Digital Age I
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Course Outline


Reading Assignments

Homework Assignments

Updates and Announcements

Related Websites

Digital Age 2 Course

Dave Moursund's ICT in Education Home Page

Oregon Technology in Education Council

Search Engine

Course Bibliography

Some General Advice

This page is divided into two main sections. This first section is an introduction. The second section lists a variety of resources that I have used with this course in the past.

You are not expected to read everything that is listed below. The specific Reading Assignments give details on what is to be read in advance of the various class meetings during the term.

If you have not already done so, you are well advised to begin to create an annotated bibliography of the materials that you read and/or browse in this course and in other courses, and that may be relevant to your professional career. This will prove useful to you in the future. For example, eventually you will be doing a Capstone Project for your licensure program, and it must contain a solid bibliography.


Arguments Against Using IT in Education [Online]. Accessed 8/7/04:

This section of the Oregon Technology in Education Website provides access to a number of the commonly raised concerns about use (or, overuse) of ICT in education.

Brain Science. Accessed 8/7/04:

This is a collection of articles provided by Scientific Learning Corporation. They are relatively short and provide good overviews of a number of different aspects of Brain Science, mainly from an education point of view.

Bransford, J.D.; A. L. Brown; & R.R. Cocking: editors (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. [Online]. Accessed 8/7/04

This is an excellent book on the Science of Teaching and Learning. It can be purchased in hard copy (paperback) and the entire contents are also available for free viewing on the Web site listed in this bibliographic reference. This is an expanded version of the original book that was published in 1999. The National Academy Press provides a large number of excellent, research-based books available free on the Web.

Byrum, Elizabeth and Bingham, Margaret (2001) Lessons Learned: Factors influencing the effective use of technology for teaching and learning. [Online]. Accessed 8/7/04: (This Website provides access to a number of SEIR*TEC publications.) Quoting from the Website:

In this second edition, SEIR*TEC staff shed some light on the factors that influence technology adoption by sharing some of the lessons learned and observations made while providing technical assistance and professional development to resource-poor schools across the region from 1995 to 2000. Additionally, accompanying each lesson are suggested steps that educators might take in order to mover their technology programs forward and a story from one of the SEIR*TEC intensive site schools.

Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST) [Online]. Accessed 8/7/04:

Founded in 1984, CAST is an educational, not-for-profit organization that uses technology to expand opportunities for all people, including those with disabilities.

Christensen, Clayton M. (May 2000). The innovator's dilemma : When new technologies cause great firms to fail. Harperbusiness; ISBN: 0066620694.

This is a paperback edition of a highly regarded business book; the hard cover edition was published in 1997. It analyzes how and why changes in technology have destroyed many successful companies. The same ideas may be applicable to our formal educational system. ICT is a powerful change agent, and it is not clear how well the various components of our formal educational system will be able to successfully deal with this innovation.

Christensen was one of the Keynote Speakers at the 2004 National Educational Technology Conference..

Cognitive Tutor.

One form of Computer-Assisted Learning (CAL) is called Intelligent Computer-Assisted Learning (ICAL). For a variety of useful references on ICAL tutoring systems, use the Google search engine and search under the term Cognitive Tutor. (On 8/7/04 I got 102,000 hits.) Such software represents one of the frontiers of ICT in education.

Eisenhower National Clearinghouse for Mathematics & Science Education [Online]. Accessed 8/7/04:

The ENC for Science and Mathematics is a federally funded project that has been going on for many years. It is an excellent source of lesson planning materials for use in science and mathematics. The ENC is located at The Ohio State University, and is funded through a contract with the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

Electronic Journals [Online]. Accessed 8/7/04:

The are a large and growing number of journals being published online. This Web site contains an extensive list of such journals.

ERIC Digests [Online]. Accessed: 8/7/04

As of 8/7/04, there were 2,896 items in the ERIC Digests. Each is a brief research-based summary of information about an important aspect of education. The ERIC Digest provides a good starting point for researching an educational topic.

George Lucas Educational Foundation [Online]. accessed 8/7/04: Quoting from the Website:

The George Lucas Educational Foundation (GLEF) is a nonprofit operating foundation that gathers and disseminates the most innovative models of K-12 teaching and learning in the Digital Age. We serve this mission through the creation of media--from films, books and newsletters, to CD-ROMS and Web-based materials.

We use digital technology to act as a Web-based multimedia resource center, providing hundreds of powerful examples of learning and teaching already successful in our nation's schools. This information is provided on demand to a worldwide audience in an effort to stimulate active involvement and guide choices in school reform. Our audience includes teachers, administrators, school board members, other elected officials, parents, researchers, and business and community leaders.

