading of Responsibility in the Neighbourhood of Levinas, Heidegger and Others. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991.

------. "Ontological Responsibility and the Poetics of Nature." Research in Phenomenology 19 (1989): 3-26.

Malpas, J. E. Place and Experience: A Philosophical Topography. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Manes, Christopher. "Philosophy and the Environmental Task." Environmental Ethics 10 (1988): 75-82.

Marietta Jr., Don E. "The Concept of Objective Value." In Phenomenology of Values and Valuing, edited by James G. Hart and Lester Embree. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997.

------. "Decisions Regarding Technology: The Human Factors." In Technology and Environmental Philosophy, edited by Marina Banchetti, Lester Embree, and Don Marietta. Research in Philosophy and Technology 18 (1999): 57-72.

------. "Environmental Holism and Individuals." Environmental Ethics 10 (Fall 1988).

------. "Knowledge and Obligation in Environmental Ethics: A Phenomenological Approach." Environmental Ethics 4, no. 2 (Summer 1982): 153-162.

------. For People and the Planet: Holism and Humanism in Environmental Ethics. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1994.

------. "Phenomenology and Ecofeminism." In Phenomenology of the Cultural Disciplines, edited by Mano Daniel and Lester Embree. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994.

------. "World Views and Moral Decisions: A Reply to Tom Regan." Environmental Ethics 2 (1980): 369-372.

Marietta Jr., Don E., and Lester Embree, eds. Environmental Philosophy and Environmental Activism. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield, 1995.

Macauley, David, ed. Minding Nature: The Philosophers of Ecology. New York: The Guilford Press, 1996.

Marangudakis, Manussos. "Ecology as a Pseudo-Religion?" Telos 112 (1998): 107-124.

Maxcy, David J. "Meaning in Nature: Rhetoric, Phenomenology, and the Question of Environmental Value." Philosophy and Rhetoric 27, no. 4 (1994): 330-346.

McWhorter, Ladelle, ed. Heidegger and the Earth: Essays in Environmental Philosophy. Kirksville, MO: Thomas Jefferson University Press, 1992.

Melle, Ullrich. "Ecology." In Encyclopedia of Phenomenology, edited by Lester Embree et. al., 148-152. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997.

------. "How Deep is Deep Enough? Ecological Modernization or Farewell to the World-City?" In Environmental Philosophy and Environmental Activism, edited by Don E. Marietta Jr. and Lester Embree, 99-123. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield, 1995.

------. "Nature and Spirit." In Issues in Husserl's Ideas II, edited by Thomas Nenon and Lester Embree. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996.

------. "Philosophy and Ecological Crisis." In Phenomenology of the Cultural Disciplines, edited by Mano Daniel and Lester Embree, 171-191. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994.

Moran, Dermot. "Towards a Philosophy of the Environment." In Educating for Environmental Awareness, edited by John Feehan, 45-67. Dublin: University College Dublin Environmental Institute, 1997.

Naess, Arne. Ecology, Community, and Lifestyle: Outline of an Ecosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

------. "The World of Concrete Contents." Inquiry 28 (1985): 417-428.

Nuyen, A. T. "A Heideggerian Existential Ethics for the Human Environment." Journal of Value Inquiry (1991): 359-366.

Oddie, Richard. "The Living Tissue: Environmental Phenomenology and Acoustic Ecology." Call to Earth 2, no. 1 (March 2001).

Oelschlaeger, Max. The Idea of Wilderness. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991.

------, ed. Postmodern Environmental Ethics. Albany: SUNY Press, 1995.

Ogawa, Tadashi. "Qi and Phenomenology of Wind." Continental Philosophy Review 31, no. 3 (1998): 321-335.

Peperzak, Adriaan. "Levinas on Technology and Nature." Man and World 25 (1992): 469-482.

Polk, Danne W. "Gabriel Marcel's Kinship to Ecophilosophy." Environmental Ethics 16, no. 2 (1994): 173-186.

Rodick, David. "Poetic Dwelling and Deep Ecology: Bill McKibben and Martin Heidegger on The End of Nature." Call to Earth 2, no. 1 (March 2001).

Russon, John. "Embodiment and Responsibility: Merleau-Ponty and the Ontology of Nature." Man and World 27, no. 3 (1994): 291-308.

Sakakibara, Tetsuya. "The Relationship between Nature and Spirit in Husserl's Phenomenology Revisited." Continental Philosophy Review 31, no. 3 (1998): 255-272.

Sallis, John. Force of Imagination: The Sense of the Elemental. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2000.

------. "Levinas and the Elemental." Research in Phenomenology, 28 (1998): 152-159.

------. Stone. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994.

Sanders, John T. "Affordance: An Ecological Approach to First Philosophy." In Perspectives on Embodiment: The Intersections of Nature and Culture, ed. Gail Weiss and Honi Fern Haber. New York: Routledge, 1999.

Santoni, Ronald E. "On the Existential Meaning of Violence." Dialogue and Humanism 3, no. 4 (1993): 139-150.

