Module Number: EU20

Module Name: France



The geography of borders of modern France, the Atlantic and the Mediterranean coastlines to the west and south, are mirrored by the mountains of the Vosges, Jura and Alps to the east and the the Pyrennies to the south-west. The lack of a natural 'border' on the north and north-east (Picardy and Lorraine) complicated the process of national formation.

The breakdown of the Roman Empire (5th Century) was followed by phases of barbarian invasions and attempts to construct an enduring order along the lines of Germanic kingship. The dynasties, however, undermined such political order by treating their territory as private property and dividing it among their descendants. Characteristic of this process was the division of Charlemagne's Frankish kingdom [A.D. 843]. Nonetheless, this division set the stage for the formation of France and other European nations. Conflicts with England (especially during the Hundreds Year War) resulted in a growing sense of territorial integrity and a sense of national identity under the monarchy.

In the 16th century, that unity was challenged by the wars of religion that raged across western Europe. Religious toleration was introduced by the Edict of Nantes yet was later revoked by Louis XIV, who was famously known as the Sun King. Under Louis XIV, France participated in various wars against many of the established European powers. Throughout this period the borders of France changed, but generally moved toward the lines we now observe.

The great wars of the 20th Century resulted in gains and losses on the eastern and north-eastern frontier. Alsace and Lorraine were again formally incorporated into France in 1919 when the Treaty of Versailles was signed. From that point the borders of continental France have been stable.

La France d’outre-mer ['France Overseas'] is a term used to describe a number of islands in the Caribbean, Pacific and Indian Ocean that have been formally incorporated into France.



Instructions to artist (including "legend / key")

These are the features I would like to be present on every map. The text should be well-defined and bolded for the first maps and then become translucent for the rest of the maps (the cities are a possibel exception).

1. Cities: Paris, Marseille, Lyon, Toulouse, Nice. Are there any cities that appear more than once that should be added?

2. Mountains: the Alps (Jura) are located along the Southeastern border, the western part of the great alpine chain, the Pyrenees are located along the southwestern border, and forms a natural border between France and Spain, the Vosges in eastern France.

3. Rivers: The Rhône (rises in Switzerland, runs West to Lyon and goes South to its delta at Marseille into the Mediterannean), the Garonne (rises in the Pyrenees, flows to the Atlantic through Toulouse and Bordeaux), the Loire (France's longest river, rises in the Massif Central, runs north and then west through Orléans, Tours and Nantes into the Atlantic), the Seine (runs northwest through Paris, into the English Channel), the Rhine (does not flow through France but forms part of the Franco-German border)

Colors: France (blue), England (red), Spain (yellow), Italy (green), Germany (DARK GRAY).


Section 1

Title: Barbarian Kingdoms and Charlemagne's Empire

Frame 1: Clovis, King of the Franks
Caption: Clovis' Frankish Kingdom
Use map inventory numbers: EU20_43

After the fall of the Roman Empire, a number of Germanic tribes, including the Franks and Burgundians, seized parts of Roman Gaul. Clovis and his descendents marked the return to some stability. This Frankish dynasty, the Merovingians, dominated much of what would later develop into France.


Frame 2: Expansion of the Kingdom
Caption: Expansion During the 6th Century
Use map inventory numbers: EU20_45

The map atttached has radically different colors. Please use shades of Merovingian brown to represent the acquisitions.

On his death in 511, the kingdom of Clovis was divided amongst his four sons. The latter expanded the empire to include the kingdoms of the Burgundians and the Ostrogoths, as well as lands to the northeast and southwest.


Frame 3: Division of the Kingdom
Caption: Division During the 6th Century
Use map inventory numbers: EU20_42.

Continue to use the brown color for the Frankish areas, but label them. In the SW (in Aquitaine), use green diagonal lines to show Moorish control.

By 561, internal conflicts had produced a Frankish Empire divided into three states: Neustria, Austrasia, and Burgundy. Aquitaine in the southwest was held by Moors and wouldn not be reclaimed until the Battle of Poitiers in 732.


Frame 4: Further Division of the Empire
Caption: Clovis' Grandsons Divide the Empire into Fourths
Use map inventory numbers: EU20_46

Again, use shades of brown, rather than the strong color differences on the map.