ISTE NETS: National Educational Technology Standards for Students [Online]. Accessed 8/7/04:

This Website provides access to ISTE Standards for students, teachers, and school administrators.

Journal of Technology, Learning and Assessment (JTLA) [online]. Accessed 8/7/04:

This is a good example of an online, refereed, free research journal of relevance to students in the Digital Age Education courses.

Knowledge Loom [Online]. Accessed 8/7/04: Quoting their Web site:

A growing, searchable database of best practice resources. Use them to inspire your own models that work." This is an excellent Web site for people aspiring to be educational leaders.Learning Theories and Transfer of Learning. Accessed 8/7/04:

An introduction to various learning theories and transfer of learning from an ICT in education point of view.

Logan, Robert L. (2000). The sixth language: Learning a living in the Internet Age. Toronto, Canada: Stoddard.

An excellent introduction to verbal languages, beginning with oral languages and oral tradition, and then moving through writing, mathematics, science, computers, and the Internet. Analyzes each of these six verbal languages in terms of both an aid to communication and an aid to representing and processing information. The book has a unifying theme of ways to improve our educational system in light of what we know about each of the six languages that are discussed.

Melmed, Arthur (editor) (November 1995). The costs and effectiveness of educational technology: Proceedings of a workshop [Online]. Accessed: 8/7/04:

The chapter on Effectiveness gives detailed information from James Kulik on his metameta study on computer-based learning.

Milken Exchange [Online]. Accessed 8/8/04:

This Web site contains a number of excellent research reports on ICT in education. Of particular interest to the Digital Age I course:

Fulton, K. (1997). Learning in a digital age: Insights into the issues [Online]. Accessed 8/8/04:

Lemke, C. and Couglin, E. (1998). Technology in American schools: Seven dimensions for gauging progress [Online]. Accessed 8/8/04:

Mann, D., Shakeshaft, C., Becker, J., & Kottkramp, R. (1999). West Virginia story: Achievement gains from a statewide comprehensive instructional technology program [Online]. Accessed 8/8/04:

Moore's Law, a possible Quantum Leap?

A Canadian company called D-Wave Systems, which is working to develop a quantum computer that could calculate millions of times faster than current computers, has received funding from one of Silicon Valley's best-known venture firms, Draper Fisher Jurvetson (FFJ).

If it works, says D-Wave CEO Geordie Rose, "One circuit easily etched on the head of a pin would contain more useful memory than all the (computer) memory that's ever been built." Rose predicts such circuits could be workable enough to beat regular supercomputers in five years. Not everyone is impressed. "In terms of incremental progress ... they are contributing like the rest of us," says Tim Blair at IBM Research. "But in terms of breakthroughs or building a computer, we have not seen anything from them." Accessed 8/7/04:

Moursund, D.G. (1996, 2001). Increasing your expertise as a problem solver: Some roles of computers [Online]. Accessed 8/8/04:

This book was originally published by the International Society for Technology in Education in 1996. It has since been somewhat revised and is now available free on the Web.

Moursund, D.G. (2001). Brief Introduction to Problem Solving . retrieved 5/12/06:

Roughly the length of a book chapter. If you are interested in this field and don't have time to read Moursund's (1996, 2001) book on the topic, this shorter document provides a good overview of his ideas.

Moursund, D.G. (1997). The future of information technology in education. [Online]. Accessed 8/8/04:

This is a complete copy of Moursund's 1997 book. It is interesting to see which parts of the book are still relevant at this time, and which are becoming hopelessly out of date.

The following are editorials from Learning and leading wiht Technoloyg, written by Dave Moursund. The currently available editorials can be accessed at

Moursund, D.G. (March 1998). Moore's Law. Learning and Leading with Technology. Vol. 25, No. 6, pp4-5.

An Editorial.

Moursund, D.G. (August-September 1998). FREE is a good buy. Editor's Message, Learning & Leading with Technology. Eugene, OR: ISTE.

An Editorial.

Moursund, D.G. (October 1998). Try it--Maybe you'll like it. Editor's Message, Learning & Leading with Technology. Eugene, OR: ISTE.

An Editorial.

Moursund, D.G. (April 1999). Enhance your opportunities to learn: A different slant on professional development. Learning and Leading With Technology. pp. 4-5. Eugene, OR: ISTE.

An Editorial.

Moursund, D.G. (1999). Selected chapters from the 1999 book. Moursund maintains an extensive Website on IT-Assisted Project-Based Learning. Eugene, OR: ISTE.

