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Last Fight of the Revenge at Sea.

Sir Walter Raleigh.

Note on the e-text: this Renascence Editions text was transcribed by Risa S. Bear, May 2003, from the Huntington copy of the Ponsonby edition of 1591. The text is in the public domain. Content unique to this presentation is copyright © 2003 The University of Oregon. For nonprofit and educational uses only. Send comments and corrections to the Publisher.

the fight about the Iles of
Açores, this last

Reuenge, one of her Maiesties

And an Armada of the King
of Spaine.

Printed for william Ponsonbie.
1 5 9 1.

A report of the truth of the fight about
the Isles of Açores, this last summer, betwixt the
Reuenge, one of Her Maiesties Shippes,
and an Armada of the king
of Spaine.

BEcause the rumours are diuersly spred, as well in Englande as in the lowe countries and els where, of this late encounter between her maiesties ships and the Armada of Spain, and that the Spaniardes according to their vsuall maner, fill the world with their vaine glorious vaunts, making great apparance of victories: when on the contrary, themselues are most commonly & shamefully beaten and dishonoured; therby hoping to possesse the ignorant multitude by anticipating and forerunning false reports; It is agreeable with all good reason, for manifestation of the truth to ouercome falshood and vntruth; that the beginning, continuance and successe of this late honourable encounter of Syr Richard Grinuile, and other her maiesties Captaines, with the Armada of Spaine; should be truly set downe & published without parcialitie or false imaginations. And it is no maruell that the Spaniard should seeke by false & slandrous Pamphlets, aduisoes and Letters, to couer their owne losse, and to derogate from others their due honours, especially in this fight beeing performed farre of: seeing they were not ashamed in  the yeeare 1 5 8 8. when they purposed the inuasion of this land, to publish in sundrie languages in print, great victories in wordes, which they pleaded to haue obteined against this Realme, and spredde the same in a most false sort ouer all partes of France, Italie, and else where. When shortly after it was happily manifested in verie deed to all Nations, how their Nauy which they termed inuincible, consisting of 2 4 0. saile of ships, not onely of their own kingdom, but strenghthened with the greatest Argosies, Portugall Caractes, Florentines and huge Hulkes of other countries: were by thirtie of her Maiesties owne shippes of warre, and a few of our owne Marchants, by the wise, valiant, and most aduantagious conduction of the L. Charles Howard, high Admirall of England, beaten and shuffeled togither; euen from the Lizard in Cornwall: first to Portland, where they shamefully left Don Pedro de Valdes, with his mightie shippe: from Portland to Cales, where they lost Hugo de Moncado, with the Gallias of which he was Captain, and from Cales, driuen with squibs from their anchors: were chased out of the sight of England, round about Scotland and Ireland. Where for the sympathie of their barbarous religion, hoping to finde succour and assistance: a great part of them were crusht against the rocks, and those other that landed, being verie manie in number, were notwithstanding broken, slaine, and taken, and so sent from village to village coupled in halters into Engla[n]d. Where her Maiestie of her Princely & inuincible disposition, disdaining to put them to death, and scorning either to retaine or entertaine them: were all sent backe againe to their countries, to witnesse and recount the worthy achieuements of their inuincible and dreadfull Nauy. Of which the number of souldiers, the fearefull burthen of their shippes, the commanders names of euerie squadron, with all other their magazines of prouisions, were put in print, as an Army & Nauy vnresitible, and disdaining preuention. With all which so great and terrible an ostentation, they did not in all their sailing rounde about England, so much as sinke or take one ship, Barke, Pinnes, or Cockbote of ours: or euer burnt so much as one sheepcote of this land. When as on the contrarie, Syr Francis Drake, with only 8 0 0. souldiers not long before, landed in their Indies, and forced Santiago, Santo Domingo, Cartagena, and the Fortes of Florida.
    And after that, Syr Iohn Norris marched from Peniche in Portugall, with a handfull of souldiers, to the gates of Lisbone, being aboue 40. English miles. Where the Earle of Essex himselfe and other valiant Gentlemen, braued the Cittie of Lisbone, encamped at the verie gates; from whence after many daies abrode, finding neither promised partie, nor prouisio[n] to batter; made retrait by la[n]d, in despight of all their Garrisons, both of Horse and foote. In this sort I haue a little digressed from my first purpose, only by the necessarie comparison of theirs and our actions: the one couetous of honor without vaunt or ostentation; the other so greedy to purchase the opinio[n] of their own affaires, & by false rumors to resist the blasts of their owne dishonors, as they will not only not blush to spread all manner of vntruthes: but euen for the least aduantage, be it but for the taking of one poore aduenturer of the English, will celebrate the victorie with bonefiers in euerie town, alwaies spending more in faggots, then the purchase was worth they obtained. When as we neuer yet thought it worth the consumption of two bilets, when we haue taken eight or ten of their Indian shippes at one time, & twentie of the Brasill fleet. Such is the difference betweene true valure, and ostentation: and betweene honourable actions, and friuolous vaineglorious vaunts. But now to returne to my first purpose.
