References and Resources

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Moursund, D.G. (1999). Project-based learning using information technology (Selected Chapters) Eugene, OR: International Society for Technology in Education.

The materials that follow are from a next-to-final version of the above named book.


Chapter 1: Introduction and a PBL Example

Chapter 2: Overview of IT-assisted PBL

Chapter 3: Some PBL Lesson Topic Ideas

Chapter 4: The Case for PBL

Chapter 7: Assessment in IT-assisted PBL

Appendix C: Overview of Problem Solving

References and Resources


References and Resources for the Book

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). (1993). Benchmarks for science literacy. New York: Oxford University Press.

This book reports on some of the progress being made toward developing national "standards" for science literacy.

Applied Measurement in Education, 1992, Volume 4, No. 4.

This journal issue provides an in-depth analysis of the nature, practices, and concerns about performance assessment. The articles not only discuss the difference between the new and traditional approaches to student assessment, but they also define performance, authentic, and portfolio assessment.

Autodesk Foundation (1998). Sixth annual PBL conference.

The Autodesk Foundation provides funding for a variety of PBL activities and sponsors an annual two-day conference. The Web address is <>.

Barrett, H.C. (1994). Technology-supported assessment portfolios. The Computing Teacher, 21(6), 9-12.

Examines a number of different pieces of software, as well as some hardware, used in electronic portfolios and in other aspects of student assessment.

Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (1993). Surpassing ourselves: An inquiry into the nature and implications of expertise. Chicago and La Salle, IL: Open Court.

A seminal book on expertise. It is aimed at educators and education in general, but it also discusses some of the roles of computers in expertise. Analyzes ways to help people gain increased expertise and contains an extensive bibliography.

Blumenfeld, P.C., Soloway, S., Marx, R.W., Krajcik, J.S., Guzdial, M., and Palincsar, A. (1991). Motivating project-based learning: Sustaining the doing, supporting the learning. Educational Psychologist. 26(3 & 4), 369-398.

This extensive article is based on research going on at the University of Michigan. It provides an excellent summary of the research on project-based learning at the precollege levels. It has a substantial focus on uses of computers and other information technology in PBL.

Boone, Randy. (Ed.). (1991). Teaching process writing with computers. Eugene, OR: International Society for Technology in Education.

This book provides a good summary of the research literature and practical aspects of using computers in process writing.

Brewer, R. (1996). Exemplars: A teacher's solution. Underhill, VT: Exemplars.

Vermont has made a major commitment to authentic assessment in its schools. This book includes a number of examples of rubrics used in authentic assessment.

Communications of the ACM (1994, March).

The Association for Computing Machinery is a very large professional society consisting of professionals in the computer field. Communications of the ACM is written for people who have a solid background in the domain of computer and information science. However, the March 1994 issue contains a number of summary, overview articles on artificial intelligence that have been written for people who are not specialists in this area. They provide an excellent overview of the problems of this domain and the progress that has been made in addressing these problems.

Costa, A. L., (Ed.). (1991). Developing minds: A resource book for teaching thinking. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

This resource book produced by the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development provides an excellent overview of what is known about teaching thinking skills. It contains a wide range of articles written by people who are experts in this domain.

de Bono, E. (1973&endash;75). CoRT thinking. Blandford, Dorset, England: Direct Education Services Limited.

The Cognitive Research Trust (CoRT) thinking program is a program of study designed to increase thinking and problem-solving skills. This program has been the subject of quite a bit of research and has been implemented in a number of different places. It is an example of a type of program that has proven effective in increasing general problem-solving skills.

de Bono, E. (1985). De Bono's thinking course. NY: Facts on File, Inc.

Edward de Bono is a world-class expert in teaching thinking skills. He is a prolific author and inspirational workshop presenter. His books give practical, down-to-earth ways for improving thinking skills. Some of his books are aimed at business people and others are aimed at educators. His books are widely sold, so you are apt to find one or more of them in any major bookstore.

de Bono, E. (1992). Serious creativity: Using the power of lateral thinking to create new ideas. NY: Harper Business.

See the comments under de Bono, E. (1985).

D'Ignazio, F. (1995-97). Multimedia sandbox (column). Learning and Leading With Technology. Eugene, OR: ISTE.

This continuing series of articles explores a wide range of multimedia projects that can be used in the classroom. In addition, there is a focus on free and inexpensive pieces of equipment that can be used in developing multimedia projects. D'Ignazio places major emphasis on making do with whatever hardware and software is available.