Moursund, D.G. (August-September 1999). Ten powerful ideas shaping the present and future of ICT in education. Editor's Message, Learning and Leading With Technology. Eugene, OR: ISTE.

An Editorial.

Moursund. D.G. (November 1999). Digital Technology: Transforming Schools and Improving Learning. In Day, B. (Ed.) Teaching and Learning in the New Millennium. Published by Kappa Delta Pi, an International Honor Society in Education.

A chapter that provides an overview of the field of CICT in Education and its possible future.

Moursund, D.G. (2000). Four Readings for the EDST 114 course.

This set of four short articles was written for use in the EDUC 114 course that is required of all preservice elementary education majors in the Integrated Licensure program at the University of Oregon. The articles provide an introduction to a number of the BIG IDEAS in the field of ICT in education. Each short article ends with several questions that are designed for in-class discussion by small groups of students as well as by the whole class.

Moursund, D.G. (October 2000). Roles of ICT in improving our educational system. Part 2: Compelling applications. Editor's Message, Learning and Leading With Technology. Eugene, OR: International Society for Technology in Education.

An Editorial.

NCATE ICT Standards for Teachers [Online]. Accessed 8/8/04:

The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) is the official body for accrediting teacher preparation programs. The International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) is the professional education organization responsible for recommending guidelines for accreditation to NCATE for programs in educational computing and technology teacher preparation.

Two types of standards are applied in the accreditation process:

  1. Curriculum guidelines for preparation in the specialty, educational computing, and related technologies .
  2. Unit guidelines for infrastructure affecting all professional education programs.

Northwest Council for Computer Education (NCCE) [Online]. Accessed 8/8/04:

The Northwest Council for Computer Education (NCCE) supports and advances the use of educational technology in the Pacific Northwest. NCCE has a very high quality annual conference held in Oregon or Washington. The 2005 annual conference is March 16 to 19 in Seattle, Washington.

NCES (National Center for Educational Statistics). Trends in educational equity of girls & women [Online]. Accessed 8/8/04:

Many people see a "gender gap" in terms of ICT. Click here for more information (from the Oregon Technology in Education Council Website) on women in ICT.

North Central Regional Technology Laboratory (NCREL). Learning with Technology Profile Tool [Online]. Accessed 8/8/04: Quoting from the Website:

The increasing accessibility of the Internet, advent of high performance technologies, and widespread acknowledgment that technology should play an important role in education are all pressuring schools to develop, implement, and evaluate technology plans. However, planning for technology integration is difficult when most members of the school planning team have little technical experience. More significantly, these individuals typically have limited visions of how to plan for technology because they have not seen many cases of students and teachers using technology in innovative ways that result in engaged learning. Furthermore, school teams lack the tools necessary to make critical assessments about how well the implementation of their plan is resulting in technology-supported engaged learning experiences for their students.

NCRTEC and NCREL are developing a suite of tools to support schools in technology planning and integration. The Learning With Technology Profile Tool is a computer program intended to help educators think carefully about their practice in the areas of engaged learning and technology. The program presents indicators of engaged learning and indicators of technology. For each indicator there are three choices that educators can compare to their own practice. When finished, educators can view the results in a graphical format to help identify their strengths and weaknesses.

Oregon Department of Education [Online]. Accessed 8/8/04:

PCAST (President's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology [Online]. Accessed 8/8/04:

There are many reports from the committee, but the March 1997 report on technology in education has received the most attention and has been widely referenced by people working in the field of technology in education.

Pew Internet & American Life Project [Online]. Accessed 8/8/04: Quoting from the Website:

The Pew Internet & American Life Project will create and fund original, academic-quality research that explores the impact of the Internet on children, families, communities, the work place, schools, health care and civic/political life. The Project aims to be an authoritative source for timely information on the Internet's growth and societal impact, through research that is scrupulously impartial.

The basic work-product of the center will be phone and online surveys; data-gathering efforts that will often involve classic shoe-leather reporting from government agencies, academics, and other experts; fly-on-the-wall observations of what people do when they are online; and other efforts that try to examine individual and group behavior. The Project intends to release 15-20 pieces of research a year, varying in size, scope, and ambition.

The Pew Internet & American Life Project is a non-profit initiative of the Pew Research Center for People and the Press. Andrew Kohut, the head of the Pew Research Center, will serve as an advisor to the Pew Internet & American Life Project and the chair of its board. Support for the project is provided by The Pew Charitable Trusts. The Tides Center in San Francisco administers the Project's grant from Pew.

Richard Strong, Harvey Silver, Matthew Perini, and Greg Tucules (September 2003). Boredom and Its Opposite. Educational Leadership. Accessed 8/7/04:

An understanding of natural human interests gives teachers tools for overcoming students' reluctance to learn.

