Bereiter, Carl, &
Scardamalia, Marlene. (1993). Surpassing ourselves: An
inquiry into the nature and implications of expertise.
Chicago and La Salle, IL: Open Court.
A seminal and very scholarly book on expertise. It is aimed
at educators and education in general, but it also discusses
some of the roles of computers in expertise.
Fullan, Michael G. (1991). The new
meaning of educational change. New York: Teachers
A definitive work on educational change, with a major
emphasis on projects designed to produce such change. This
book builds and expands on his 1980 book. It includes a
careful analysis of why most educational change projects
fail to produce lasting change.
Gardner, H. (1993). Frames of mind:
The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic
Howard Gardner is a cognitive psychologist and cognitive
scientist. He is a prolific author and recognized for his
research and writing in a number of areas of education. This
1993 book includes the content from Gardner's original 1983
book by the same title, as well as additional preface
materials. The 1983 book was written for a somewhat narrow,
technical audience. The book has proved immensely popular,
as have the general ideas contained in the book.
ISTE Accreditation Committee. (1993).
Curriculum guidelines for accreditation of educational
computing and technology programs. Eugene, OR:
A detailed report on NCATE standards for teacher preparation
in the area of information technology in education.
Kulik, James A. (1994). Meta-analytic
studies of findings on computer-based instruction. In E. L.
Baker and H. F. O'Neil, Jr. (Eds.), Technology assessment
in education and training. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence
Kulik is undoubtedly the world's leader in doing
meta-analyses on computer-assisted instruction. This
extensive article is a meta-analysis of meta-analyses on
CAI. It contains an extensive bibliography. It is an
excellent starting point for anyone interested in studying
the CAI research literature.
Logan, Robert K. (1995). The fifth
language: Learning a living in the computer age.
Toronto, Canada: Stoddart Publishing Company.
This book examines "computers" as a fifth human language,
preceded by natural (spoken) language, writing, mathematics,
and science. Information technology is analyzed both as an
aid to human cognition and as an aid to communication. The
book predicts major changes in our educational system being
brought about by computer technology. The book includes an
analysis of the communications theory and work of Marshall
McLuhan and Harold Innis.
Moursund, David G. (1992). The
technology coordinator. Eugene, OR: ISTE.
A book designed for people who hold the job or who are
interested in holding the job of school-level or
district-level technology coordinator. Analyzes needed
qualifications and provides information that can be used to
build a job description.
Moursund, David G. (1995).
Increasing your expertise as a problem solver: Some roles
of computers, second edition. Eugene, OR: ISTE.
This book focuses on problem solving and on how to increase
one's expertise in problem solving. Some of the major
resources used in solving problems and accomplishing tasks
include: your own creative intelligence; tools; accumulated
knowledge of the human race; education and training; and
your own time and persistence. Creative intelligence is
defined and discussed from the points of view of Howard
Gardner and Robert Sternberg. Gardner's theory of Multiple
Intelligences is one of the unifying themes in the book.
Naisbitt, John. (1982). Megatrends.
The new directions transforming our lives. New York:
Warner Books, Inc.
Naisbitt, John and Aburdene, P. (1990).
Megatrends 2000: Ten new directions for the 1990's.
New York: Warner Books, Inc.
The megatrend books are "popular" as opposed to "academic"
works. Naisbitt portrays an optimistic view of the future.
Megatrends 2000 can be considered as a sequel to the
first megatrends book. It continues the optimistic view of
the future and discusses a variety of newly emerging trends.
There is considerable emphasis on world trade (of relevance
to educators, since our students are competing in a global
job market); the rapidly increasing number of women in
leadership positions; and the rapid growth and potential of
Negroponte, Nicholas. (1995). Being
digital. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
This book explores current progress and possible future
progress toward digitization of information. Examines impact
on business, education, and other aspects of our
Norman, Donald A. (1993). Things
that make us smart: Defending human attributes in the age of
machines. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
This publication provides a superb discussion of roles of
technology in enhancing our intellectual capabilities.