    The L. Thomas Howard, with sixe of her Maiesties ships, sixe victualers of London, the barke Ralegh, and two or three Pinnaces riding at anchor nere vnto Flores, one of the Westerlie Ilands of the Azores, the last of August in the after noone, had intelligence by one Captaine Midleton, of the approch of the Spanish Armada. Which Midleton being in a verie good Sailer, had kept them [c]ompanie three daies before, of good purpose, both to discouer their forces the more, as also to giue aduice to my L. Thomas of their approch. He had no sooner deliuered the newes but the Fleet was in sight: manie of our shippes companies were on shore in the Iland; some prouiding balast for their ships; others filling of water and refreshing themselues from the land with such thinges as they coulde either for money, or by force recouer. By reason whereof our ships being all pestered and romaging euerie thing out of order, verie light for want of balast. And that which was most to our disaduantage, the one halfe part of the men of euerie shippe sicke, and vtterly vnseruiceable. For in the Reuenge there were nintie diseased: in the Bonauenture, not so many in health as could handle her maine saile. For had not twentie men beene taken out of a Barke of Sir George Caryes, his being commanded to be sunke, and those appointed to her, she had hardly euer recouered England. The rest for the most part, were in little better state. The names of her Maiesties shippes were these as followeth -- the Defiaunce, which was Admirall, the Reuenge Viceadmirall, the Bonauenture commanded by Captaine Crosse, the Lion by George Fenner, the Foresight by M. Thomas Vauisour, and the Crane by Duffield. The Foresight & the Crane being but small ships; onely the other were of the middle size, the rest, besids the Barke Ralegh, commanded by Captaine Thin, were victualers, & of small force or none. The Spanish fleete hauing shrouded their approch by reason of the Iland; were now so soone at ha[n]d, as our ships had scarce time to waye their anchors, but some of them were driuen to let slip their Cables and set sayle. Sir Richard Grinuile was the last waied, to recouer the men that were vpon the Iland, which otherwise had beene lost. The L. Thomas with the rest verie hardly recouered the winde, which Sir Richard Grinuile not being able to do, was perswaded by their maister and others to cut his maine salie, and cast about, and to trust to the sailing of the shippe: for the squadron of Siuil were on his wether bow. But Sir Richard vtterly refused to turne from the enemie, alledging that he would rather chose to dye, then to dishonour him selfe, his countrie and her Mai[e]sties shippe, perswading his companie that he would passe through the two Squadrons, in despight of them: and enforce those of Siuill to giue him way. Which he performed vpon diuerse of the formost, who as the Marriners terme it, sprang their luffe, and fell vnder the lee of the Reuenge. But the other course had beene the better, and might right well haue beene answered in so great an impossibilitie of preuailing. Notwithstanding out of the greatnesse of his minde, he could not bee perswaded. In the meane while as hee attended those which were nearest him, the great San Philip being in the winde of him &, comming towards him, becalmed his sailes in such sort, as the shippe could neither make way nor feele the helme: so huge and high carged was the Spanish ship, being of a thousand & fiue hundreth tuns. Who after laid the Reuenge aboord.When he was thus bereft of his sailes, the ships that were vnder his lee luffing vp, also laid him aboorde: of which the next was the Admirall of the Biscaines, a verie mightie and puysant shippe commanded by Brittan Dona. The said Philip carried three tire of ordinance on a side, and eleuen pieces in euerie tire. She shot eight forth right out of her chase, besides those of her Sterne portes.
    After the Reuenge was intangled with this Philip, foure other boorded her; two on her larboord, and two on her starboord. The fight thus beginning at three of the clocke in the after noone, continued verie terrible all that euening. But the great San Philip hauing receiued the lower tire of the Reuenge, discharged with crossebarshot, shifted hir selfe with all diligence from her sides, vtterly misliking hir first entertainment. Some say that the ship foundred, but wee cannot report it for truth, vnlesse wee were assured. The Spanish ships were filled with companies of souldiers, in some two hundred besides the Marriners, in some five, in others eight hundreth. In ours there were none at all, beside the Marriners, but the seruants of the commanders and some few voluntarie Gentlemen only. After many enterchanged voleies of great ordinance and small shot, the Spaniards deliberated to enter the Reuenge, and made diuers attempts, hoping to force her by the