Educational Leadership, 1992, Volume 49, No. 8.

This journal issue provides an in-depth analysis of the nature, practices, and concerns about performance assessment. The articles not only discuss the difference between the new and traditional approaches to student assessment, but they also define performance, authentic, and portfolio assessment.

Educational Leadership (1997, September). ASCD.

This is a theme issue of Educational Leadership, focusing specifically on teaching for multiple intelligences. It contains 16 articles that address various aspects of Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences and their applications to the classroom. It includes an article written by Gardner and interview with him. Gardner's ideas are being widely implemented in education, both in the United States and in other countries.

Fogarty, Robin (Editor) (1996). Student portfolios: A collection of articles. Palatine, IL: IRI/Skylight Training and Publishing, Inc.

Major sections of this book address the topics: choosing portfolios; using portfolios; and perusing portfolios. Two of the articles focus on electronic portfolios, and one addresses self-assessment.

Fosnot, Catherine Twomey, ed. (1996). Constructivism: Theory, perspectives, and practice. NY: Teachers College, Columbia University.

A collection of research and practice-based articles that explore the theory and practice of constructivism.

Frederiksen, N. (1984). Implications of cognitive theory for instruction in problem solving. Review of Educational Research, 54, 363&endash;407.

This is a summary and analysis of the research literature on problem solving. It is a good starting point if you want to explore the research literature. The article contains an extensive bibliography.

Frensch, P. and Funke, J., (Eds.). (1995). Complex problem solving: The European perspective. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

This book provides an excellent overview of the current research on complex problem solving. The main emphasis is on research being done in Europe. However, there is an excellent chapter written by Robert Sternberg that compares and contrasts problem-solving research in the United States with problem-solving research in Europe. In recent years, much of the problem-solving research in the United States has focused on specific domains in which one can acquire a great deal of expertise. Examples include chess, electronics, lawyer's reasoning, physics, and writing. Research in Europe tends to focus on more general problems, such as managing the resources of a city. Europeans make use of complex computer simulations of the problem-solving environments to be studied.

Gall, M., Gall, J., Jacobsen, D., & Bullock, T. (1990). Tools for learning: A guide to teaching study skills. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

The Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development is a large professional society. It often commissions books that are based on the latest research in a domain and that are also strongly focused on how to implement the underlying ideas in the classroom. This book is written for educators who want to improve their own learning skills and the learning skills of their students. There is considerable emphasis on the cognitive learning theories and on ways you can improve your study skills.

Gardner, H. (1982). Art, mind, and brain: A cognitive approach to creativity. NY: Basic Books.

Howard Gardner is a cognitive psychologist and cognitive scientist. He is a prolific author and recognized for his research and writing in a number of areas of education. The three books listed here are representative of his work. The book focuses on creative intelligence. Gardner's books are widely sold, so you are apt to find copies of some of them in major bookstores.

Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. NY: Basic Books. (A 1993 edition is now available; it is the same as the 1983 edition, except that it contains additional material in the preface.)

The 1983 book was written for a somewhat narrow, technical audience. The book has proven immensely popular, as have the general ideas contained in the book. This book, and the following one on the list, provide an excellent introduction to the theory of multiple intelligences and some applications of the theory.

Gardner, H. (1993). Multiple intelligences: The theory in practice. NY: Basic Books.

This book expands on ideas originally presented in Frames of Mind. It provides a variety of examples of applications of the original theory. There is considerable emphasis on applications to education.

Glasgow, Neal A. (1997). New curriculum for new times: A guide to student-centered problem-based learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc. A Sage Publications Company.

Neal Glasgow is a secondary school teacher writing about the way he teaches. Problem-based learning is project-based learning where the focus is on a specific problem to be solved or task to be accomplished. Glasgow analyzes the advantages of problem-based learning and the challenges a teacher faces in implementing problem-based learning. This book is an excellent testimonial and "how to do it" book on PBL.

Goldman, Daniel (1995). Emotional intelligence. NY: Bantam Books.

Emotions are a critical component of the makeup of people. Goldman's book summarizes and analyzes the research on how a person's emotional "intelligence" contributes to functioning well in our society. He points out that in many situations, emotional intelligence is a better predictor of success in solving problems and accomplishing tasks than are traditional measures of IQ.

International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE). (1998a). The Web address is

ISTE is a non-profit professional society of educators working to improve education through appropriate use of information technology. ISTE's main emphasis is on K-12 education and on teacher education. Information about ISTE products and services, and how to become an ISTE member, is given on the ISTE Web site.