Norman emphasizes that poorly designed machines can make us
feel dumb and be unable to make effective use of our
intelligence. This book provides an excellent introduction
to the human-machine interface and to the benefits of
well-done human-machine interface designs.
Perkins, David (1992). Smart
schools: Better thinking and learning for every child.
New York: Free Press.
David Perkins is co-director (along with Howard Gardner) of
Project Zero at Harvard University. Project Zero is a major
center for research on children's learning. Perkin's book
provides an excellent and quite readable overview of
educational research that can provide the basis for
improving our schools. It includes a detailed discussion of
"Person Plus," the idea of people and their tools working
together to solve problems and accomplish tasks.
Perkins, David. (1995). Outsmarting
IQ: The emerging science of learnable intelligence. New
York: The Free Press.
This book provides a careful analysis of possible
definitions of intelligence and how IQ is measured. Three
different but closely related components of intelligence are
explored: neural intelligence, experience intelligence, and
reflexive intelligence. Arguments are presented to support
the contention that all three components of IQ can change.
In particular, appropriately designed education can increase
experiential and reflexive IQ. This book also has a major
focus on transfer of learning, with particular emphasis on
the high-road, low-road theory of transfer developed by
Perkins and Salomon in 1987.
Sarason, Seymour B. (1990). The
predictable failure of educational reform. Can we change
course before it's too late? San Francisco:
A key component of the book is an analysis of who has the
power in our educational system. Sarason argues that school
reform movements in the past have failed because there was
no change in who was empowered. Sarason argues that students
and teachers must be empowered if education is to be
Scientific American. (1995). Special
issue: The computer in the 21st century.
A number of computer articles from recent issues of
Scientific American magazine are presented, updated for
1995. It includes an article about ubiquitous computing by
Mark Weiser who is head of the Computer Science Laboratory
at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center.
Scientific American. (1995, September).
150th anniversary issue.
This special issue of Scientific American explores key
technologies for the 21st century. It contains a number of
articles that describe the current "state-of-the-art" and
makes predictions on changes that we can expect in the next
century. It also contains a nice timeline of technological
changes that have occurred during the past 150 years.
Technology Review. (1996, July). The
Web Maestro: An interview with Tim Berners-Lee. pp.
The World Wide Web was created in 1991 by Tim Berners-Lee.
He is currently the director of the World Wide Web
Consortium. This nonprofit organization headquartered at the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology coordinates the
development of Web software and standards.
Toffler, Alvin. (1980). The third
wave. New York: Bantam Books.
Toffler examines sweeping "waves" of change that are going
on in our nation and the world. The first two waves were the
agricultural and the industrial socioeconomic revolutions.
The third is our current socioeconomic revolution based on
electronic technology. Toffler provides a clear view of the
complexity and diversity of forces that are working together
to form the new world civilization. This is the second book
of a trilogy. The third is listed below.
Toffler, Alvin. (1990). Powershift:
knowledge, wealth, and violence at the edge of the 21st
century. Bantam Books: New York.
This book is the culmination of a trilogy, and 25 years of
Toffler's efforts. Like The Third Wave, the book is a
extensively documented study about the complexity and
variety of factors involved in shaping tomorrow's
Toffler includes an extensive analysis of computers and
their roles (from manufacturers to hackers) in forming the
new civilization. However, the emphasis of the study is on a
sociology of power, especially in terms of business,
economics, and finance, certainly a most important force
driving the future of our society. From this point of view,
the book could be said to be an expansion and upgrading of
Toffler's prior work about change.
The key idea in PowerShift is that knowledge is
power (knowledge is a resource) and that this form of power
is rapidly changing the world. The book explores other forms
of power (other resources), such as agricultural
productivity as power, industrial manufacturing capacity as
power, and violence (military might) as power. Various
countries are analyzed on the basis of the balance that they
have in these different forms of power.
U.S. Office of Education. (1996, June).
Getting America's students ready for the 21st century:
Meeting the technology literacy challenge. Washington,
An analysis of current levels of information technology use
in our schools, some goals, and what it will take to achieve
these goals. Includes a discussion on possible costs needed
to achieve connectivity of all classrooms and a ratio of one
microcomputer per 4-5 students.