The following enumerates the principle acts of anti-Jewish legislation promulgated at various levels of authority—local, state, national—between 1933 and 1942. This list is only a sampling and should not be considered comprehensive. The events highlighted in red are included to provide historical context.
January 30: Hitler is appointed Chancellor.
February 28: “Reichstag Fire Decree”.
March 5: Reichstag Elections.
March 22: The state of Saxony forbids kosher butchering
March 22: Dachau concentration camp is founded.
March 23: The Enabling Act.
April 1: Nation-wide boycott against Jewish businesses.
April 1: The Minister of Justice decrees that in the interest of public order, legal documents drawn up or certified by Jewish notaries must be respected; Jewish notaries are ordered to refrain from exercising their office until further notice.
April 7: The Civil Service Law introduces the so-called “Aryan clause” and expels Jews from the civil service. An exception is made for veterans of the Great War (the “Hindenburg Exception”) and for civil servants who lost a father or a son at the front.
April 10: The Law on the Admission to Legal Practice forbids the admission of Jews to the legal profession; Jews already admitted can be expelled if they had been active communists. The law explicitly exempts lawyers who fought in World War I or who lost a father or son at the front.
April 11: The First Executive Order on the Civil Service Law defines “non-Aryan” to mean descent from one or more “non-Aryan” grandparent; the law implies that grandparents are to be considered Jewish if they practiced the Jewish religion. Furthermore, the obligation to prove “Aryan” descent is extended to anyone who took up civil service after 1 August 1914, unless that person served at the front in World War I or is the son or father of someone who was killed at the front. The order also gives the Interior Ministry jurisdiction over “doubtful” cases of Aryan descent.
April 13: The Bavarian Ministry of Justice decrees that jurors who are of Jewish descent will not be permitted to attend sessions in grand juries or criminal sessions, and will be replaced by alternates who are not disqualified on these grounds.
April 18: The Prussian Ministry of Justice forbids the promotion of Jews in judicial service.
April 22: The Reich Ministry of Labor excludes Jewish physicians from employment with public health insurance offices.
April 23: The Law on the Admission to the Practice of Patent Law forbids the admission of Jews; like the Law on Admission to Legal Practice (10 April 1933), this also exempts war veterans and the survivors of war dead.
April 25: A Law Against Overcrowding in German Schools and Universities introduces a quota on admissions of Jewish students; the quota is not to exceed a the proportion of “non-Aryans” in relation to the total population of Germany. If the percentage of “non-Aryans” in a particular school or university exceeds 5 percent, the number of “non-Aryans” students may be reduced to that percentage; pupils and students whose fathers faught in the war are exempted, as are the offspring of marriages between an “Aryan” and a “non-Aryan,” or if two of the grandparents were “Aryan.”
April 26: The First Executive Order on the Law Against Overcrowding in German Schools and Universities sets the nation-wide admissions quota for Jews at 1.5%; pupils and students who have entered school at the beginning of the academic year 1933 shall in all cases be regarded as not yet admitted.
May 4: The Second Executive Order on the Civil Service Law terminates the service contracts of non-salaried Jewish employees of the state, effective 1 July 1933.
May 5: The state of Bavaria excludes Jews from honorary posts in Courts of Arbitration.
May 5: The state church of Thuringia forbids intermarriage between the races.
May 6: The Third Executive Order on the Civil Service Law expels “non-Aryan” honorary professors, untenured junior professors, and notaries, and also forbids any advancement of Jews protected under the “Hindenburg Exception.”
May 6: The Law on the Admission of Tax Consultants bans the admission of “non-Aryan” tax consultants.
May 31: The Prussian Ministry of Justice forbids Jewish attorneys to serve as public defenders for an “Aryan” client.
June 2: Reich Ministry of Labor excludes Jewish dentists and dental technicians from employment with public health insurance offices.
June 22: The Social Democratic Party is banned.
June 30: The Law on Modifying Legal Procedures Pertaining to Civil Service Pay and Pensions excludes the admission of candidates for civil service who are married to “non-Aryans.”
July 14: All political parties but the NSDAP are banned.
July 14: The Law on the Revocation of Naturalization and the Denial of Citizenship (“Denaturalization Law”) revokes the citizenship of naturalized Jews.
July 14: Law for the Confiscation of Property of Enemies of the State and the People.
July 14: The Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring establishes procedures for the involuntary sterilization of persons deemed to carry certain congenital diseases
July 14: The Reich Cabinet issues Guidelines for the Distribution of Public Contracts stipulates preference for “Aryan” bidders, but in view of the unemployment problem does not exclude “non-Aryan” contractors.
July 26: The First Executive Order on the Denaturalization Law identifies Eastern European Jews (Ostjuden) as targets of denaturalization.
August 7: Members of the military are forbidden to marry Jews and “non-Aryans”.
September 5: The Old Prussian Union—the largest Protestant church association in Germany—adopts the “Aryan clause.”