International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE). (1998b). National Educational Technology Standards for Students. Eugene, OR: Author.

This document is the first phase of a multi-year project to develop IT standards for students at the PreK to 12 grade levels. The complete document is available as a PDF file on the ISTE Web site.

Kulik, J.A. (1994). Meta-analytic studies of findings on computer-based instruction. In E. Baker and H. O'Neill (Eds.), Technology assessment in education and training (pp. 9&endash;33). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

James Kulik has been doing metastudies on computer-based learning (computer-assisted learning) for many years. A number of his studies have been funded by the National Science Foundation and other federal agencies. This specific article is an analysis of the metastudies that he and others have carried out. That is, it is a meta-metastudy. It presents convincing evidence that CAL works. The article also contains an extensive bibliography, so it provides an excellent starting point for a person who wants to explore the literature on CAL.

Martin, James (1995). The great transition: Using the seven disciplines of enterprise engineering to align people, technology, and strategy. NY: American Management Association.

James Martin is a prolific author of books about use of computer technology in business. This 500 page treatise on Enterprise Engineering is a careful analysis of roles of computer technology in modern business. It covers the five key components of business improvement: continuous improvement (TQM), procedure redesign, value-stream reinvention, enterprise redesign, and strategic visioning. These are analyzed in an environment of organization and culture development, and information technology development. James Martin argues that companies that are not understanding and implementing these business improvement ideas are unlikely to prosper in the 21st century.

Meng, Elizabeth and Doran, Rodney L. (1993). Improving instruction and learning through evaluation: Elementary school science. Columbus, OH: ERIC.

Explores many different ways to assess elementary school science. The emphasis is on assessment that is aligned with a philosophy of hands-on science instruction.

Moursund, David (1996). Increasing your expertise as a problem solver: Some roles of computers. Eugene, OR: ISTE.

An introductory book about how the human mind and computers can work together to solve problems and accomplish tasks. This book provides a comprehensive introduction to problem solving and roles of computers in problem solving. The focus is on how a person can increase his/her expertise as a problem solver. The book is oriented toward self-improvement and toward restructuring education to better prepare students to learn and to work in computer-rich environments. It includes a careful analysis of the Multiple Intelligences ideas from Howard Gardner and how they dovetail with computer technology.

Moursund, David (1997). The future of information technology in education. Eugene, OR: ISTE.

A number of different forecasting techniques are used in analyzing and predicting possible futures of Information technology in education. While the primary focus is on education at the K-12 level in the United States, the book also includes some information on post-secondary education and on educational systems throughout the world.

NASA (1996). Global quest II: Teaching with the Internet, Washington DC: Author.

An excellent video introduction to use of the Internet as an aid to doing PBL. Sponsored by NASA's IITA K-12 Internet Initiative, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035. Length: 22:14.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (1989). Curriculum and evaluation standards for school mathematics. Reston, VA: Author.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (1991). Professional standards for teaching mathematics. Reston, VA: Author.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (1995). Assessment standards for school mathematics. Reston, VA: Author.

In recent years, a number of professional societies have undertaken large projects to define nationwide standards within their discipline areas. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics work provides an excellent model of the various components of such a project. The three documents referenced here cover curriculum, instruction, assessment, and professional development.

National Foundation for the Improvement of Education (1997). Assessment: Information Technologies in the K-12 Curriculum. Washington DC: Author.

The Road Ahead Program was funded by William Gates and Microsoft Corporation, and carried out over the three years 1995-1997. Twenty-two school sites throughout the country participated. Each site had a team that included at least two teachers, one school administrator, one person helping to run an after school program, and one person from an organization in the community. A number of the school sites implemented IT-based PBL as part of their overall project activities.

Research and evaluation for the Road Ahead Program were carried out by the International Society for Technology in Education. This research and evaluation project was directed by Dr. David Moursund.

National Foundation for the Improvement of Education (1997). Foundations for the road ahead: Project-based learning and information technologies. Washington DC: Author.

Most teachers give some open-ended assignments that provide students with a degree of choice, and that extend over a considerable period of time. Such student activities are examples of project-based learning. Information technology (IT) increases the versatility and value of project-based learning as a curriculum tool. IT can help create a rich environment for individuals and teams to carry out in-depth projects that draw on multimedia and information resources from throughout the world.

