Sara D. Hodges

Department of Psychology
University of Oregon

Lab website:

1227 University of Oregon
Eugene, OR, 97403-1227 USA
Phone (541) 346-4919
Fax (541) 346-4911
email address:


B.A., Rhodes College, Memphis, TN, 1989.
Ph.D., University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 1995.


Psy 199: Human Nature College Connections class (Fall, 2005)
Psy 199: 7 Deadly Sins College Connections class (Fall, 2007)
Psy 202: Mind and Society
(Fall, 2007)
Psy 303: Research Methods in Psychology (Fall, 1999)
Honors College 431: Normal People Behaving Badly (Spring, 2008)
Psy 456: Social Psychology (Spring 2002)
Psy 458: Judgment and Decision Making(Spring, 1999)
Psy 460: Self and Other (Winter, 2004)
Psy 607: Self and Other (Spring, 2009)
Psy 607: The Construction of Attitudes and Beliefs (Spring, 1998)
Psy 607: Comparison Processes, Self and Otherwise (Winter, 2006)
Psy 607: Perspective Taking and Empathy (Spring, 2004)
Psy 616: Issues in Contemporary Psychology: Social & Personality (Spring, 2003)
Decision Making Focus Group
Human Nature Pathway (Fall 2000 to Spring 2001)
Human and Animal Behavior Freshman Interest Group (Fall 2001)
Anthropology and Psychology Freshman Interest Group (Fall, 2003)

Research Interests

I study how people construct judgments of their social world. I am interested in the "building blocks" we use to form attitudes and make decisions about the people and things around us, and how we organize this information.

Feature matching in judgment and decision making

One current line of research investigates how people make decisions between options with shared and unique characteristics, specifically examining how people treat these two kinds of characteristics differently, and how this affects their comparisons. When people try to decide between two options that have both shared and unique characteristics, they match up the shared attributes and concentrate on the unique ones to make their choice. I am studying what happens when they are subsequently given a third option. People appear to cancel out the shared features in earlier options, and do not use them in making subsequent decisions. I am also examining decision contexts that may inhibit or prevent the use of feature matching as a judgment strategy, and whether feature matching is used in self/other comparisons.

Perspective Taking and Empathy

What does it mean to take another person's perspective? I'm interested in both cognitive outcomes of perspective taking (e.g., empathic accuracy) as well as affective ones (how does it affect our relationship with the person whose perspective we took?). Most recently, I have been looking at how similarity of experience and motivation affect empathy. I am also intrigued by how fiction writers take their characters' perspectives, which I view as a special case of perspective taking, in which the perspective must be totally constructed, rather than simply "taken." Check out this edited volume:
Other Minds: How Humans Bridge the Divide Between Self and Others