In 561 as part of a now familiar pattern, after the Kingdom had been greatly expanded, Clovis' four grandsons divided the Kingdom once more amongst one another.

Frame 5: Charlemagne
Caption: Charlemagne's Empire
Use map inventory numbers: EU20_48, EU20_55, EU20_57

Continue to use Frankish brown. Use shades of brown and dates to show the acquisitions of Benevento (787). The arrows and the dates in map 20_55 might be superimposed to show the general thrust of expansion. Use the labels like "Lombardy" as on map 20_48.

The Frankish-Carolingian dynasty, first Charles Martel and then Charlemagne, re-vitalized Frankish power in Western Europe. The authority of the latter was legitimized in the eyes of many when he was crowned Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire by Pope Leo III in 800. Charlemagne created a highly decentralized form of government that could only be maintained through constant travel and continued military campaigns.

Frame 6: The Carolingian Europe After Charlemagne
Caption: Triparte Division of Charlemagne's Empire
Use map inventory numbers: EU20_56, EU20_98

20_98 is the better map. Make sure that Louis II, Charles and Lothar's territories are clearly marked.

After his death, Charlemagne's empire was divided among his descendants first in 817. The Treaty of Verdun in 843 resolved the conflicts between his heirs, and created three kingdoms, the western one of which would emerge as France. The consequences of this division would be felt into the 20th Cent.

Frame 7: The Lothar's Kingdom
Caption: Division of Lothar's Kingdom
Use map inventory numbers: EU20_56, EU20_49

Steve and Josh, the maps variously use Lothair and Lothar, please use the latter, Lothar. On colors: use only brown for the French area. Use dark grey to show the German parts. Show Lothar's former territories with dark diagonal lines.

After Lothar's death in 855, his kingdom was divided between his two sons Louis II and Charles. Further subdivisions were confirmed by treaties of Mersen (870) and Ribemont (880).

Frame 8: Barbarian Invasions
Caption: Barbarian Invasions Across the Frankish Empire
Use map inventory numbers: EU20_100-invas

From the map 20_100, you will not be able to get all of the arrows. Do show the Moors from the south, the Vikings along the Atlantic coast and coming into the Mediterranean, and the Magnars coming from the east.

In the second half of the 9th Cent. and continuing into the 10th Cent, the Carolingian kings faced a series of barbarian invasions from all directions. One cannot speak of 'terrritorial integrity' during this period.


Section 2:

Title: The Capetian Dynasty and Hundred Years War

Frame 1: 10th Century France
Caption: Viking Control Throughout France
Use map inventory numbers: EU20_60 Note especially the scandinavian settlements along the western rivers of France...peuple scandinaiviennes.

Show the Viking holdings as illustrated on the map in a shade of orange. Switch the basic color for France from brown to blue. Use arrows that push to the coast and that are labeled like on the map.

During the 10th Century, the monarchy yeilded control of several regions in the west, notably to the Normand who settled along the important rivers of the Seine, the Loire and the Garonne. Flanders, Aquitaine and Burgundy became functionally independent states.

Frame 2: Capetian France
Caption: Growth of the Capetian Dynasty
Use map inventory numbers: EU20_101 This map needs to be translated.

On color: Use dark blue for the royal domain, pink for ecclesiastical lords, and diagonal dark and light blue for the duchy of Normandy (label as Normandy). The rest of the greens and yellows will be labeled as "other principal fiefs', using diagonal shades of darker light blue. It will be difficult, but please preserve the territorial lines.

In 987 when Hugh Capet established the Capetian Dynasty around 'Île de France', France was a patchwork of small states. This map illustrates the situation in 1032. .

Frame 3: England and France
Caption: Growth of English Power in France
Use map inventory numbers: EU20_69, EU20_64; eleanor.

On color: England, Aquitaine, Brittany, and Normandy in red. Anjou and Tourane as red. Toulouse in light and dark stripes and the balance of France in blue. Label Normandy, Brittany, Anjou, Aquitaine, and Toulouse. The color coding will work best on map 20_64. The blues will be wrong. Use balloons to indicate date of acquisition through Eleanor and Constance as in map 20_69.