Research and evaluation for the Road Ahead Program were carried out by the International Society for Technology in Education. This research and evaluation project was directed by Dr. David Moursund.

Norman, D. (1990). The design of everyday things. NY: Doubleday.

Donald Norman is a cognitive scientist and a prolific, witty author. He has a high level of expertise in the domain of human-machine interfaces. He is interested in both non computer and computer-based human-machine interfaces. This book provides an excellent introduction to the design of such everyday tools as doors, drawers, and stoves. He gives many examples of poor human-tool designs.

Norman, D. (1993). Things that make us smart: Defending human attributes in the age of machines. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

This publication provides a superb discussion of roles of technology in enhancing our intellectual capabilities. Norman emphasizes that poorly designed machines can make us feel dumb and prevent us from making effective use of our intelligence. See Norman (1990).

Papert, Seymour (1980). Mindstorms: Children, computers, and powerful ideas. NY: Basic Books, Inc.

This book is a classic--Seymour Papert at his best. The book focuses on the Logo (programming language) learning environment and its roles in education. (See also Papert, 1993.)

Papert, Seymour. (1993). The children's machine: Rethinking school in the age of the computer. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Papert is well known for his work as a computer scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is still better known for his work as a computer educator, particularly in the Logo field. His philosophy of education is built on and extends the work of Piaget. The focus is on hands-on, discovery-based, learning by doing, and taking advantage of Logo and similar powerful new learning environments. It can be described as an adaptation of the ideas of constructivism to a kids-oriented computer programming environment.

Pea, Roy D. (1985) Beyond amplification: Using the computer to reorganize mental functioning. Educational Psychologist, 20(4), 167-182.

This article focuses on the difference between the rather mundane uses of computers to help solve problems and accomplish cognitive tasks, and more profound, deeper uses. At the time the article was written, most cognitive uses of computers were rather superficial. For example, using a computer as a word processor or as a high speed calculator are considered to be "amplification" of current cognitive processes. Pea speculates on possible types of cognitive uses of computers that move beyond amplification and lead to major changes in the way that we think, and approach and solve problems.

Perkins, David (1992). Smart schools: Better thinking and learning for every child. NY: Free Press.

David Perkins is co-director (along with Howard Gardner) of Project Zero at Harvard University. Project Zero is a major center for research on children's learning. During the past few decades there has been an immense amount of research that provides evidence on how to improve education. Perkin's book summarizes and analyzes that research in a careful and systematic manner.

Perkins, David (1995). Outsmarting IQ: The emerging science of learnable intelligence. NY: The Free Press.

This book provides a careful analysis of possible definitions of intelligence and how IQ is measured. Three different but closely related components of intelligence are explored: neural intelligence, experiential intelligence, and reflexive intelligence. Arguments are presented to support the contention that all three components of IQ can change. In particular, appropriately designed education can increase experiential and reflexive IQ. This book also has a major focus on transfer of learning, with particular emphasis on the high-road/low-road theory of transfer developed by Perkins and Salomon in 1987.

Polya, G. (1957). How to solve it: A new aspect of mathematical method (2nd ed.). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

This book by George Polya is considered to be a classic in the field of learning and teaching problem solving. The emphasis is on strategies and meta-strategies that are applicable over a wide range of math problems. A number of the strategies that are discussed are applicable in areas outside of mathematics and thus contribute to transfer of learning to other fields. Examples include breaking a problem into sub problems and relating a problem to other problems encountered in the past.

President's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology. Panel on Educational Technology (March 1997). Report to the president on the use of technology to strengthen K-12 education in the United States. Washington DC: Author.

This report was prepared by a "blue ribbon" committee. It contains a careful analysis of research literature on instruction uses of information technology. There is a substantial emphasis on constructivism as one of the important underlying theories. The report contains recommendations to policy makers (including the President of the United States) on needed research and implementation efforts.

Rogers, Everett M. (1995). Diffusion of innovations. NY: The Free Press.

This is the definitive book summarizing and analyzing the adoption of innovations. Why are some innovations widely adopted, and why are others rejected? Rogers draws on the research (nearly 4,000 published papers) as he explores successes and failures.

Rothman, Robert (1995). Measuring up: Standards, assessment, and school reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

A book written for the educated lay person. Provides good coverage of the advantages, disadvantages, and issues underlying alternative assessment. Provides a number of examples of schools and school districts that have implemented alternative forms of assessment.