Richard Strong, Harvey Silver, Matthew Perini, and Greg Tucules
In his provocative book on the paradoxes of motivation, On Kissing, Tickling, and Being Bored, British psychoanalyst Adam Phillips (1993) describes boredom as both

* A form of depression—a kind of anger turned inward; and
* A longing for that which will transform the self, making life and learning meaningful.

This double aspect of boredom—its negative brooding and its positive yearning—makes it difficult to deal with in the life of classrooms. Its dark, depressive side tends to provoke our anger and defensiveness (I am not boring!), even as its searching quality stirs up fears of our own insufficiency (Am I providing students with interesting and meaningful learning experiences?).

Technology and Education Reform: Technical Research Report. Volume 1: Findings and Conclusions. August 1995 [Online]. Accessed 8/8/04: Quoting from the Executive Summary:

The model of constructivist teaching that motivated our research design has student involvement in complex, meaningful tasks or projects at its core. Once a commitment is made to structuring the classroom around such projects, nearly every other aspect of pedagogy must change as well. Projects with real-world relevance will nearly always be multifaceted, incorporating both higher-order skills, such as design, composition, and analysis, and more basic skills, such as the mechanics of writing. They will also nearly always be multidisciplinary in nature and will require extended periods of time to complete. The very complexity of the task will make it advantageous to have students work on them in groups, resulting in a greater emphasis on teamwork and collaborative skills. Heterogeneous roles will tend to emerge as students tackle different portions of the project. Teachers will design the overall structure for project activities and provide the resources that students need to do them, but students will have much more responsibility for their own learning and for producing finished products that meet high standards. Teachers will function as roving coaches, helping individual students or groups over rough spots and capitalizing on the "teachable moment" within the context of the students' engagement in their work. In short, when instruction is organized around complex, authentic projects, there are strong pressures to break away from the discrete academic disciplines, repetitive drill, short periods of instruction, and teacher-led lessons that have been the hallmarks of American education for so many years.

Technology and Education Reform (Date? perhaps 2001?). A Research Project Sponsored by the Office of Educational Research and Improvement U.S. Department of Education Conducted by SRI International Accessed 8/8/04: Quoting from the Website:

In this research project, we have looked at nine school sites where school staff were active participants in incorporating technology in ways that support education reform. These pages report on the experiences of the teachers and students at these schools.

Technology Connections for School Improvement Planners' Handbook [Online]. Accessed 8/8/04:

The complete contents of this 1999 book (153 pages) are available (free) online. Quoting from the Website: "This handbook is designed for those who seek to:
  • Engage stake-holders in a technology planning process to enhance learning opportunities and school improvement efforts.
  • Learn from research findings and case scenarios about problem-solving technology practices implemented in schools today.
  • Identify technology needs and evaluate implementation progress.

Texas Center for Educational Technology [Online]. Accessed 8/8/04:

This contains pointers to a lot of good Web sites of interest to ICT in education people.

Tufte, Edward (September 2003). PowerPoint Is Evil. Power Corrupts. PowerPoint Corrupts Absolutely. Wired Magazine. Issue 11.09. Accessed 8/7/04: Quoting from the article:

Particularly disturbing is the adoption of the PowerPoint cognitive style in our schools. Rather than learning to write a report using sentences, children are being taught how to formulate client pitches and infomercials. Elementary school PowerPoint exercises (as seen in teacher guides and in student work posted on the Internet) typically consist of 10 to 20 words and a piece of clip art on each slide in a presentation of three to six slides -a total of perhaps 80 words (15 seconds of silent reading) for a week of work. Students would be better off if the schools simply closed down on those days and everyone went to the Exploratorium or wrote an illustrated essay explaining something.

In a business setting, a PowerPoint slide typically shows 40 words, which is about eight seconds' worth of silent reading material. With so little information per slide, many, many slides are needed. Audiences consequently endure a relentless sequentiality, one damn slide after another. When information is stacked in time, it is difficult to understand context and evaluate relationships. Visual reasoning usually works more effectively when relevant information is shown side by side. Often, the more intense the detail, the greater the clarity and understanding. This is especially so for statistical data, where the fundamental analytical act is to make comparisons.

U.S.Library of Congress [Online]. Accessed: 9/15/02

The U.S. Library of Congress is the nation's library. It contains more than 100 million items, and it adds millions of items each year. There is an ongoing, concerted effort to digitize the library's holdings so that the materials can be accessed through the Web. Thus, materials are steadily being added to the Web site.

The Webpage is designed especially for teachers.

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