multitudes of their armed souldiers and Musketiers, but were still repulsed againe and againe, and at all times beaten backe, into their own shippes, or into the seas. In the beginning of the fight, the George Noble of London, hauing receiued some shot thorow her by the Armados, fell vnder the Lee of the Reuenge, and asked Syr Richard what he would command him, being but one of the victulers and of small force: Syr Richard bidde him [saue] himselfe, & leaue him to his fortune. After the fight had thus without intermission, co[n]tinued while the day lasted & some houres of the night, many of our men were slaine and hurt, and one of the great Gallions of the Armada, and the Admirall of the Hulkes both sunke, and in many other of the Spanish ships great slaughter was made. Some write that sir Richard was verie dangerously hurt almost in the beginning of the fight, and laie speechlesse for a time ere he recouered. But two of the Reuenges owne companie, brought home in a ship of Lime from the Ilandes, examined by some of the Lordes, and others: affirmed that he was neuer so wounded as that hee forsooke the vpper decke, til an houre before midnight; and the[n] being shot into the bodie with a Musket as he was a dressing, was againe shot into the head, & withall his Chirurgion wounded to death. This agreeth also with an examination taken by Syr Frances Godolphin, of 4. other Marriners of the same shippe being returned, which examination, the said Syr Frances sent vnto maister William Killigrue, of her Maiesties priuie Chamber.
   But to return to the fight, the Spanish ships which attempted to board the Reuenge, as they were wounded and beaten of, so alwaies others came in their places, she hauing neuer lesse the[n] two mightie Gallions by her sides, and aboard her. So that ere the morning, from three of the clocke the day before, there had fifteene seuerall Armados assailed her; and all so ill approued their entertainment, as they were by the breake of day, far more willing to harken to a composition, then hastily to make any more assaults or entries. But as the day encreased, so our men decreased: and as the light grew more and more, by so much more grew our discomforts. For none appeared in sight but enemies, sauing one small ship called the Pilgrim, commanded by Iacob Whiddon, who houered all night to see the successe: but in the mornyng bearing with the Reuenge, was hunted like a hare amongst many rauenous houndes, but escaped.
   All the powder of the Reuenge to the last barrell was now spent, all her pikes broken, fortie of her best men slaine, and the most part of the rest hurt. In the beginning of the fight she had but one hundred free from sicknes, and fourescore and ten sicke, laid in hold vpon the Ballast. A small troupe to man such a ship, and a weake Garrison to resist so mightie an Army. By those hundred all was sustained, the voleis, bourdings, and entrings of fifteene shippes of warre, besides those which beat her at large. On the contrarie, the Spanish were alwaies supplied with souldiers brought from euerie squadron: all maner of Armes and pouder at will. Vnto ours there remained no comfort at all, no supply either of ships, men, or weapons; the mastes all beaten ouer board, all her tackle cut a sunder, her vpper worke altogither rased, and in effect euened shee was with the water, but the verie foundation or bottom of a ship, nothing being left ouer head either for flight or defence. Syr Richard finding himselfe in this distresse, & vnable anie longer to make resistance, hauing endured in this fifteene houres fight, the assault of fifteene seuerall Armadoes, all by tornnes aboorde him, and by estimation eight hundred shot of great artillerie, besides manie assoults and entries. And that himselfe and the shippe must needes be possessed by the enimie, who were now all cast in a ring about him; The Reuenge not able to moue one way or other, but as she was moued with the waues and billow of the sea: commanded the maister Gunner, whom he knew to be a most resolute man, to split and sinke the shipp; that thereby nothing might remaine of glorie or victorie to the Spaniards: seeing in so manie houres fight, and with so great a Nauie they were not able to take her, hauing had fifteene houres time, fifteene thousand men, and fiftie & three saile of men of warre to performe it withall. And perswaded the companie, or as manie as he could induce, to yeelde them selues vnto God, and to the mercie of none els; but as they had like valiant resolute men, repulsed so manie enemies, they should not now shorten the honour of their nation, by prolonging their owne liues for a few houres, or a few daies. The maister Gunner readilie condescended and diuers others; but the Captaine and the Maister were of an other opinion, and besought Sir Richard to haue care of them: alleaging that the Spaniard would be as readie to entertaine a composition, as they were willing to offer the same: a[n]d that there being diuerse sufficient and valiant men yet liuing, and whose wounds were not mortall, they might doe their countrie and prince acceptable seruice hereafter. And (that where Sir Richard had alleaged that the Spa[n]iards should neuer glorie to haue taken one shippe of her Maiesties, seeing they had so long and so notably defended them selues) they answered, that the shippe had sixe foote of water in hold, three shot vnder water which were so weakly stopped, as with the first working of the sea, she must needes sinke, and was besides so crusht & brused, as she could neuer be remoued out of the place.