September 17: Establishment of the Reich Council of German Jews (Reichsvertretung der deutschen Juden).
September 22: All “Aryan” writers and artists are required to enroll with the Reich Chamber of Culture; Jews are excluded from membership in it.
September 29: The Hereditary Farm Law (Erbhofgesetz) prohibits Jews from owning a farm.
October 4: The Law on Editors (Schriftleitergesetz) imposes the “Aryan clause” on editorial positions.
October 9: The state of Saxony excludes Jews from initial qualifying state examinations for the legal profession.
November 23: The Law Against Abuses in Marriage and Adoption nullifies marriages concluded solely for the purpose of enabling the woman to change her name; adoptions are nullified in cases where important considerations militate against the formation of a familial bond—with the implicit aim of preventing “interracial” marriages and adoptions.
January 11: The Prussian Ministry of Education forbids Jews and “non-Aryans”
from receiving doctoral degrees.
January 19: The state of Thuringia forbids Jews from any role in legal proceedings.
February 5: Jews are forbidden to take state examinations in medicine.
February 9: The state of Thuringia excludes all Jews—including those covered by the “Hindenburg Exception”—from the profession of dental technician.
April 5: The Reich Examination Ordinance for Physicians, Dentists, and Apothecaries makes admission to qualifying examinations, practial training, and approbation contingent on the “national and moral reliability of the candidate”.
April 20: Like Thuringia, the state of Saxony excludes all Jews from the profession of dental technician.
April 24: The Saxon Ministry of Justice forbids Jewish lawyers to serve as public defender for an “Aryan” client.
May 6: The “Aryan clause” is applied to civil servants employed by the Military (Reichswehr).
May 17: The Reich Ministry of Labor issues a Decree on Admissions for Physicians withdraws public health insurance coverage from the services of “Aryan” physicians who are married to “non-Aryans”.
June 22: The Reich Judicial Education Ordinance (Justizausbildungsordnung) excludes “non-Aryans” nation-wide from initial qualifying state examinations for the legal profession, following the Saxon model of 9 October 1933.
June 30: “Night of the Long Knives”
August 18: The Prussian Ministry of Education limits the number of “non-Aryan” students enrolling in trade and business schools.
August 2: Death of President Paul von Hindenburg.
August 31: Acting in his capacity as Hitler’s personal representative, Rudolf Hess forbids lawyers belonging to the NSDAP to represent Jews in court.
December 2: The Reich Attorneys’ Ordinance (Reichs-Rechtsanwaltsordnung) reiterates the existing ban againt the admission of Jews into the legal profession and forbids Jews to carry the title of attorney-at-law (Rechtsanwalt).
December 8: The Reich Interior Ministry issues a new Reich Examination Ordinance for Apothecaries that excludes “non-Aryans” from qualifying state examinations, making the Thuringian model of February 9 binding nation-wide.
December 10: The Prussian Ministry of Justice decrees that no Jewish attorneys can serve as public defender for an “Aryan” client.
December 13: The Reich Habilitation Ordinance (Habilitationsordnung) makes proof of “Aryan” ancestry a qualification for tenure at universities.
January 13: The Saar Plebiscite.
February 5: The Reich Interior Ministry issues an Ordinance to Modify Examination Ordinance for Physicians and Dentists, which excludes “non-Aryans” from qualifying state examinations, expanding the national policy already established for apothecaries.
February 13: The Third Executive Order on the Admission of Physicians and Dentists to Public Health Insurance withdraws public health insurance coverage from the services of “Aryan” dentists who are married to “non-Aryans”.
February 21: A Gestapo circular forbids Jews to raise the swastika flag.
March 27: The Ministry of Education withholds from Jews all benefits unless they have been provided to “Aryan” pupils first.
April 7: New Guidelines on the Granting of Apothecary Concessions have the practical effect of excluding Jews from this profession.
April 24: Newspaper editors are required to show proof of “Aryan” descent back to 1800.
April 27: The Interior Ministry gives its approval to the Gestapo's ban against Jews raising the swastika banner (February 21).
May 21: The Army Law (Wehrgesetz) expels Jews and “non-Aryans” from the officer corps.
June 26: Jews are excluded from the Reich Labor Service.
July 25: An Executive Order on the Army Law limits the obligation of military service to “Aryans.”
August 6: All Jewish writers and artists must join the Reich Association of Jewish Cultural Unions.
August 18: Justices of the peace are forbidden to marry “Aryans” with “non-Aryans.”
September 6: Jewish newspapers may sell only to subscribers.
September 15: The Reich Citizenship Law withdraws citizenship from Jews and places them in a second-class category of “dependents of the state” (Staatsangehörige).
September 15: The Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor forbids marriage and sexual relations between “Aryans” and “non-Aryans”.
September 28: The Reich Finance Ministry makes the receipt of child support monies contingent on Reich citizenship—as “dependents of the state,” Jews are excluded.