Fernandez-Duque, D., Hodges, S. D., Baird, J. A., & Black, S. E. (2010). Empathy in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 32, 289-298.
Hodges, S. D., Kiel, K. J., Kramer, A. D. I., Veach, D., & Villanueva, B. R. (2010). Giving birth to empathy: The effects of similar experience on empathic accuracy, empathic concern, and perceived empathy. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 398-409.
Laurent, S. M., & Hodges, S. D. (2009). Gender and empathic accuracy: The role of communion in reading minds. Sex Roles, 60, 387-398.
Myers, M. W., & Hodges, S. D. (2009). Making it up and making do: Simulation, imagination and empathic accuracy. In K. Markman, W. Klein, & J. Suhr (Eds.), The handbook of imagination and mental simulation (pp. 281-294). New York: Psychology Press.
Hodges, S. D. (2008). Perspective-taking. In W. A. Darity (Ed.), International encyclopedia of the social sciences (pp. 226-227). Farmington Hills, MI: Macmillan Reference.
Brand, R. J., Markey, C. M., Mills, A., & Hodges, S. D. (2007). Sex differences in self-reported infidelity and its correlates. Sex Roles, 57, 101-109.
Hodges, S. D., & Biswas-Diener, R. (2007). Balancing the empathy expense account: Strategies for regulating empathic response. In T. F. D. Farrow & P. W. R. Woodruff (Eds.), Empathy in mental illness and health (pp. 389-407). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hodges, S. D., & Myers, Michael W. (2007). Empathy. In R. F. Baumeister and K. D. Vohs (Eds.), Encyclopedia of social psychology (pp. 296-298). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Decety, J., & Hodges, S. D. (2006). The social neuroscience of empathy. In P. A. M. van Lange (Ed.), Bridging social psychology: Benefits of transdisciplinary approaches. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Hodges, S. D. (2005). Feature matching in social comparisons. In M. Alicke, D. Dunning, & J. Krueger (Eds.), The self in social judgment (pp. 131-153). Philadelphia: Psychology Press.
Hodges, S. D. (2005). Is how much you understand me in your head or mine? In B. F. Malle & S. D. Hodges (Eds.), Other Minds: How Humans Bridge the Divide between Self and Others (pp. 298-309). New York: Guilford Press.
Taylor, M., Hodges, S. D., & Kohanyi, A. (2003). The illusion of independent agency: Do adult fiction writers experience their characters as having minds of their own? Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 22, 361-380.
Hodges, S. D., Johnsen, A. T., & Scott, N. S. (2002). You're like me, no matter what you say. Psychologica Belgica, 42, 107-112. (abstract)
Hodges, S. D., Bruininks, P., & Ivy, L. (2002). It's different when I do it: Feature matching in self-other comparisons. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 40-53. (abstract)
Hodges, S. D., & Hollenstein, T. (2001). Direction of comparison in typicality judgments. Social Cognition, 19, 601-624. (abstract)
Hodges, S. D., & Klein, K. J. K. (2001). Regulating the costs of empathy: The price of being human. Paper invited for Journal of Socioceconomics, 30, 437-452.
Klein, K. J. K., & Hodges, S. D. (2001). Gender differences, motivation and empathic accuracy: When it pays to understand. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 720-730. (abstract)
Hodges, S. D., Klaaren, K. J., & Wheatley, T. P. (2000). Talking about safe sex: The role of expectations and experience. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 30, 330-349.
Hodges, S. D. (1998). Reason for the referent: Reducing direction of comparison effects. Social Cognition, 16, 367-390. (abstract)
Hodges, S. D. (1997). When matching up features messes up decisions: The role of feature matching in successive choices. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 1310-1321.
Hodges, S. D. & Wegner, D. M. (1997). The mental control of empathic accuracy. In W. Ickes (Ed.), Empathic Accuracy (pp. 311-339). New York: Guilford.
Erber, M. W., Hodges, S. D. & Wilson, T. D. (1995). Thought and attitude strength. In R. Petty & J. Krosnick, (Eds.), Attitude strength: Antecedents and consequences (pp.. 433-454). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Wilson, T. D., Hodges, S. D. & LaFleur, S. J. (1995). Effects of introspecting about reasons: Inferring attitudes from accessible thoughts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 16-28.
Klaaren, K. J., Hodges, S. D. & Wilson, T. D. (1994). The role of affective expectations in subjective experience and decision-making. Social Cognition, 12, 77-101.
Hodges, S. D. & Wilson, T. D. (1993). The effect of analyzing reasons on attitude change: The moderating role of attitude accessibility. Social Cognition, 11, 353-366.
Wilson, T. D., Lisle, D. J., Schooler, J. W., Hodges, S. D., Klaaren, K. J. & LaFleur, S. J. (1993). Introspecting about reasons can reduce post-choice satisfaction. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 19, 331-339.
Wilson, T. D. & Hodges, S. D. (1992). Attitudes as temporary constructions. In L. Martin and A. Tesser (Eds.), The construction of social judgment (pp. 37-65). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.


Hodges, S. D., Klein, K. J. K., Veach, D., & Villanueva, R. Giving birth to empathy: The effects of similar experience on empathic accuracy, empathic concern, and perceived empathy. (abstract)

Other U of O Links:

University of Oregon Home Page
University of Oregon, Dept. of Psychology
University of Oregon, Institute of Cognitive and Decision Sciences
Institute of Cognitive and Decision Sciences, Decision Making Focus Group

Psychological Organizations:

Association for Psychological Science
American Psychological Association
Society for Personality and Social Psychology
Society of Experimental Social Psychology
Society for Judgment and Decision Making
Int'l Society for Self and Identity

Social Psychology Journals:

Basic and Applied Social Psychology
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin **
Personality and Social Psychology Review

Other Psychology and Social Psychology Sites

Social Psychology Network
Milgram webpage
Jigsaw Classroom (a cooperative learning technique designed to reduce racism)
Stanford Prison Experiment (the study, not the band)
Encyclopedia of Psychology


The world as I see it...

Can you find my brother in this picture?

Best comments about the tenure process