   And as the matter was thus in dispute, and Sir Richard refusing to hearken to any of those reasons; the maister of the Reuenge (while the Captaine wan vnto him the greater party) was conuoyde aborde the Generall Don Alfonso Bassan. Who finding none ouer hastie to enter the Reuenge againe, doubting least S. Richard would haue blowne them vp and himselfe, and perceiuing by the report of the maister of the Reuenge his daungerous disposition; yeelded that all their liues should be saued, the companie sent to England, and the better sorte to pay such reasonable ransome as their estate would beare, and in the meane season to be free from Gally or imprisonment. To this he so much the rather condescended as well as I haue saide, for feare of further losse and mischiefe to them selues, as also for the desire hee had to recouer Sir Richard Grinuile; whom for his notable valure he seemed greatly to honour and admire.
   When this answere was returned, and that safetie of life was promised, the common sort being now at the end of their perill, the most drew backe from Sir Richard and the maister Gunner, being no hard matter to diswade men from death to life. The maister Gunner finding him selfe and Sir Richard thus preuented and maistered by the greater number, would haue slaine himselfe with a sword, had he not beene by force withheld and locked into his Cabben. Then the Generall sent manie boates abord the Reuenge, and diuerse of our men fearing Sir Richards disposition, stole away aboord the Generall and other shippes. Sir Richard thus ouermatched, was sent vnto by Alfonso Bassan to remoue out of the Reuenge, the shippe being maruellous vnsauerie, filled with bloud & bodies of deade, & wounded men like a slaughter house. Sir Richard answered that he might do with his bodie what he list, for he esteemed it not, and as he was carried out of the shippe he swounded, and reuiuing againe desired the companie to pray for him. The Generall vsed Sir Richard with all humanitie, and left nothing vnattempted that tended to his recouerie, highly commending his valour and worthines, and greatly bewailed the daunger wherein he was, beeing vnto them a rare spectacle, and a resolution sildome approued, to see one ship turne toward so many enemies, to endure the charge & boording of so many huge Armados, and to resist and repell the assaults and entries of so many souldiers. All which & more, is confirmed by a Spanish Captaine of the same armada, and a present actor in the fight, who being seuered from the rest in a storm, was by the Lyon of London a small ship taken, & is now prisoner in Lo[n]don.
   The generall commander of the Armada, was Don Alphonso Bassan, brother to the Marquesse of Santa Cruce. The admirall of the Biscaine squadron, was Britan Dona. Of the squadron of Siuill, Marques of Arumburch. The Hulkes and Flybotes were commaunded by Luis Cutino. There were slaine and drowned in this fight, well neere two thousand of the enemies, and two especiall commanders Don Luis de Sant Iohn, and Don George de Prunaria de Mallaga, as the Spanish Captain confesseth, besides diuer others of speciall account, wherof as yet report is not made.
   The Admirall of the Hulkes & the Ascention of Siuill, were both suncke by the side of the Reuenge; one other recouered the rode of Saint Michels, and suncke also there; a fourth ranne her selfe with the shore to saue her men. Syr Richard died as it is said, the second or third day aboard the Generall, and was by them greatly bewailed. What became of his bodie, whether it were buried in the sea or on the lande wee know not, the comfort that remaineth to his friendes is, that he hath ended his life honourably in respect of the reputation wonne to his nation and country, and of the same to his posteritie, and that being dead, he hath not outliued his owne honour.
   For the rest of her Maiesties ships that entred not so far into the fight as the Reuenge, the reasons and causes were these. There were of them but six in all, wherof two but small ships; the Reuenge ingaged past recouerie: The Iland of Flores was on the one side, 5 3. saile of the Spanish, diuided into squadrons on the other, all as full filled with soldiers as they could containe. Almost the one halfe of our men sicke and not able to serue: the ships growne foule, vnroomaged, and scarcely able to beare anie saile for want of balast, hauing been sixe moneths as the sea before. If al the rest had entred, all had been lost. For the verie hugenes of the Spanish fleet, if no other violence had been offred, would haue crusht them between them into shiuers. Of which the dishonour and losse to the Queene had been far greater then the spoile or harme that the enemy could any way haue receiued. Notwithstanding it is verie true, that the Lord Thomas would haue entred betweene the squadrons, but the rest wold not condescend; and the maister of his owne ship offred to leape into the sea, rather then to conduct that her Maiesties ship and the rest to be a praie to the enemy, where there was no