September 28: The Health Division within the Reich Interior Ministry extends the existing restrictions on admissions examinations for apothecaries to “non-Aryan” pharmacy candidates.
September 30: The Reich Interior Ministry orders the dismissal of all civil servants having three or four Jewish grandparents—a modification of the Civil Service Law in light of the Reich Citizenship Law that effectively suspends the “Hindenburg exception”.
October 30: The Commander of State Political Police Forces forbid Jews to work under pseudonyms “because it might facilitate the camouflage” of a Jewish name.
November 6: The Congress of German Municipalities (Deutscher Gemeindetag) adopts the Reich Interior Ministry's interpretation of Reich Citizenship Law (September 30) and applies it to municipal civil servants.
November 14: The First Executive Order on the Reich Citizenship Law withdraws voting rights from Jews; it also repeals the “Hindenburg exception” to the Civil Service Law, forcing all Jewish civil servants into compulsory retirement; and it provides a legal definition for the racial categories of “Aryan,” Jew, and Mischling. This decree also adds a distinction between racial Jews and those who count as Jews (Geltungsjuden). The latter included (1) Mischlinge with two Jewish grandparents who belonged to a Jewish religious community when the Reich Citizenship Law was promulgated, (2) Mischlinge who are married to “full Jews.”
November 21: The Reich Ministry of Justice requires “proof of Aryan blood” of all notaries and their spouses.
December 5: The Reich Education Ministry forbids “non-Aryans” to train for occupation of swimming instructor.
December 9: The Reich Interior Ministry announces the imminent dismissal of all remaining Jewish civil servants.
December 12: The Reich Education Ministry excludes “non-Aryans” from the study of theology.
December 13: The Reich Physicians Law withholds official recognition from new physicians who are not “Aryan”.
December 14: An Interior Ministry circular orders all local and regional bureaus to cease dismissal proceedings against “half-Jewish” civil servants.
December 21: The Second Executive Order on the Reich Citizenship Law determines that only persons considered “full Jews” under the terms of the Reich Citizenship Law are to be dismissed from civil service; the law implicitly exempts “half-Jewish” civil servants and persons related by marriage to Jews.
January 7: Jews are forbidden to wear the Sportabzeichen—a civilian
decoration for athletic accomplishment.
January 11: An Executive Order on the Reich Tax Law forbids Jews and other “non-Aryans” to serve as tax consultants.
January 13: The Reich Ministry of the Economy forbids Jews to take part in the sale of medals and honorary insignia.
February 10: The Political Police of the State of Württemberg forbids Jews to purchase weapons.
March 26: Jews are excluded under the Ordinance on the Administration and Lease of Public Apothecaries.
March 7: Occupation of the demilitarized Rhineland.
March 7: The Law on Reichstag Elections limits electoral rights to citizens.
April 3: The Reich Veterinarians Ordinance withholds official appointments from Jews and other “non-Aryans,” as well as from “Aryans” married to “non-Aryans”.
April 6: The Reich Interior Ministry excludes Jews from the profession of translator.
July 7: Under the Ordinance on Certified Public Accountants, Jews may no longer enter the profession.
June 15: Mischlinge are permitted to enter the profession of apothecary.
July 16: Jews are excluded from the profession of public construction specialist.
June 26: A new Army Law upholds the exclusion of “full Jews” from military service, but requires it of both first and second degree Mischlinge; these, however, may not extend their military service beyond one tour of duty and may not become officers.
June 29: An Ordinance on the Currency Speculation Counseling Business forbids Jews to act as currency speculation consultants.
August: Sachsenhausen concentration camp is founded.
October 6: Civil servants seeking medical coverage cannot present diagnoses by Jewish physicians of chronic medical conditions.
October 15: The Reich Ministry of Education imposes a professional ban against Jewish teachers and forbids private instruction by Jews.
November 20: The Reich Labor Ministry reduces the state pensions of “non-Aryan” retirees.
November 24: Jews are forbidden to study for the profession of archivist.
December 1: Enacting legislation to real estate tax law establishes the principle of inequality between Germans and Jews.
December 7: Germans in mixed marriages (Mischehen) are forbidden to raise the national flag.
January 1: The Reich Ministry of Finances terminates all payments to
dismissed Jewish civil servants who have not yet reached the age of 35.
January 25: At the instigation of the secret police, the Reich Ministry of Justice instructs tax offices to inform the Gestapo of all real estate sales made by Jews.
January 26: A Decree on the Cattle Trade limits the activities of “non-Aryan” cattle merchants.
February 5: According to an Executive Order on the Reich Hunting Law, Jews may be denied a hunting license on the grounds of race alone .
February 13: The Reich Notary Law forbids the admission “non-Aryans” candidates to the profession.
April 15: The Reich Ministry of Education forbids the granting of doctoral degrees to Jews.
