K. M. Cooper, A. Krieg, and S. E. Brownell, Who perceives they are smarter? Exploring the influences of student characteristics on student academic self-concept in physiology
Confidence as a Predictor Abstracts
From the article: Academic self-concept is one’s perception of his or her ability in an academic domain and is formed by comparing oneself to other students. As college biology classrooms transition from lecturing to active learning, students interact more with each other and are likely comparing themselves more to other students in the class. Student characteristics can impact students’ academic self-concept; however, this has been unexplored in the context of undergraduate biology. In this study, we explored whether student characteristics can affect academic self-concept in the context of an active learning college physiology course. Using a survey, students self-reported how smart they perceived themselves to be in the context of physiology relative to the whole class and relative to their groupmate, the student with whom they worked most closely in class. Using linear regression, we found that men and native English speakers had significantly higher academic self-concept relative to the whole class compared with women and nonnative English speakers. Using logistic regression, we found that men had significantly higher academic self-concept relative to their groupmate compared with women. Using constant comparison methods, we identified nine factors that students reported influenced how they determined whether they were more or less smart than their groupmate. Finally, we found that students were more likely to report participating more than their groupmate if they had a higher academic self-concept. These findings suggest that student characteristics can influence students’ academic self-concept, which in turn may influence their participation in small-group discussion and their academic achievement in active learning classes.
J. Gutbezahl, How negative expectancies and attitudes undermine females' math confidence and performance: a review of the literature
This preprint is a literature review on how negative expectancies and attitudes undermine females’ math confidence and performance. Contains a long list of references.
J. S. Hyde, E. Fennema, M. Ryan, L. A. Frost, and C. Hopp, Gender comparisons of mathematics attitudes and affect: a meta-analysis
This is a report on the authors' meta-analyses on the effects of gender differences in attitudes on mathematics performance. On the whole, effect sizes were small. Some differences in attitudes were observed and the differences seemed to increase with the age of the students. Includes: Gender differences on scales of math attitudes/affect as function of age. (table); Magnitude of gender differences on other scales of math attitudes/affect. (table); Gender differences in mathematics attitudes/affect, combining scales. (table); Gender differences in mathematics anxiety as function of selectivity. (table); Studies of gender differences in mathematics attitudes and affect. (table)
K. Kay and S. Shipman, The Confidence Gap
Evidence shows that women are less self-assured than men—and that to succeed, confidence matters as much as competence. Here's why, and what to do about it.
D. J. Stipek and J. H. Gralinski, Gender differences in children's achievement-related beliefs and emotional responses to success and failure in mathematics
Includes: Mean scores for pretest questions, by grade and gender. (table); Mean attribution scores by outcome and gender. (table); Mean scores for pride, shame, and desire to hide paper, by grade and gender. (table); Mean scores for avoidance wishes and expectations for future math tests. (table); Path analyses. (chart)