The Future of Information Technology in Education
An ISTE Publication

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   Bereiter, Carl, & Scardamalia, Marlene. (1993). Surpassing ourselves: An inquiry into the nature and implications of expertise. Chicago and La Salle, IL: Open Court.
A seminal and very scholarly book on expertise. It is aimed at educators and education in general, but it also discusses some of the roles of computers in expertise.

   Fullan, Michael G. (1991). The new meaning of educational change. New York: Teachers College Press.
A definitive work on educational change, with a major emphasis on projects designed to produce such change. This book builds and expands on his 1980 book. It includes a careful analysis of why most educational change projects fail to produce lasting change.

   Gardner, H. (1993). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.
Howard Gardner is a cognitive psychologist and cognitive scientist. He is a prolific author and recognized for his research and writing in a number of areas of education. This 1993 book includes the content from Gardner's original 1983 book by the same title, as well as additional preface materials. The 1983 book was written for a somewhat narrow, technical audience. The book has proved immensely popular, as have the general ideas contained in the book.

   ISTE Accreditation Committee. (1993). Curriculum guidelines for accreditation of educational computing and technology programs. Eugene, OR: Author.
A detailed report on NCATE standards for teacher preparation in the area of information technology in education.

   Kulik, James A. (1994). Meta-analytic studies of findings on computer-based instruction. In E. L. Baker and H. F. O'Neil, Jr. (Eds.), Technology assessment in education and training. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Kulik is undoubtedly the world's leader in doing meta-analyses on computer-assisted instruction. This extensive article is a meta-analysis of meta-analyses on CAI. It contains an extensive bibliography. It is an excellent starting point for anyone interested in studying the CAI research literature.

   Logan, Robert K. (1995). The fifth language: Learning a living in the computer age. Toronto, Canada: Stoddart Publishing Company.
This book examines "computers" as a fifth human language, preceded by natural (spoken) language, writing, mathematics, and science. Information technology is analyzed both as an aid to human cognition and as an aid to communication. The book predicts major changes in our educational system being brought about by computer technology. The book includes an analysis of the communications theory and work of Marshall McLuhan and Harold Innis.

   Moursund, David G. (1992). The technology coordinator. Eugene, OR: ISTE.
A book designed for people who hold the job or who are interested in holding the job of school-level or district-level technology coordinator. Analyzes needed qualifications and provides information that can be used to build a job description.

   Moursund, David G. (1995). Increasing your expertise as a problem solver: Some roles of computers, second edition. Eugene, OR: ISTE.
This book focuses on problem solving and on how to increase one's expertise in problem solving. Some of the major resources used in solving problems and accomplishing tasks include: your own creative intelligence; tools; accumulated knowledge of the human race; education and training; and your own time and persistence. Creative intelligence is defined and discussed from the points of view of Howard Gardner and Robert Sternberg. Gardner's theory of Multiple Intelligences is one of the unifying themes in the book.

   Naisbitt, John. (1982). Megatrends. The new directions transforming our lives. New York: Warner Books, Inc.

   Naisbitt, John and Aburdene, P. (1990). Megatrends 2000: Ten new directions for the 1990's. New York: Warner Books, Inc.
The megatrend books are "popular" as opposed to "academic" works. Naisbitt portrays an optimistic view of the future. Megatrends 2000 can be considered as a sequel to the first megatrends book. It continues the optimistic view of the future and discusses a variety of newly emerging trends. There is considerable emphasis on world trade (of relevance to educators, since our students are competing in a global job market); the rapidly increasing number of women in leadership positions; and the rapid growth and potential of genetic engineering.

   Negroponte, Nicholas. (1995). Being digital. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
This book explores current progress and possible future progress toward digitization of information. Examines impact on business, education, and other aspects of our society.

   Norman, Donald A. (1993). Things that make us smart: Defending human attributes in the age of machines. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
This publication provides a superb discussion of roles of technology in enhancing our intellectual capabilities. Norman emphasizes that poorly designed machines can make us feel dumb and be unable to make effective use of our intelligence. This book provides an excellent introduction to the human-machine interface and to the benefits of well-done human-machine interface designs.