May 4: The First Executive Order on the Reich Air Defense Law exempts Jews from the duty to serve.
June 11: Jews are forbidden to submit amicus curiae briefs in court.
July 2: Jewish pupils are no longer permitted to take the Abitur examination in the presence of “Aryan” students.
July 15: Buchenwald concentration camp is founded.
July 28: The Reich Ministry of the Interior places limits on the activities of Jewish chimney-sweeps.
August 7: According to a decree of the Reich Ministry of the Interior, adoptions are forbidden if one of the two parties is a German or second-degree Mischling and the other party a “full Jew” or first-degree Mischling.
August 10: A decree of the Reich Ministry of the Interior forbids Mischlinge to change their names.
September 23: Jewish firms are forbidden to participate in the production of “People's Receivers” (Volksempfänger).
November 4: The Reich Ministry of Justice forbids Jews to give the “German Greeting” at court sessions.
November 5: A Law Concerning Legal Constraints on Inheritance Due to Behavior Contrary to the Common Good permits the disinheritance of German offspring who enter marriages with “non-Aryans.”
November 16: The Reich Ministry of the Interior forbids the issue of foreign travel visas to Jews.
January 5: The Law on the Alteration of Family and Personal Names
enables the authorities to revoke name changes that had been approved prior
to 30. January 1933 and empowers the Reich Minister of the Interior to
decree procedures for changing one's name.
January 20: Jews are banned from the profession of land surveyor.
February 1: The Law to Modify Income Tax Law removes tax exemptions for Jewish children.
February 3: The state of Prussia withdraws support payments for Jewish schoolchildren.
February 5: The Fourth Law to Modify the Law on the Profession of Auctioneer eliminates Jews and other “non-Aryans.”
February 10: The Reich Finance Ministry removes tax exemptions for Jewish children as they pertain to wage and corporate taxes.
February 14: The Reich Ministry of the Economy excludes Jews from electrical and natural gas cooperatives.
March 1: Public contracts may no longer be granted to Jews.
March 12-13: Annexation of Austria.
March 15: Hitler personally forbids Jews in the former Austria to take oaths of allegiance to his name.
March 18: The Gun Law (Waffengesetz) excludes Jews from owning or selling guns.
March 20: The totality of anti-Jewish law is extended to the territory formerly belonging to Austria.
March 24: Jews are forbidden to conduct research in public archives.
March 28: A Law on the Legal Circumstances of Jewish Religious Associations removes their status as corporations under public law, but also imposes a requirement that all decisions they take pertaining to institutional change are subject to ratification by public authorities.
March 28: As private corporations, all Jewish congregations are subjected to property tax, retroactive to 1 January 1938.
April 21: The First Executive Order on the Law on the Alteration of Family and Personal Names forbids Jews to name changes in which a “Jewish” name is exchanged for a different one.
April 22: The Decree Against Abetting the Camouflage of Jewish Firms applies, in effect, the ban on name changes to Jewish businesses.
April 23: Buildings belonging to Jewish congregations are subjected to a building tax.
April 26: The Decree on the Disclosure of Jewish Assets requires Jews to report all property in excess of RM 500 in value.
April 26: Jews are required to receive advance permission for all legal dealings with “Aryans.”
May 3: Flossenbürg concentration camp is founded.
May 12: The state of Saxony withdraws support payments for Jewish schoolchildren.
May 19: The First Executive Order on the Law on Civil Status (Personenstandgesetz) stipulates that Jews may no longer serve as witnesses to marriage.
May 21: The Association of Medical Boards orders the exclusion of Jewish physicians from all forms of public health care.
May 31: The Decree on the Restoration of the Austrian Civil Service dismisses civil servants who are Jewish, Mischlinge, or who are married to a Jew.
June: Mauthausen concentration camp is founded.
June 1: All tax exemptions for Jewish schools are suspended.
June 14: The Third Executive Order on the Reich Citizenship Law defines what constitutes a “Jewish” firm, requires their registration and authorized their public identification, to be carried out by the Reich Ministries of the Interior and the Economy.
June 20: Jews are forbidden to buy, sell, or trade in the stock market.
July 6: Under the Law to Adjust the Industrial Code, “non-Aryans” may no longer function as real estate or marriage brokers, may no longer negotiate loans, and are excluded from the tourism and securities trades.
July 11: The Reich Ministry of the Interior bans Jews from health spas.
July 23: All Jews are required apply to the police for an identity card before 31 December 1938.
July 25: The Fourth Executive Order on the Reich Citizenship Law forbids the appointment of any new Jewish physicians after 30 September 1938.
July 27: The Reich Ministry of the Interior requires all streets bearing Jewish names to be changed.
July 31: Under the Law on the Composition of Wills and Testaments, “Aryans” may no longer bequeath property to Jews.
August 17: The Second Executive Order on the Law on the Alteration of Family and Personal Names requires all Jewish women not having discernibly “Jewish” names to adopt the middle name “Sara”; all Jewish men not having discernibly “Jewish” names are required to adopt the middle name “Israel,” effective 1 January 1939. These name-changes are to be added retroactively to parish and civil registries.
August 17: The Reich Ministry of the Interior publishes a catalogue of discernibly “Jewish” names, male and female.
August 27: The Reich Postal Ministry forbids Jews to send advertising through the mail.
September 27: Under the Fifth Executive Order on the Reich Citizenship Law, all Jewish attorneys-at-law are disbarred.
September 28: The First and Second Executive Orders on the Nursing Profession (Krankenpflegerverordnung) excludes all “non-Aryans,” except for Jews working in Jewish clinics.
September 29-30: The Munich Conference.
October 1-10: Occupation of Czechoslovakia.
October 3: The Decree on the Confiscation of Jewish Property delineates procedures for the “Aryanization” of Jewish businesses.
October 5: The Decree Concerning the Travel Visas of Jews requires that they be stamped with the letter “J” for Jude.
October 6: Jews are required to obtain permission to receive health insurance coverage for services performed by Jewish physicians.
October 31: The Sixth Executive Order on the Reich Citizenship Law bars Jews from acting as patent attorneys.
November 9-10: The “Night of Broken Glass”
November 10: Reichsführer-SS Himmler orders the confiscation of all weapons in the possession of Jews.
November 11: A Decree on Weapons in the Possession of Jews legalizes Himmler's action of the previous day.
November 11: The Reich Minister of Education instructs the rectors of all university to prevent Jewish students from setting foot on campus.
November 12: Hermann Göring announces a Decree on Reparations Payments by Jews of German Statehood imposes a fine of RM 1 billion on German Jewry to cover the costs of damage inflicted in the “Night of Broken Glass.”
November 12: The insurance accounts of all Jews are seized.
November 12: The Reich Ministry of Justice issues a Decree on the Restoration of Streets Near Jewish Businesses compels Jews repair all damages inflicted during pogrom of November 9-10.
November 12: The Decree on the Exclusion of Jews from German Economic Life closes all Jewish firms and businesses, dismisses all Jewish shop stewards, and excludes Jews from all cooperative associations.
November 15: The Reich Ministry of Education expels all Jewish children from public schools.
November 19: The Reich Ministry of the Interior issues a Decree on Public Welfare for Jews which eliminates their access to welfare institutions.
November 23: An Executive Order on the Decree on the Exclusion of Jews from German Economic Life stipulates the immediate liquidation of all retail shops owned by Jews.
November 28: The Reich Ministry of the Interior restricts the freedom of movement of Jews.
December 3: An Executive Order on Decree on Reparations Payments establishes guidelines for the expropriation of capital owned by Jews; Jews must surrender all stocks and other promisory notes; Jews are forbidden to pawn, sell, or acquire jewels, precious metals, or pearls.
December 3: Jews are compelled to surrender their drivers’ licenses.
December 5: The Seventh Executive Order on the Reich Citizenship Law further reduces the pensions of expelled Jewish civil servants.
December 8: Jewish students are expelled from German universities.
December 14: The Executive Order on the Law on the Organization of National Work rescinds all state contracts with Jewish firms, replacing them with “Aryan” businesses.
December 21: The Law on Midwives (Hebammengesetz) bans all “non-Aryans” from the profession.
January 17: The Eighth Executive Order on the Reich Citizenship Law
expels all Jewish dentists, dental technicians, veterinarians, apothecaries,
homeopaths, and nurses.
January 17: “Non-Aryans” are forbidden to enter certain hotels or to travel in sleeping-cars.
January 17: The state seizes all Jewish patent rights.
January 24: The Reich Central Office for Jewish Emigration is established.
January 29: Jews are forbidden to lease hunting rights.
February 6: The Reich Ministry of the Economy orders the cooperation of state and party offices in “Aryanization” procedures.
February 17: A Law to Modify Income Tax Law puts Jews in the highest income tax bracket, regardless of actual income.
February 18: The First Executive Order on the Exercise of the Healing Professions makes “Aryan” blood a rerequisite for admission to practice, even though the Fourth Executive Order on the Reich Citizenship Law (25 July 1938) has already excluded Jews from the practice of medicine.
February 21: Decree Concerning the Surrender of Precious Metals and Stones in Jewish Ownership: Jews must surrender all jewelry and precious metals.
March 29: Jews living in the Sudetenland or the Protectorat of Bohemia and Moravia are forbidden to acquire German nationality.
April 30: The Law Concerning Rental Relations with Jews removes rent control protection from apartments held by Jews and removes them “Aryan” apartment buildings into “Jew-Houses” (Judenhäuser).
May 5: The Ninth Executive Order on the Reich Citizenship Law extends to the newly incorporated provinces of Austria all laws pertaining to race.
May 19: Ravensbrück concentration camp is founded.
