Covalent bonding - electrons being shared
The octet rule can be used to rationalize why certain compounds are stable. For instance, we used Lewis dot structures and the octet rule to rationalize the chemical formula for the compounds of oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon with hydrogen: H2O, H3N, H4C, respectively.
We also learned about the difference between single (one pair of shared bonding electrons), double (two pairs), and triple (three pairs) bonds.
For instance carbon monoxide has a triple bond:
Note: when you have a molecule you do say "di", "tri" for the oxide. For instance, carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) vs. iron(II)chloride (FeO) and iron(III)chloride (Fe2O3).
Shapes of molecules:
We can use Lewis structures and valence electron structures to understand the shapes of molecules.
H2 - easy - linear
More complex molecules:
Rule: electron pairs (shared bonding and unshared non-bonding) repel each other. Molecules adjust their shape so that bonds (single, double and triple) and lone pair electrons are as far away from each other as possible.
The number of atoms bonded to a particular atoms + the number of lone pair electrons on that atom determine its shape:
Two: linear arrangement of bonds and lone pairs
Three: trigonal planer arrangement of bonds and lone pairs
Four: tetrahedral arrangement of bonds and lone pairs
The shapes of Water H2O, Ammonia NH3 and methane CH4. All have four pairs of valence electrons (divided among bonding and non-bonding electron pairs)
When referring to their electron pairs, they are all tetrahedral: If we focus on the atoms only, however, we see that the molecules differ in shape.
Bond polarity and electronegativity:
The electrons in many bonds are unevenly shared between the two atoms involved. One atom often attracts the lion's share of the electrons. A bond in which such uneven sharing of electrons occurs is termed a polar covalent bond.
The polar covalent bond is an intermediate between a purely covalent bond and an ionic bond.
The ability of an atom to attract an electron is termed its electronegativity.
Compare F and C
fluorine's electrons are held tighter than carbons - F is more "electronegative" than carbon
electronegativity - ability of an atom to attract electrons to itself in a covalent bond.
Scale: no units, F = 4.0 (Table 5.5), higher value, more electronegative
Scales like ionization energy (why?)
Bond polarity - when the electron pair is unequally distributed between two atoms - the difference in electronegativity of the atoms involved determines how equal the sharing is:
If the electronegativity difference is >2.1, the bond is generally considered ionic.
HF has a polar covalent bond:
it is said to have a dipole moment
Polar molecules (not bonds): molecules with a net dipole moment
For more than 2 atoms, we must look at the shape to determine polarity.
H2O - OH bonds are polar covalent bonds (electronegativity difference of 1.4) as shown in black. The sum of the two results in a net dipole moment shown in red. Electrons are pulled towards oxygen leaving H atoms more exposed.
If H2O was linear, IT IS NOT LINEAR, the bond dipoles would cancel and the molecule would not be polar.
DEMO- bending a stream of water.
Why molecules form liquids, solids, or gases, why oil and water don't mix, depends on polarity of molecules. Oil is non-polar, water is polar (like dissolves like)
Weak forces between molecules (holds molecular liquids and solids together)
1. Dipole interactions - attractions between polar molecules
Hydrogen bonding - special type, particularly important in water. Gives water many of its special properties.
2. Dispersion forces - very weak. sloshing of electrons create temporary dipole moments. Why non-polar molecules condense
Putting it all together - dissolution of a salt: