Geological Fluid Mechanics
Instructor: Alan Rempel
Department of Geological Sciences, University of Oregon
Meetings: MW 10:00-11:20AM in Columbia 254
Rationale:Studies of natural phenomena are informed by models that are best idealized to be simple enough to understand, yet sufficiently comprehensive to hold explanatory power. Major challenges arise in the geological sciences because the features of interest are often generated by processes that vary in their relative importance over large ranges in distance and time. Nevertheless, to build intuition models are often based on simple one-dimensional treatments and employ averaging techniques to account approximately for heterogeneities and variations. This seminar class explores some of the physical mechanisms that can cause such assumptions to fail — particularly in the broadly defined field of "geological fluid mechanics''.
The tentative schedule below lists a series of proposed discussion topics, along with preliminary ideas for the assigned readings. Where practical, these are designed to complement the main departmental seminar series so the names of the speakers and their talk titles or anticipated topics are provided. We will each be responsible for reading all assigned material, extracting the essential messages, and being prepared to contribute to every discussion session. While this is primarily a seminar class, where necessary time will be taken to go over background concepts and work through related example problems.
Tentative Schedule (both readings and topics are likely to change up until a week or two before advertised):Week 1: Motivation and background.
Monday, 9/30: Averaging in time and space. Overview of basic principles.
- G.K. Batchelor, 1.2 The continuum hypothesis, in: An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics, CUP, 1967, pp. 4–6.
- R.S. Anderson and S.P. Anderson, Guiding principles, in: Geomorphology – The Mechanics and Chemistry of Landscapes, CUP, 2010, pp. 6-8.
- O.M. Phillips, 2.6 Two theorems, in Geological Fluid Dynamics – Sub-surface Flow and Reactions, CUP, 2009, pp. 31–33.
- O. Katz and E. Aharanov, Landslides in vibrating sand box: What controls types of slope failure and frequency magnitude relations? EPSL, 247, 280–294, 2006.
Wednesday, 10/2: Frequency-magnitude relations in landslides.
Department seminar by Georgina Bennett: "Modeling a mountain basin sediment cascade''.
- Monday, 10/7: Friction and fingering.
- B. Sandnes, E.G. Flekkøy, H.A. Knudsen, K.J. Måløy, K. J. and H. See, Patterns and flow in frictional fluid dynamics, Nature Comm. 2, 288, 2011.
- L.M. Cathles, S. Zheng and D. Chen, The physics of gas chimney and pockmark formation, with implications for assessment of seafloor hazards and gas sequestration, Mar. Pet. Geol. 27, 82–91, 2010.
- Optional seminar background reading: K.A. Kvenvolden, Gas hydrates — Geological perspectives and global change, Rev. Geophys. 31, 173–187, 1993; also see the recent related New York Times article by H. Fountain: Unlocking the potential of `Flammable Ice'.
Wednesday, 10/9: Pockmarks.
Department seminar by Marta Torres: "Methane sources, transport and sinks in the gas-bearing sediments of the Ulleung basin, Korea''.
Monday 10/14 and/or Wednesday, 10/16 (students only):
- P.G. Saffman and G. Taylor, The penetration of a fluid into a porous medium or Hele–Shaw cell containing a more viscous liquid, PRSA 245, 312–329, 1958.
- R. Holtzman, M.L. Szulczewski and R. Juanes, Capillary fracturing in granular media, PRL, 108, 264504, 2012.
Department seminar by Larisa DeSantis: "Revealing paleoecology, paleobiology, and mammalian responses to climate change during the Pleistocene".
Make-up Meeting: Continued discussion on fingering instabilities. Friday, 10/18 (10–11:20 Columbia 254).
Meeting 6: Synopsis (courtesy of Rob)
- Monday, 10/21. Diapirs.
- J.A. Whitehead and D.S. Luther, Dynamics of laboratory diapir and plume models, JGR 80, 705–717, 1975.
- W.M. Durham and R. Stocker, Thin phytoplankton layers: Characteristics, mechanisms, and consequences, Ann. Rev. Mar. Sci., 4, 177–207, 2012.
Wednesday, 10/23: Mixing.
Department seminar by Emily Shroyer: "Stratification and mixing regimes in oceanic thin layers". (abstract)
- Monday, 10/28. Overview.
- H.E. Huppert and M.G. Worster. Flows involving phase change. Handbook of Environmental Fluid Dynamics, edited by H.J. Fernando, CRC Press, 2012.
- Y. Xu, E. Rignot, D. Menemenlis and M. Koppes. Numerical experiments on subaqueous melting of Greenland tidewater glaciers in response to ocean warming and enhanced subglacial runoff. Annals of Glaciology 53(60): 229-234, 2012
- Y. Xu, E. Rignot, I. Fenty, D. Menemenlis and M. M. Flexas. Subaqueous melting of Store Glacier, west Greenland from three-dimensional, high-resolution numerical modeling and ocean observations. Geophysical Research Letters 40 (17): 4648-4653, 2013. (be sure to look at the supplementary information)
Wednesday, 10/30. Plume-glacier interactions.
Department seminar by Michele Koppes: "Warming ocean or warming air? Greenland outlet glacier responses to climate and ocean changes."
- Monday, 11/4. Numerical ice streams.
- M.R. Bennett, M. R. Ice streams as the arteries of an ice sheet: their mechanics, stability and significance, Earth-Sci. Rev., 61, 309–339, 2003.
- J. Suckale, J.D. Platt, T. Perol and J.R. Rice, Deformation-induced melting in the margins of the West-Antarctic ice streams, J. Geophys. Res., in review.
Wednesday, 11/6. Ice stream margins.
Department seminar by Jenny Suckale: "The thermomechanics of ice-stream margins". (abstract)
- Monday, 11/11. Crystal-rich flows.
- L. Karlstrom, M.L. Rudolph, and M. Manga. Caldera size modulated by the yield stress within a crystal-rich magma reservoir. Nature Geoscience, 5(6), 402–405. doi:10.1038/ngeo1453, 2012.
- M.L. Rudolph, L. Karlstrom, and M. Manga. A prediction of the longevity of the Lusi mud eruption, Indonesia. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 308(1-2), 124–130. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2011.05.037, 2011.
Wednesday, 11/13. Mud volcanoes.
Department seminar by Max Rudolph: "Thermal and chemical evolution of mantle structure since 500 Mya" .
- Monday, 11/18. Mantle melt extraction.
- P.B. Kelemen, J.A. Whitehead, E. Aharanov and K.A. Jordahl. Experiments on flow focusing in soluble porous media, with applications to melt extraction from the mantle. JGR 100, 475–496, 1995.
- E.J. Colville and others. Sr-Nd-Pb Isotope evidence for ice-sheet presence on southern Greenland during the last interglacial. Science, 333, 620–623, 2011.
- A. Robinson, R. Calov, and A. Ganopolski. Multistability and critical thresholds of the Greenland ice sheet. Nature Climate Change, 2, 429–432, 2012.
- M.E. Raymo and J.X. Mitrovica. Collapse of polar ice sheets during the stage 11 interglacial. Nature, 483, 453–456, 2012.
- Monday, 11/25. Vug Waves.
- J. Phipps Morgan and B.K. Holtzman. Vug waves: A mechanism for coupled rock deformation and fluid migration. G-cubed, 6, doi10.1029/2004GC000818.
- Monday, 12/2. Volcanological Fluids.
- C. Havlin, E.M. Parmentier and G. Hirth. Dike propagation driven by melt accumulation at the lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary. EPSL, 376, 20–28, 2013.
- T.E.C. Keith. Fossil and active fumaroles in the 1912 eruptive deposits, Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Alaska. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 45, 227–254, 1991.