June 19: The Ministry of the Interior promulgates a new Reich Ordinance on Physicians (Reichsärtzeordnung), which codifies the exclusion, already accomplished, of Jews from the professions of physician, dentist, veterinarian, and apothecary.
July 4: The Tenth Executive Order on the Reich Citizenship Law establishes the Reich Association of Jews in Germany, under Gestapo oversight; all provisions under national and state law concerning school attendance by Jews are suspended; the Association is ordered to erect its own school system. The Association is placed under the auspices of the Chief of the Security Service (Reinhard Heydrich). With this order, SS control over Jewish affairs is largely completed.
July 22: The state of Thuringia excludes “non-Aryans” from the job of swimming instructor.
August 30: The costly and time-consuming process of documenting “Aryan” descent is simplified for soldiers wishing to marry.
September 1: Invasion of Poland.
September 1: Stutthof concentration camp is founded.
September 1: Jews are excused from participation in air defense.
September 6: The Gestapo forbids all unauthorized attacks against Jews.
September 7: The Gestapo suspends unauthorized local restrictions on Jews, such as curfews, the confiscation of radios, etc.
September 9: Under the Reich Labor Service Law, Mischlinge remain subject to the obligation to serve.
September 10: In his capacity as Chief of German Police, Heinrich Himmler instructs Jewish congregations to prepare their own air defense cellars; on the same day, Himmler secretly orders a 10:00 p.m. curfew for Jews.
September 23: Jews are ordered to surrender all radios.
September 29: Mischlinge in the Military and in the Reich Labor Service may not assume positions of authority.
September 30: Jews are forbidden to train for higher office in the forestry administration.
October 7: Heinrich Himmler is annointed Reich Commissar for the Consolidation of the German People (Reichskommissar zur Festigung deutschen Volkstums), with competence to regulate ethnic redistribution in conquered and annexed territories of eastern Europe.
October 19: The Second Executive Order on the Decree on Reparations Payments by Jews of German Statehood increases by 25% the 1 billion Reichsmark reparation payment announced on 12 November 1938.
October 24: The Third Executive Order on Fire Bridages expels Jews from volunteer fire departments.
October 26: A general labor obligation is decreed for Jews in occupied Poland.
October 30: As Reich Commissar for the Consolidation of the German People, Himmler orders the expulsion of Jews and Poles from territories newly annexed to Germany and their deportation to a reservation between the Vistula and Bug rivers. This deportation is to occur between November 1939 and February 1940.
November 15: The First Executive Order on the Infant- and Child-Care Professions excludes Jews from the practice.
November 20: Jews are forbidden to purchase new radios.
November 23: The Governor General (Generalgouverneur) of occupied Poland, Hans Frank, announces the obligation of all Jews to wear the Star of David on all outer garments.
November 25: The Reich Ministry of Justice instructs probate courts of guardianship (Vormundschaftsgerichte) to keep a special records of all Jewish or Mischlinge wards of the state.
November 25: Jews living in the newly annexed eastern territories are forbidden to acquire German nationality.
December 2: The Reich Food and Agriculture Ministry forbids the sale of chocolate products to and cakes of all kinds to Jews.
January 20: The Military High Command determines that “Aryans” in marriages
to Jews or Jewish Mischlinge may advance to the rank of Field Sergeant.
January 23: Jews are receive no ration cards for yarn, shoes, and leather products.
January 26: Jews living in occupied Poland are forbidden to travel by rail; the assets of Jews in occupied Poland are confiscated.
February 12: The Reich Ministry of Justice orders the confliscation of property belonging to resident Jews of foreign nationality and not covered under the Decree on the Exclusion of Jews from German Economic Life 12 November 1938).
February 17: The First Executive Order on the Profession of Medical Technician excludes Jewish women.
February 29: The Reich Ministry of Education excludes Jews from careers in library administration (a redundant regulation).
March 11: The Reich Food and Agriculture Ministry decrees that ration cards belonging to Jews shall be stamped with the letter “J”.
April 6: Governor General Hans Frank determines that in occupied Poland, anyone with two or more Jewish grandparents and is married to a Jews will be considered Jewish—a regulation that departs from the norm of racial classification established under the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor (i.e., the Nürnberg Race Laws).
April 8: Mischlinge who are married to Jews or first-degree Mischlinge are dismissed from military service.
April 9: Invasion of Denmark and Norway.
April 29: The Reich Interior Ministry orders that special marriage registers shall be maintained for Jews.
May 10: Invasion of the Low Countries and France.
May 20: Auschwitz (I) concentration camp is founded.
June 6: The Decree Introducing German Penal Law to the Annexed Eastern Territories establishes a special penal code for Jews and Poles living there; Jews and Poles are threatened with the death sentence for acts of violence against members of the German military, the SS, the Reich Labor Service, German administrative offices or personnel, for incitement to disobedience, arson, and possession of a weapon or explosives.
