
Review topicsChapter 7: States of matter 1. understand why gases are considered to be kinetic and how the kinetic energy of gases changes with temperature 2. know what absolute zero is on the centrigrade and fahrenheit temperature scales 3. Understand pressure, the units used to measure pressure 4. Understand STP, Avogadro’s hypothesis and the molar volume of a gas 5. Be able to calculate the mass, volume or number of molecules of a gas sample at STP given the other two quantities. 6. understand Dalton’s law and partial pressures 7. know and be able to use the different gas laws involving pressurevolume (Boyle’s law), temperaturevolume (Charles’ law), temperaturepressure, and the general gas law. 8. understand vapor pressure and know how to explain how a change in temperature alters the vapor pressure of a liquid 9. know boiling point, normal boiling point and melting point and explain how these vary with the strength of intermolecular forces 10. know what heats of vaporization, condensation, fusion and solidification means Chapter 8 – water and aqueous solutions 1. understand the concept of hydrogen bonding between water molecules 2. know the unique properties of water that result from hydrogen bonding between molecules. 3. know what is meant by a solution, an aqueous solution, a solute and a solvent. 4. Understand the process of solvation and be able to explain the statement “like dissolves like” 5. know the difference between electrolytes and nonelectrolytes 6. understand the following: saturated solution, solubility, unsaturated solution, supersaturated solutions, solubility of gases in liquids, Henry’s law. 7. know the units of concenration and be able to use these to determine the percent volume/volume, percent mass/volume and molarity 8. know what is meant by ppm and ppb Chapter 9 – acid and base chemistry 1. understand the Arrhenius and BronstedLowry definitions of acids and bases 2. understand the difference between strong and weak acids, as well as strong and weak bases. 3. understand the selfdissociation of water 4. know the difference between monoprotic and diprotic acids 5. know the meaning and uses of the ion product constant of water K_{w } 6. know the meaning of the terms acidic, neutral and basic in terms of concentration of [H^{+}]. 7. know how to use the pH scale and interconvert [H^{+}] and pH; [OH^{}] and pOH 8. understand neutralizations and the stoichiometry of neutralizations 9. understand how buffers work and how they are used. About the Exam A. Multiple Choice  22 questions (88 points) The three chapters we have covered since the last examination cover a wide range of calculations. Consequently, the examination will have a relatively large number of calculations. To help you prepare, I have generated a list of some calculations you will very likely be asked to do: 1. Calculate the molarity of a solution given mass of moles of solute and volume of solution 2. A dilution calculation (for example, calculate the molarity of a solution after it is diluted, or calculate the amount of a solution of given molarity that must be added to a specified amount of water to achieve a specified molarity) 3. Calculate pH, given [H^{+}] or [H^{+}] given pH 4. Calculate [OH^{}] given [H^{+}] or pH 5. Use one of the gas laws relating PT, VT, or PV, or the combined gas law to calculate pressure, temperature of volume. E.g. the pressure of a gas initially with a volume of 2L is doubled at constant temperature; what is the final pressure of the gas 6. Calculate mass or volume of solute given, respsectively, mass/volume percent or volume / volume percent. 7. Use Dalton’s law of partial pressures 8. Calculate the normality of an unknown solution given its volume and the amount of acid or base of known normality that must be added to neutralize it. 9. Calculate the volume of a gas at STP or the number of moles of a gas given the volume at STP. 10. Calculate the volume of a product generated by the reaction of a given number of moles or liters of reactant. B. Written portion (12 points) The written portion of the exam will focus on what buffers are and how they work. It will likely ask you to write down chemical equations that show how buffers neutralize added acid or base. C. Information in
addition to a periodic table that will be provided for the exam.
I will take suggestions via email for things to be added to this list through Wednesday, Nov 10 at 5:00pm. Note: The better you understand the meaning and origin of the equations and information below, the better you will do on the exam! 760 mm Hg = 1 atm STP = 1 atm, 273K At STP, the molar volume of a gas is 22.4 L N_{A} = 6.02 x 10^{23} P_{1}V_{1} / T_{1} = P_{2}V_{2} / T_{2} PV = nRT, R = 0.0821 L atm mol^{1 }K^{1} % (v/v) = 100 x volume of solute (mL) / volume of solution (mL) %(w/v) = 100 x mass of solute (g) / volume of solution (mL) ppm = 10^{6 }x g solute / g solution (for water, ppm = mg solute / L solution) ppb = 10^{9} x g solute / g solution (for water, ppb = mg solute / L solution) M_{1}V_{1} = M_{2}V_{2} N_{1}V_{1} = N_{2}V_{2} N_{acid}V_{acid} = N_{base}V_{base } K_{W} = 1x10^{14} 