The William, duke of Normany, was a vassal of the French king. After the battle of Hastings in 1066, William also became the king of England. As the king of England, he and his successors tried to avoid meeting obligations of the French crown and expand their holdings in western France. In the mid-12th Century, Henry II of England married Eleanor of Aquitaine and brought her patrimony to England and extended English control of western France to include all of the Atlantic coastal area.

Frame 4: 13th Century France
Caption: Border Changes During the 13th Century
Use map inventory numbers: EU20_70, better france1223

The various shades of green should be distinguished as dark blue. Keep the light blue as is. Put the dates in as on map 20_70.

The extinction of the 'senior' Capetian line led to open conflict for the throne. In the early 13th Century, Phillip II Augustus reclaimed some lands previously under English control. Under the reign of St. Louis IX, Henry III of England relinquished his claim to much of his French holdings with the exception of Aquitaine (Guyenne).

Frame 5: Hundred Years War, 1337-1453
Caption: Changes During the 100 Years War
Use map inventory numbers: EU20_59, EU20_67, EU20_71, at end of the war

In 1337, a feudal dispute between Philip VI of France and Edward IV of England began the Anglo-Franco war, better known as the Hundred Years War. It lasted until 1453, when English holdings had been reduced to Calais along.

Frame 6: Restoration of France, 1453 to 1491
Caption: Rebuilding France on its eastern frontier.
Use map inventory numbers: EU20_79; on burgundy EU20_85, EU20_86; EU20_80

Charles VII and his son Louis XI helped rebuild France after the Hundred Years War. During this period Burgundy was incorporated. By the end of the century, Calais in the west and the 'three bishoprics' (Toul, Metz and Verdun) in the east had been added to France.


Section 3:

Title: Wars of Religion and the Ancien Regime of Louis XIV

Frame 1: The Huguenots
Caption: Protestants Communities in France
Use map inventory numbers: EU20_02, EU20_87

Map 20_02 is a good rendition. Use dark blue for Catholic areas and diagonals of blue and (color recommendation?) to illustrate areas of Huguenot influence on map. Don't worry about the centers of Huguenot influence, just the territorial extent.

The Reformation had a profound effect on France's political geography. During the latter half of the 16th Century, Protestant and Huguenot communities were introduced and tranformed France's social and religious structure. They were especially active in the Rhone Valley, the Cévennes in the southeast through Béarn, the Bordelais, Poitou, and Normandy in the northwest. The Edict of Nantes, issued by the first Bourbon king Henri IV, introduced religious toleration. It was later revoked by Louis XIV.

Frame 2: Mazarin
Caption: Mazarin's Conquests
Use map inventory numbers: EU20_88 EU20_72

The 17th Century marked the growth of ministerial power in the goverment. While Louis XIV was still too young, Cardinal Minister Mazarin controlled the royal council (1642-1661). Mazarin extended the French borders along the Rhine during his period.

Frame 3: Expansion Under Louis XIV
Caption: War of Devolution
Use map inventory numbers: EU20_72 EU20_88

The War of Devolution (1667-1668) resulted in the acquisition of towns in the Spanish Netherlands and was confirmed by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen). During the Dutch War (1672-1678), Louis XIV gained the Franche-Comté in the southeast and lands in the north between Artois and Flanders by the Peace of Nijmegen. The Spanish Netherlands, which had been acquired earlier were lost.

Frame 4: Losses Under Louis XIV
Caption: The Nine Years War
Use map inventory numbers: EU20_90 EU20_72

During the Nine Years War (1688-1697), France invaded Germany and also seized the papal territory of Avignon in southern France. Nonetheless, Louis XIV was not able to sustain these acquisitions, and at the Treaty of Ryswick, surrendered much of what he had gained in Germany, the Spanish Netherlands, and Northern Spain. He also returned Avignon to the Pope.

Frame 5: Louis XIV's Final War
Caption: The War of Spanish Succession
Use map inventory numbers: EU20_72, EU20_88 EU20_01 EU20_04

During the War of Spanish Succession (1701-1713), Louis XIV gained territory along France's Eastern border but the cost of war was immense to France.