June 28: Jews are excluded from the Reich Air Defense Association (Reichsluftschutzbund).
July 4: The Berlin police permits Jews to shop only between the hours of 4:00 and 5:00 pm. Anyone with “J”-stamped ration cards are considered Jewish for the purposes of this regulation.
July 6: Jews are excluded from any role the administrative of public veterinary services (a restriction redundant of earlier decrees).
July 24: Under pressure from the Reich Interior Ministry, Governor General Frank brings race law in occupied Poland into conformity with the standard prevailing in Germany proper.
July 29: Telephone connections belonging to Jews are severed.
August 1: A Decree Concerning Proof of Aryan Ancestry simplifies administratively burdensome tasks of documenting racial descent.
August 2: Gross-Rosen concentration camp is founded.
August 5: According to a Decree to Impose a Social Equalization Payment requires a supplemental income tax payment from Jews, irrespective of nationality.
August 8: Jews may not dispose of money or other property deposited with credit institutions without prior permission; Jews may only use their accounts for the payment of taxes, reparations, etc.
September 10: Legal protections for landlords and tenants are withdrawn from Jews living in Munich and Berlin.
September 17: A Decree on the Treatment of Property Belonging to Dependents of the Former Polish State effectively legalizes the confiscation of property belonging to Jews resident in the annexed eastern territories.
September 17: The Seventh Executive Order on Fire Bridages expels Jews from profession of firefighter.
October 22-23: 6,500 Jews are deported from Baden and the Palatinate to Vichy France.
December 16: Mischlinge in military who have distinguished themselves for personal bravery in the face of the enemy may at Hitler's wish be declared “Aryan.”
December 16: Only Mischlinge who have already completed military service may matriculate at German universities; second-degree Mischlinge are to be admitted on general principles.
December 20: The parents of first- and second-degree Mischling children no longer receive child-support payments.
January 8: Reinhard Heydrich orders the deportation of 90,000 Jews from
the Warthegau, one of the Polish regions annexed to Germany in 1939.
February 24: Acting on Law for the Confiscation of Property of Enemies of the State and the People (14 July 1933), the RSHA orders the confiscation of all property belonging to Jews living in the annexed eastern territories who had committed or been convicted of a crime.
March 4: Jews are conscripted into compulsory labor service.
April 22: Acting on Hitler's instructions, the Reich Armaments Ministry forbids the transfer of Jews from Eastern Europe to Germany for use as labor.
May 1: Natzweiler concentration camp is founded in Alsace.
May 20: The Reich Security Main Office issues an edict banning the emigration of Jews from German territory to France and Belgium.
June 22: Invasion of the Soviet Union.
September 1: The RSHA decrees that all Jews aged six or older are forbidden to appear in public without a yellow Star of David patch sewn to their outer garments. Jews are also forbidden to appear in public wearing military decorations or other insignia; they are also forbidden to leave their place of residence without permission from local police authorities; the decree is published on September 9.
September 16 The Sixth Executive Order on the Law on Midwives excludes all first- and second-degree Mischlinge from the profession.
September 18: The Reich Transportation Ministry decrees that Jews must obtain a police permit to use taxis, hired cars, or steamers; Jews are forbidden to use sleeping cars or restaurants on excursion vehicles or ships; Jews are forbidden to use trams, buses, and local trains if a large crowd is already on board; Jews may only use third-class seating on trains.
September 30: The Reich Ministry of the Economy decrees that Jewish children shall be allotted high quality soap up to the end of their first year; adult male Jews shall no longer received shaving soap.
October: Lublin-Majdanek concentration camp is founded.
October 1: Jews are forbidden to leave the country.
October 3: A Decree on the Employment of Jews is signed by Göring as Reich Commissar for the Four Year Plan; it denies Jews any claim to salary during sickness or vacations; employers are permitted to terminate Jews with twenty-four hours' notice; Jews may not work as apprentices. The decree is published on November 4.
October 24: Order Police Chief Kurt Daluege commands the “evacuation” of 50,000 Jews from Germany to Minsk and Riga in the occupied Soviet Union.
November 25: The Eleventh Executive Order on the Reich Citizenship Law enables the authorities to terminate the pensions and confiscate the property belonging of all Jews who have been deported, on the grounds that they have transferred their normal residence abroad. From this date forward, the Security Police need only assert that a Jew maintains her/his “normal residence” in a foreign country to seize all her/his property.
November 26: Auschwitz (II) Birkenau concentration camp is founded.
December 3: Jews are required to contribute to the costs of their own deportation, in an amount not less than 25% of liquid assets.
December 7: All income tax abatements on the grounds of excessive taxation are withdrawn from Jews.
December 11: Declaration of War against the United States.
December 12: Jews are forbidden the use of public telephones.
December 16: The Decree on Penal Law for Jews and Poles in the Annexed Eastern Territories is published; it effectively enables German courts to punish virtually any misdeed with the death penalty.
