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Publications: Fairness in Testing

  1. Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education (2004) prepared by the Joint Committee on Testing Practices
  2. Aronson, J., M.J. Lustina, C. Good, K. Keough, C.M. Steele and J. Brown, When White Men Can't Do Math: Necessary and Sufficient Factors in Stereotype Threat, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 35,(1999), 29-46.
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  3. Cohen, G. L., Garcia, J., Apfel, N., Master, A., Reducing the racial achievement gap: a social-psychological intervention, Science (journal) 313 (5791)(September 2006), 1307-1310.
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  4. Connor, K., Vargyas, E. J., The Legal Implications of Gender Bias in Standardized Testing, Berkeley Journal of Gender, Law & Justice, Vol. 7, Issue 1 (2013), Article 2. Download pdf file
  5. Dar-Nimrod, I. and Heine, S. J., Exposure to Scientific Theories Affects Women’s Math Performance, Science 20 October 2006: Vol. 314. no. 5798, p. 435
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  6. C. Goldin and C. Rouse, Orchestrating Impartiality: The Impact of “Blind” Auditions on Female Musicians, The American Economic Review, 90 no. 4 (2000), 715-741.
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  7. Gonzales, P.M., Blanton, H., and Williams, K.J. The effects of stereotype threat and double-minority status on the test performance of Latino women. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28 (2002), 659-670.
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  8. Hunter, J. E., Schmidt, F. L., Racial and gender bias in ability and achievement tests: Resolving the apparent paradox, Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, Vol 6(1), Mar 2000, 151-158.
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  9. Keller, J., Blatant Stereotype threat and women’s math performance: Self-handicapping as a strategic means to cope with obtrusive negative performance expectations. Sex Roles, 47 (2002), 193-198.
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  10. Keller, J. & Dauenheimer, D., Stereotype threat in the classroom: Dejection mediates the disrupting threat effect on women’s math performance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29 (2003), 371-381.
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  11. Langenfeld, T. E., Test Fairness:Internal and External Investigations of Gender Bias in Mathematics Testing, Educational Measurement:Issues and Practice, Vol. 16, Iss. 1 (1997), 20-26.
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  12. Linn, M. and Kessel, C., Test bias, In Judith Worrell (Editor in Chief), Encyclopedia of Women and Gender Academic Press, (2001), 1129-1140.
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  13. Linn, M. and Kessel, C., Gender and assessment, In Carol Goodheart & Judith Worell (Eds.), Handbook of girls’ and women's psychological health: Gender and well-being across the life span. New York: Oxford University Press, (2005).
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  14. Martensa, A., Johnsa, M. Greenberga, J., and Schimelb, J., Combating stereotype threat: The effect of self-affirmation on women’s intellectual performance, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 42, Issue 2 (2005), pp. 236-243
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  15. McCornack, R.L., McLeod, M.M., Gender Bias in the Prediction of College Course Performance, Journal of Educational Measurement, Vol. 25, No. 4 (1988) pp. 321-331.
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  16. Shepard, L. , Camilli, G. , & Averill, M., Comparison of procedures for detecting test-item bias with both internal and external ability criteria, Journal of Educational Statistics, 6(4) (1981), 317-375.
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  17. Shepard, L., Camilli, G., & Williams, D., Accounting for statistical artifacts in item bias research. Journal of Educational Statistics, 9(2) (1984), 93-128.
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  18. Shih, M., Pittinsky, T.L., & Ambady, Stereotype Susceptibility: Identity Salience and Shifts in Quantitative Performance, N., Psychological Science, Vol. 10, No. 1 (1999), pp. 80-83.
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  19. Spencer, S.J., Steele, C.M., & Quinn, D.M. Stereotype threat and women’s math performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35 (1999) 4 - 28.
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  20. Steele, C.M., & Aronson, J. Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African-Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69 (1995), 797-811.
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  21. Walton, G. M. and Cohen, G. L., Stereotype Lift, J. of Experimental Social Psychology, 39 (2003), 456-467.
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  22. Walton, G. M. and Spencer, S. J., Latent Ability: Grades and Test Scores Systematically Underestimate the Intellectual Ability of Negatively Stereotyped Students, Psychological Science 20 no. 9 (2009), 1132-1139.
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