Schalow, Frank. "Who Speaks for the Animals? Heidegger and the Question of Animal Welfare," Environmental Ethics 22, no. 3 (Fall 2000): 259-272.

Schultz, Robert C. and Donald J. Hughes, eds. Ecological Consciousness. Washington: University Press of America, 1981.

Seamon, David, ed. Dwelling, Seeing, and Designing: Toward a Phenomenological Ecology. Albany: SUNY Press, 1993.

Seamon, David and Robert Mugerauer, eds. Dwelling, Place, and Environment: Towards a Phenomenology of Person and World. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff, 1985.

Seamon, David and Arthur Zajonc, eds. Goethe's Way of Science: A Phenomenology of Nature. Albany: SUNY Press, 1998.

Seidel, George J. "Heidegger: Philosopher for Ecologists?" Man and World 4 (1971): 93-99.

Sessions, George. "Spinoza and Jeffers on Man in Nature." Inquiry 20 (1977): 481-528.

Sinha, Amita, ed. Landscape Perception. London: Academic, 1995.

Steelwater, Eliza. "Mead and Heidegger: Exploring the Ethics and Theory of Space, Place, and Environment." In Philosophy and Geography I: Space, Place, and Environmental Ethics, edited by Andrew Light. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 1997.

Steeves, H. Peter, ed. Animal Others: On Ethics, Ontology, and Animal Life. New York: State University of New York Press, 1999.

Strong, David. Crazy Mountains: Learning from Wilderness to Weigh Technology. Albany: SUNY Press, 1995.

Taylor, Charles. "Heidegger, Language, and Ecology." In Heidegger: A Critical Reader, edited by Hubert Dreyfus and Harrison Hall, 247-69. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1992.

Thiele, Leslie Paul. "Nature and Freedom: A Heideggerian Critique of Biocentric and Sociocentric Environmentalism." Environmental Ethics 17 (1995): 171-90.

------. Timely Meditations: Martin Heidegger and Postmodern Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995.

Toadvine, Ted. "Ecophenomenology in the New Millenium." In The Reach of Reflection: Issues for Phenomenology's Second Century, edited by Stephen Galt Crowell and Lester Embree. Boca Raton: Center For Advanced Research in Phenomenology, Inc., 2001.

------. "Naturalizing Phenomenology." Philosophy Today 43, SPEP Supplement (1999): 124-131.

Tymieniecka, Anna-Teresa, ed. Phenomenology of Man and the Human Condition. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1983.

Ulanowicz, Robert E. Growth and Development: Ecosystems Phenomenology. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1986.

Van Der Veken, Jan. "Merleau-Ponty and Whitehead on the Concept of Nature." Interchange 31, no. 2 (2000): 319-334.

Vogel, Lawrence. "Does Environmental Ethics Need a Metaphysical Grounding?" Hastings Center Report 25, no. 7 (1995): 30-39.

West, Richmond. "Can We Really Cope with Creatures? 'Dasein' and Animality in Heidegger." Contemporary Philosophy 20, no. 1-2 (1998): 38-44.

Westra, Laura. "Let It Be: Heidegger and Future Generations." Environmental Ethics 7, no. 4 (Winter 1985): 341-350.

Zimmerman, Michael. "Beyond 'Humanism': Heidegger's Understanding of Technology." Listening 12 (1977): 74-83.

------. Contesting Earth's Future: Radical Ecology and Postmodernity. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1994.

------. "Deep Ecology." In Encyclopedia of Phenomenology, edited by Lester Embree et. al., 137-141. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997.

------. "Ecofascism: A Threat to American Environmentalism?" In The Ecological Community, edited by Roger S. Gottlieb , 229-254. New York: Routledge, 1997.

------. "Feminism, Deep Ecology, and Environmental Ethics." Environmental Ethics 9 (Spring 1987).

------. "Heidegger, Buddhism, and Deep Ecology." In The Cambridge Companion to Heidegger, edited by Charles Guignon. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

------. Heidegger's Confrontation with Modernity: Technology, Politics, Art. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.

------. "Implications of Heidegger's Thought for Deep Ecology." The Modern Schoolman 64 (November 1986): 19-43.

------. "Martin Heidegger: Anti-Naturalistic Critic of Technological Modernity." In Ecological Thinkers, edited by David Macauley. New York: Guilford, 1995.

------. "Marx and Heidegger on the Technological Domination of Nature." Philosophy Today 23 (1979): 99-112.

------. "Philosophical Reflections on Reform vs. Deep Environmentalism." The Trumpeter 3, no. 4 (Fall 1986).

------. "Rethinking the Heidegger-Deep Ecology Relationship." Environmental Ethics 15, no. 3 (Fall 1993): 195-224.

------. "Some Important Themes in Current Heidegger Research." Research in Phenomenology 7 (1977): 259-281.

------. "Technological Culture and the End of Philosophy." Research in Philosophy & Technology 2 (1979): 137-146.

------. "Toward a Heideggerean Ethos for Radical Environmentalism." Environmental Ethics 5, no. 3 (Summer 1983): 99-131.