January 7: Jews are no longer permitted to teach in horticulture schools.
January 15: The Gestapo stages a nation-wide confiscation of wool and fur clothing in the possession of Jews.
January 20: The Wannsee Conference concerning the “Final Solution to the Jewish Problem”.
January 31: The Decree to Augment the Decree on Penal Law for Jews is made retroactive for crimes committed prior to 16 December 1939.
February 15: Jews are forbidden to possess newspapers or news journals.
March 13: Chief of Security Police Heydrich requires Jews to identify their residences with a yellow Star of David.
March 24: According to instructions from the Interior Ministry, Jews must obtain permission from the police to use transportation within their communities of residence; permission is granted only to workers who must travel seven kilometers one way and to Jewish schoolchildren who must travel ten kilometers each day, round trip.
March 25: Jews are not permitted to resign membership in a Jewish congregation without permission from the Interior Ministry.
March 29: An Interior Ministry decree permits first-degree Mischlinge who have experience difficulty marrying full Jews to proceed with marriage.
May 12: Jews are forbidden to get their hair cut by “Aryan” barbers and hair stylists.
May 15: Jews are forbidden to own pets.
June: Through Martin Bormann, Hitler forbids any public discussion of the “Jewish Question.”
June 6: The Ministry of Transportation bans Jews from waiting rooms, taverns, and other establishments maintained by transportation businesses.
June 11: Jews no longer receive ration cards for tobacco and eggs.
June 12: Jews are required to surrender all electrical and optical gadgets, bicycles, and typing machines.
June 20: Schools maintained by the Reich Association of Jews are closed.
July 1: All formal and informal instruction by Jewish teachers is forbidden.
July 25: The Reich Finance Ministry determines that Jews shall receive no tax deduction for costs incurred by changing residence to avoid bomb damage.
August 11: The Interior Minister instructs all subordinate authorities to enforce rigorously a provision of administrative law that bans any German married to a second-degree Mischling from the civil service.
August 17: The Interior Minister suspends all pending petitions for exemption on Hitler's authority from the Reich Citizenship Law.
September 1: The Reich Propaganda Ministry requires Jews to pay use fees for radios; but Jews have longs since been deprived of them.
September 9: All first-degree Mischlinge are expelled from universities.
September 15: The Military High Command dismisses all first-degree Mischlinge from active duty.
September 18: The Reich Minister of Justice, Thierack, orders all Jews, Gypsies, Russians and Ukrainians in criminal detention to be released and delivered to the Security Police.
September 19: The RSHA determines that first-degree Mischlinge may be de-naturalized if they display a hostile attitude toward the German state; second-degree Mischlinge may be de-naturalized for any violation of duties to “the People and the Reich.”
October 9: Jews may not visit “Aryan” bookstores.
October 19: Jews are forbidden to receive rations for meat, wheat-products and milk; Jewish children receive no rations for honey or cocoa; supplemental rations for sick or feeble Jews are withheld; food shipments from abroad are deducted from their allottment of ration cards.
November 21: All first-degree Mischlinge are expelled from private schools.
November 22: The Sixth Army is encircled at Stalingrad.
December 21: A Decree on Welfare for Needy Jews effectively imposes compulsory membership in the Reich Association of Jews.
February 7: Jewish women are excluded from the profession of lying-in
April 21: The Reich Ministry of Education forbids first-degree Mischlinge to attend night-school.
April 25: The Twelfth Executive Order on the Reich Citizenship Law establishes the legal norm—by now wholly superfluous—that Jews, first-degree Mischlinge, and Gypsies may not hold German citizenship.
July 1: The Thirteenth Executive Order on the Reich Citizenship Law decrees that all punishable acts by Jews shall be prosecuted solely by the police; Jews are thus placed entirely under the jurisdiction of the Security Police. The decree also stipulates that at death, a Jew's personal property falls to the state unless non-Jewish survivors are present.
August 31: The exclusion of Jews from the Reich Air Defense Association (Reichsluftschutzbund) is codified under the Ninth Executive Order to Modify the Air Defense Law.
October 11: First-degree Mischlinge are forbidden to attend occupational training schools.
March 9: Jews, Mischlinge, and persons related by marriage to
Jews are forbidden to assist in air defense activities.
June 20: The Military High Command releases all second-degree Mischlinge from active duty.
October 26: The Army Personnel Office announces that all officers who are first-degree Mischlinge or are married to one will be dismissed from service, effective 31 December 1944.
September 1: Himmler delegates the investigation of tax evasion by Jews to financial authorities.
November 2: In his last personal intervention concerning the “Jewish Question,” Hitler orders the expulsion from civil service any remaining Mischlinge or persons married to Jews or Mischlinge.
November 25: The Interior Ministry orders that a copy of any Jew's death certificate should be filed with financial authorities.
January 26: Himmler orders all remaining Mischlinge to be conscripted for labor.