hope nor possibilitie either of defence or victorie.Which also in my opinion had il sorted or answered the discretion & trust of a Generall, to commit himselfe and his charge to an assured destruction, without hope or any likelihood of preuailing: therby to diminish the strength of her Maiesties Nauy, & to enrich the pride & glorie of the enemie. The Foresight of the Queenes commanded by M. Th. Vauisor, performed a verie great fight, & stayd two houres as neere the Reuenge as the wether wold permit him, not forsaking the fight, till hee was like to be encompassed by the squadro[n]s & with great difficultie cleared himselfe. The rest gaue diuers voleis of shot, & entred as far as the place permitted & their own necessities, to keep the weather gage of the enemy, vntill they were parted by night. A fewe daies after the fight was ended, & the English prisoners dispersed into the Spanish & Indy ships, there arose so great a storme from the West and Northwest, that all the fleet was dispersed, as well the Indian fleet which were then come vnto them, as the rest of the Armada that attended their arriuall, of which 14. saile togither with the Reuenge, & in her 200. Spaniards, were cast away vpon the Isle of S. Michaels. So it pleased them to honour the buriall of that renowned ship the Reuenge, not suffring her to perish alone, for the great homour she achieued in her life time. On the rest of the Ilandes there were cast away in this storm, 15. or 16. more of the ships of war; and of a hundred and odde saile of the Indie fleet, expected this yeere in Spaine, what in this tempest, & what in the bay of Mexico, & about the Bermudas there were 70. & odde consumed & lost, with those taken by our ships of London, besides one verie rich Indian shippe, which set her selfe on fire, beeing boorded by the Pilgrim, & fiue other take[n] by Maister Wats his ships of London, between the Hauana and Cape S. Antonio. The 4. of this month ov Noue[m]ber, we receiued letters from the Tercera, affirming yt there are 3000. bodies of me[n] remaining in that Iland, saued out of the perished ships: and that by the Spaniards own co[n]fessio[n], there are 10000. cast away in this storm, besides those that are perished betweene the Ilands and the maine. Thus it hath pleased God to fight for vs, & to defend the iustice of our cause, against the ambicious & bloudy pretenses of the Spaniard, who seeking to deuour all nations, are themselues deuoured. A manifest testimonie how iniust & displeasing, their attempts are in the sight of God, who hath pleased to witnes by the successe of their affaires, his mislike of their bloudy and inurious designes, purposed & practised against all Christian Princes, ouer whom they seeke vnlawfull and vngodly rule and Empery.
   One day or two before this wrack hapned to the spanish fleet, when as some of our prisoners desired to be set on shore vpo[n] the Ilands, hoping to be fro[m] the[n]ce tra[n]sported into Engla[n]d, which libertie was formerly by the Generall promised: One Morice Fitz Iohn, sonne of Iohn of Desmond a notable traitor, cousen german to the late Earle of Desmond, was sent to the English from ship to ship, to persuade them to serue the King of Spaine. The arguments he vsed to induce them, were these. The increase of pay which he promised to bee trebled: aduancement to the better sort: and the exercise of the true Catholicke religion, and safetie of their soules to all. For the first, euen the beggerly & vnnaturall behauiour of those English and Irish rebels, that serued the King in that present action, was sufficient to answere that first argument of rich paie.
For so poore and beggerly they were, as for want of apparel they stripped their poore country men prisoners out of their ragged garments, worne to nothing by six months seruice, and spared not to despoile them euen of their bloudie shirts, from their wounded bodies, & the very shooes from their feete; A notable testimonie of their rich entertainment and great wages. The second reason was hope of aduancement if they serued well, and would continue faithfull to the King. But what man can be so blockishly ignorant euer to expect place or honour from a forraine king, hauing no other argument or persuasion then his owne diloyaltie; to bee vnnaturall to his owne countrie that bredde hin; to his parents that begat him, aqnd rebellious to his true prince, to whose obedience he is bound by othe, by nature, and by religion. No, they are onely assured to be imployed in all desperate enterprises, to be held in scorne and disdaine euen among those whom they serue. And that euer traitor was either trusted or aduanced I could neuer yet reade, neither can I at any time remember any example. And no man could haue lesse becommed the place of an Orator for such a purpose, then this Morice of Desmond. For the Earle his cosen being one of the greatest subiects in that kingdo[m] of Ireland, hauing almost whole contries in his possession; so many goodly manners, Castles, and Lordships; the Count Palatine of Kerry, fiue hundred gentlemen of his owne name and familie to follow him, besides others. All which he possessed in peace for three or foure hundred yeares: was in lesse then three yeares after his adhering to the Spaniards and rebellion, beaten from all his holdes, not so many as ten gentlemen of his name left liuing, him selfe taken and beheaded by a soldiour of his owne nation, and his land giuen by a Parlament to her Ma[i]estie, and possessed by the English. His other cosen Sir Iohn of Desmond take[n] by M. Iohn Zouch, & his body hanged ouer the gates of his natiue city to bee deuoured by Rauens: the third brother Sir Iames hanged, drawne, and quartered in the same place. If he had withall vaunted of this successe of his owne house, no doubt the argument woulde haue moued much, and wrought great effect; which because he for that present forgot, I thought it good to remember in his behalfe. For matter of religion it would require a particuler volume, if I should set downe how irreligiously they couer their greedy and ambicious pretences, with that vayle of pietie. But sure I am, that there is no kingdom or common wealth in all Europe, but if they bee reformed, they then inuade it for religion sake: if it be, as they terme Catholike, they pretende title; as if the Kinges of Castile were the naturall heires of all the worlde: and so betweene both, no kingdom is vnsought. where they dare not with their owne forces to inuade, they basely entertaine the traitors and vacabondes of all nations; seeking by those & by their runnagate Iesuits to win partes, and haue by that meane ruined many Noble houses and others in this land, and haue extinguished both their liues and families. What good, honour, or fortune euer man yet by them acheiued, is yet vnheard of, or vnwritten. And if our English Papistes do but looke into Portugall, against whom they haue no pretence of religion, how the Nobilitie are put to death, imprisoned, their rich men made a pray, and all sortes of people captiued; they shall find that the obedience euen of the Turke is easie and a libertie, in respect of the slauerie & tyrannie of Spaine. What they haue done in Sicill, in Naples, Millayne, and in the low countries; who hath beene spared for religion at all? and it commeth to my remembrance of a certaine Burger of Antwerpe, whose house being entred by a companie of Spanish souldiers, when they first sacked the Citie, hee besought them to spare him and his goodes, being a good Catholike, and one of their own partie and faction. The Spaniardes answered, that they knew him to be of a good conscience for him selfe, but his money, plate, iewels, and goodes, were all hereticall, and therefore good prize. So they abused and tormented the foolish Flemming, who hoped that an Agnus Dei had been a sufficient Target against all force of that holie and charitable nation. Neither haue they at any time as they protest inuaded the kingdomes of the Indies and Peru, and els where, but onely led thereunto, rather to reduce the people to Christianitie, then for either golde or emperie. When as in one onely Iland called Hispaniola, they haue wasted thirtie hundred thousand of the naturall people, besides many millions els in other places of the Indies: a poore and harmlesse people created of God, and might haue been wonne to his knowledge, as many of them were, and almost as manie as euer were perswaded thereunto. The Storie whereof is at large written by a Bishop of their owne nation cal[led] Bartholome de las Casa, and translated into English and manie other languages, intituled The Spanish cruelties. Who would therefore repose trust in such a nation of rauinous straungers, and especially in those Spaniardes which more greedily thirst after English bloud, then after the liues of anie other people of Europe; for the manie ouerthrowes and dishonours they haue receiued at our handes, whose weaknesse we haue discouered to the world, and whose forces at home, abroad, in Europe, in India, by sea and land; we haue euen with handfulles of men and shippes, ouerthrowne and dishonoured. Let not therefore anie English man of what religion soeuer, haue other opinion of the Spaniards, but that those whom hee seeketh to winne of our nation, hee esteemeth base and traiterous, vnworthie persons, or vnconstant fooles: and that he vseth his pretence of religion, for no other purpose, but to bewitch vs from the obedience of our naturall prince; thereby hoping in time to bring vs to slauerie and subiection, and then none shall be vnto them so odious, and disdained as the traitours themselues, who haue solde their countrie to a staunger, and forsaken their faith and obedience contrarie to nature or religion, and contrarie to that humane and generall honour, not onely of Christians, but of heathen and irreligious nations, who haue alwaies sustained what labour soeuer, and embraced euen death it selfe, for their countrie, prince or common-wealth. To conclude, it hath euer to this day pleased God, to prosper and defend her Maiestie, to breake the purposes of malicious enemies, of foresworne traitours, and of iniust practices and inuasions. She hath euer beene honoured of the worthiest Kinges, serued by faithfull subiects, and shall by the fauour of God, resist, repell, and confound all whatsoeuer attempts against her sacred Person or kingdome. In the meane time, let the Spaniard and traitour vaunt of their successe; and we her true and obedient vassalles guided by the shining light of her vertues, shall alwaies loue her, serue her, and obey her to the end of our liues.

F I N I S.

A perticuler note of the Indian fleet, expec-
ted to haue come into Spaine this present yere of 1591.
with the number of ships that are perished of the same:
according to the examination of certaine Span-
yards, lately taken and brought into Eng-
land by the shippes of

THe fleet of Noua Hispania, at their first gathering togither and setting foorth, were 52. sailes. The Admiral was of 600. tuns, and the Vice Admirall of the same burthen. Foure or fiue of the ships were of 900. and 1000. tunnes a peece, some 500. and 400. and the least of 200. tunnes. Of this fleet 19. were cast away, and in them 2600. men by estimatio[n], which was done along the coast of Noua Hispania, so that of the same fleet, there came to the Hauana, but three and thirtie sailes.

   The fleete of Terra Firma, were at their first departure from Spain, 50. sailes, which were bound for Nombre de Dios, where they did discharge their lading, & thence returned to Cartagena, for their healths sake, vntill the time the treasure was readie they should take in, at the said Nombre de Dios. But before this fleet departed, some were gone by one or two at a time, so that only 23. sailes of this fleete arriued in the Hauana.

At the Haua-
na there met
{33. sailes of Noua Hispania.
{23. sailes of Terra Firma.
{12. sailes of San Domingo.
{9. sailes of Hunduras.

   In the whole 77. ships, which ioyned and set sailes togither, at the Hauana, the 17. of Iuly, according to our account, & kept togither vntill they came into the height of 35. degrees, which was about the tenth of August, where they found the winde at Southwest, chaunged sodenly to the North, so that the sea comming out of the Southwest, and the winde very violent at North, they were put all into great extremity, and then first lost the Generall of their fleet, with 500. men in her; and within three or foure daies after an other storm rising, there were fiue or six other of the biggest ships cast away with all their men, togither with their vice Admirall.

   And in the height of 48. degrees about the end of August, grew an other great storme, in which all the fleet sauing 48. sailes were cast away: which 48. sailes kept togither, vntill they came in sight of the Ilands of Coruo & Flores, about the 5. or 6. of September, at which time a great storme seperated them; of which number 15. or 16. were after seene by these Spanyards to ride at anchor vnder the Terçera; and twelue or foureteene more to beare with the Iland of S. Michaels; what became of them after that these Spaniards were taken, cannot yet be certified; their opinion is, that verie few of the fleet are escaped, but are either drowned or taken. And it is otherwaies of late certified, that of this whole fleet that of this whole fleet that should haue come into Spaine this yeare, being 123. saile, there are as yet arriued but 25. This note was taken out of the examination of certaine Spaniards, that were brought into England by six of the ships of London, which took seuen of the aboue named Indian fleet, neere the Ilands of Açores.

F I N I S.

Printed for William Ponsonbie.
1 5 9 1.

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