Sandholtz, J.H., Ringstaff, C., and Dwyer, D.C. (1997). Teaching with technology: Creating student-centered classrooms. NY: Teachers College Press.

A ten year research study of the Apple Classroom of Tomorrow (ACOT) school sites. Both the students and the teachers participating in these studies were provided with a microcomputer to use at home and a microcomputer to use at school. A variety of schools participated in the study. This book provides an excellent analysis of positive and negative effects at these high density computer sites from approximately 1985 to 1995. The book contains a foreword by Larry Cuban indicates "Few books can engage both doubters and true believers simultaneously. This is one of the few that will."

Smith, I. and Yoder, S. (1998). Tearless turtling with MicroWorlds 2.0. Eugene, OR: ISTE.

A fun-filled introduction to the exciting multimedia authoring environment of MicroWorlds 2.0. MicroWorlds 2.0 is an authoring language for students of all ages, and it includes the full Logo programming language. Students can easily learn to create and link pages, add backgrounds with the drawing tools, stamp images, devise animations, and manipulate sound and music.

Salomon, G., & Perkins, D. (1988, September). Teaching for transfer. Educational Leadership, 22&endash;32.

Salomon and Perkins have developed the high-road/low-road theory of transfer of learning. The article listed here provides a good overview of the domain of transfer of learning and how to teach transfer. It also contains an extensive bibliography, so it is a good starting point if you want to study the research on transfer of learning.

Sternberg, R. (1988). The triarchic mind: A new theory of human intelligence. NY: Penguin Books.

This book provides an excellent overview of the history and work on attempting to define and test intelligence. Sternberg argues that previous theories are inadequate, and he presents a three-part definition of intelligence. Sternberg is a strong supporter of the idea that intelligence can be improved.

Sternberg, R. (1997). Successful intelligence: How practical and creative intelligence determine success in life. NY: Penguin Putnam, Inc.

This book updates the ideas in Sternberg (1988) and is written for beginners. It presents a detailed overview of flaws in current definitions of intelligence and measurements of intelligence. The focus is on providing a practical, useful definition and set of measurements. This book provides an excellent starting point for readers who want to explore the field.

The Computing Teacher (March 1994).

A theme issue devoted to alternative assessment. This periodical is published by the International Society for Technology in Education, and it is now called Learning and Leading With Technology.

Toffler, A. (1990). Powershift: Knowledge, wealth, and violence at the edge of the 21st century. NY: Bantam Books.

Alvin Toffler and his wife Heidi are futurists who have written three major books (published in 1970, 1980, and 1990 respectively) that represent our changing world. The key idea in 1990 book is that knowledge is power (knowledge is a resource) and that this form of power is rapidly changing the world. The book explores other forms of power (other resources), such as agricultural productivity as power, industrial manufacturing capacity as power, and violence (military might) as power. Various countries are analyzed on the basis of the balance that they have in these different areas of power.

Wiggins, Grant P. (1993). Assessing student performance. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Wiggins is a leading research and author on authentic assessment. This comprehensive book provides the solid background needed by anybody who is doing a serious exploration of authentic assessment.

Wiggins, Grant P. (November, 1993). Assessment: Authenticity, context, and validity. Phi Delta Kappan. pp. 200-214.

This article is materials abstracted from Wiggins (1993).

Wiggins, Grant P. (December 1996-January 1997). Practicing what we preach in designing authentic assessments. Educational Leadership. pp. 18-25.

An analysis of effective practices in developing authentic assessment materials. The emphasis is on using authentic assessment techniques in the process of developing assessments.

Willis, J.W. and Mehlinger, H.D. (1996). Information technology and teacher education. This is chapter 45 (pages 978-1029) of Sikula, J., Buttery, T. J., & Guyton, E., Editors. Handbook of Research on Teacher Education (Second Edition). NY: Simon & Schuster Macmillan.

This chapter provides a comprehensive survey of information technology in teacher education. Its bibliography contains approximately 300 items. While the chapter is mainly based on the research literature from 1987 to 1994, it also contains a historical perspective. The chapter contains a careful analysis of constructivism in teaching, contrasting it with behaviorism and with didactic methods of instruction.

Yoder, S., and Smith, I. (1995). Lookin' good! The elements of document design for beginners. Eugene, OR: International Society for Technology in Education.

Designed for beginners and casual computer users, this book will help you to realize the power of the computer as a production studio for print documents of professional quality. An excellent book for ages 14-adult, for people who want to learn how to take advantage of the powerful desktop publication features of a modern computer.


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