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Oregon Technology in Education Council


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Topic 1: Self-Assessment

Topic 2: Self-Assessment

Topic 3: Self-Assessment

Topic 4 Self-Assessment

Topic 5: Self-Assessment

Topic 1: Standards

Topic 2: Standards

Topic 3 :Standards

Topic 4: Standards

Topic 5: Standards

National and Regional Standards for Topic 5

ICT as a discipline of study. This discipline is often called Computer and Information Science.

Computer and Information Science (CIS) is a discipline (a field of study, a science) that has grown up around the theory and practice of electronic digital computers.

However, the field of CIS is much older than electronic digital computers. For example, the U.S. Census data of 1890 was processed using punched cards and a variety of automatic sorting and counting machines. Alan Turing produced a mathematics paper in 1936 that provides the mathematical underpinnings of the capabilities of computers. His mathematical model of a computer has come to be called a Turing Machine.

The first Computer Science Departments were started in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The University of Oregon started such a department in 1969, and this start date was probably among the first 5% of currently existing Computer Science Departments in the United States.

ISTE Standards

The International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) is this county's major professional society working in the field of Information and Communication Technology in precollege education and teacher education. It was established in 1979 by David Moursund, and its National Headquarters are located in Eugene, Oregon.

ISTE has developed:

The National Educational Technology Standards (NETS) for Teachers is broken into six major components. Click here to access a list of the six components.

By and large, the ISTE standards give short shift to the discipline of Computer and Information Science (CIS). The first of the six standards states:

Teachers demonstrate a sound understanding of technology operations and concepts. Teachers:

  1. demonstrate introductory knowledge, skills, and understanding of concepts related to technology (as described in the ISTE National Education Technology Standards for Students);
  2. demonstrate continual growth in technology knowledge and skills to stay abreast of current and emerging technologies.

An examination of the profiles for students shows lsome mention of topics commonly considered to be parts of the field of Computer and Information Science. For example

  1. Item 8 in the Grades 3-5 Profiles states that students "use technology resources (e.g., calculators, data collection probes, videos, educational software) for problem solving, self-directed learning, and extended learning activities.
  2. Item 1 in the Grades 6-8 Ptoflie states that students: "Apply strategies for identifying and solving routine hardware and software problems that occur during everyday use.
  3. Item 9 in the Grades 9-12 Profiles states that students "nvestigate and apply expert systems, intelligent agents, and simulations in real-world situations.

It is evident that for the most part the ISTE National Education Standards for Students focus on using computres and place very little emphasis on understanding the underlying field of Computer and Information Science.

Thus, we must look outside of the ISTE Standards if want to explore possible CIS knowledge that might be appropriate for preservice and inservice K-12 teachers. We will look at:

  • The International Technology Education Association
  • The Advance Placement high school course and test in Computer Science.

Standards of the International Technology Education Association

The following is quoted from the Website of the International Technology Education Association (ITEA).

There are many definitions of technology and many misrepresentations of what technology is meant to be. Below you will find the terms and definitions that we use in order to discuss this widely misunderstood term.

Technology: 1. Human innovation in action that involves the generation of knowledge and processes to develop systems that solve problems and extend human capabilities. 2. The innovation, change, or modification of the natural environment to satisfy perceived human needs and wants.

Technological Literacy: The ability to use, manage, understand, and assess technology.

Technology education: A study of technology, which provides an opportunity for students to learn about the processes and knowledge related to technology that are needed to solve problems and extend human capabilities.

ITEA lists 20 Standards for Technological Literacy.

[[[This section remains to be written.]]




AP Course and Test in Computer Science

A number of high schools offer an Advanced Placement course in Computer Science, and many thousand students in the U.S. take the course and the AP exam each year.

The following is quoted from the Computer Science AP Website:

The first AP Computer Science Exam was offered in 1984. This exam essentially covered the AP Computer Science AB curriculum. In 1988 the original course was renamed AB, and AP Computer Science A was introduced. A single three-hour exam was administered; all candidates completed the A portion of the exam and received an A score. Those who elected to complete the entire exam received a second score for the AB material tested. In 1992 the exam split into our present format of two separate three-hour exams: AP Computer Science A and AP Computer Science AB. AP Computer Science AB covers the same content as most first-year college courses; indeed, with a 4 or a 5 on the AP Computer Science AB Exam, students often receive a full first-year university computer science credit.

Both the A and the AB courses are intended to be introductory courses in computer science. No prior knowledge is required. However, the AB course is much more extensive; topics covered include sequence, repetition, conditions, functions, one- and two-dimensional arrays, object-based classes, recursion, pointers, dynamic memory management, linked lists, trees, and stacks and queues. The current programming language is C++ but will be changed to Java for the May 2004 exams.






Three of the standards that are relevant to Topic 3 are:


Teachers plan and design effective learning environments and experiences supported by technology. Teachers:

  1. design developmentally appropriate learning opportunities that apply technology-enhanced instructional strategies to support the diverse needs of learners;
  2. apply current research on teaching and learning with technology when planning learning environments and experiences;
  3. identify and locate technology resources and evaluate them for accuracy and suitability;;
  4. plan for the management of technology resources within the context of learning activities;
  5. plan strategies to manage student learning in a technology-enhanced environment.

Teachers implement curriculum plans, that include methods and strategies for applying technology to maximize student learning. Teachers:

  1. facilitate technology-enhanced experiences that address content standards and student technology standards;
  2. use technology to support learner-centered strategies that address the diverse needs of students;
  3. apply technology to develop students' higher order skills and creativity;
  4. manage student learning activities in a technology-enhanced environment.

Teachers apply technology to facilitate a variety of effective assessment and evaluation strategies. Teachers:

  1. apply technology in assessing student learning of subject matter using a variety of assessment techniques;
  2. use technology resources to collect and analyze data, interpret results, and communicate findings to improve instructional practice and maximize student learning;
  3. apply multiple methods of evaluation to determine students' appropriate use of technology resources for learning,communication,and productivity.


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