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Multiple Choice (80 points)

Chapter 10

Make sure you understand the nomenclature carbon-14, uranium-238, etc...  The number after the elements name indicates the number of neutrons plus protons (the mass number) with the number of protons, of course, being given by the elements name.  In other words

uranium-238 means 

1. Understand and know the characteristics of the following types of radiation: alpha particle, beta particle, gamma ray, x-ray

2. Be able to “balance” nuclear equations

(a) Given a radioisotope and the type of radiation produced, determine the element formed

(b) Given the isotope formed and type of radiation formed, determine the radioisotope that formed them

(c) Given a radioisotope and the isotope it decays to, determine the type of radiation produced

3. Understand the concept of 1/2 life

4. Understand the concepts of carbon-14 dating

5. Understand the following terms: fission, fusion, chain reaction, transmutation

6. Understand ionizing radiation and the mechanism by which it causes biological damage, the importance of free radical formation

7. Understand the biological effects of radiation

8. Understand the difference between the curie, roentgen, rad and rem.

9. Understand what a radioactive tracer is and how it is used in medicine.

10. Understand why certain atomic nuclei are unstable.

 

Chapter 11

 1. Understand the terms hydrocarbon, alkane, alkene, alkyne, cycloalkane, aromatic, aliphatic compounds, arenes, saturated, unsaturated.

2. Isomers: geometric, structural

3. Understand bonding in hydrocarbons: double bonds, single bonds, sigma bonding orbitals, pi  bonding orbitals, sp3 hydrid, sp2 hybrid, sp hybrid, resonance hybrid, aromaticity

4. Be able to name linear and branched alkanes.  To aid you in naming a variety of compounds, I will provide the names of the linear alkanes ranging from one carbon to ten carbons (Table 11.1 without the boiling point information)

5. Be able to draw the structural formula of alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and cycloalkanes given their name. 

Extra Material not covered in Chapter 11

1. Be able to recognize the functional groups that define the following classes of organic compounds: alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, amines, and esters.

2. Be able to identify which class of organic compounds various molecules belong to based on their name.  For instance that 3-hexanone is a ketone. 

  Written Portion  (20 points)–

The first part of the written portion of the exam will ask you to name a branched alkane and to draw the structural formula for a branched alkane or alkene given its name:

The second part will focus on one of the scientific or medical uses of radioisotopes.  You should understand how radioisotopes are used in medicine and how carbon-14 dating works.