   Perkins, David (1992). Smart schools: Better thinking and learning for every child. New York: Free Press.
David Perkins is co-director (along with Howard Gardner) of Project Zero at Harvard University. Project Zero is a major center for research on children's learning. Perkin's book provides an excellent and quite readable overview of educational research that can provide the basis for improving our schools. It includes a detailed discussion of "Person Plus," the idea of people and their tools working together to solve problems and accomplish tasks.

   Perkins, David. (1995). Outsmarting IQ: The emerging science of learnable intelligence. New York: The Free Press.
This book provides a careful analysis of possible definitions of intelligence and how IQ is measured. Three different but closely related components of intelligence are explored: neural intelligence, experience intelligence, and reflexive intelligence. Arguments are presented to support the contention that all three components of IQ can change. In particular, appropriately designed education can increase experiential and reflexive IQ. This book also has a major focus on transfer of learning, with particular emphasis on the high-road, low-road theory of transfer developed by Perkins and Salomon in 1987.

   Sarason, Seymour B. (1990). The predictable failure of educational reform. Can we change course before it's too late? San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
A key component of the book is an analysis of who has the power in our educational system. Sarason argues that school reform movements in the past have failed because there was no change in who was empowered. Sarason argues that students and teachers must be empowered if education is to be improved.

   Scientific American. (1995). Special issue: The computer in the 21st century.
A number of computer articles from recent issues of Scientific American magazine are presented, updated for 1995. It includes an article about ubiquitous computing by Mark Weiser who is head of the Computer Science Laboratory at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center.

   Scientific American. (1995, September). 150th anniversary issue.
This special issue of Scientific American explores key technologies for the 21st century. It contains a number of articles that describe the current "state-of-the-art" and makes predictions on changes that we can expect in the next century. It also contains a nice timeline of technological changes that have occurred during the past 150 years.

   Technology Review. (1996, July). The Web Maestro: An interview with Tim Berners-Lee. pp. 32-40.
The World Wide Web was created in 1991 by Tim Berners-Lee. He is currently the director of the World Wide Web Consortium. This nonprofit organization headquartered at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology coordinates the development of Web software and standards.

   Toffler, Alvin. (1980). The third wave. New York: Bantam Books.
Toffler examines sweeping "waves" of change that are going on in our nation and the world. The first two waves were the agricultural and the industrial socioeconomic revolutions. The third is our current socioeconomic revolution based on electronic technology. Toffler provides a clear view of the complexity and diversity of forces that are working together to form the new world civilization. This is the second book of a trilogy. The third is listed below.

   Toffler, Alvin. (1990). Powershift: knowledge, wealth, and violence at the edge of the 21st century. Bantam Books: New York.
This book is the culmination of a trilogy, and 25 years of Toffler's efforts. Like The Third Wave, the book is a extensively documented study about the complexity and variety of factors involved in shaping tomorrow's civilization.

Toffler includes an extensive analysis of computers and their roles (from manufacturers to hackers) in forming the new civilization. However, the emphasis of the study is on a sociology of power, especially in terms of business, economics, and finance, certainly a most important force driving the future of our society. From this point of view, the book could be said to be an expansion and upgrading of Toffler's prior work about change.

The key idea in PowerShift is that knowledge is power (knowledge is a resource) and that this form of power is rapidly changing the world. The book explores other forms of power (other resources), such as agricultural productivity as power, industrial manufacturing capacity as power, and violence (military might) as power. Various countries are analyzed on the basis of the balance that they have in these different forms of power.

   U.S. Office of Education. (1996, June). Getting America's students ready for the 21st century: Meeting the technology literacy challenge. Washington, DC: Author.
An analysis of current levels of information technology use in our schools, some goals, and what it will take to achieve these goals. Includes a discussion on possible costs needed to achieve connectivity of all classrooms and a ratio of one microcomputer per 4-5 students.

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