Eurasianism

Eurasianism | Evraziistvo

Table of Contents =
Primary Bibliography
Secondary Bibliography
Post-Soviet "neo-Eurasianism"
Misc. Bibliography (including post-Soviet period)

 

Primary Bibliography

*1864:PRS|>Duchin’ski,F-H|_Nécessité des réformes dans l’exposition de l’histoire des peuples aryâs-européens & tourans, particulièrement des slaves et des moscovites: Peuples aryâs et tourans, agriculteurs et nomades| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl) ))

*1866:PRS|>Martin,Henri [ID]|_La_Russie et l’Europe| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

*1909:RMy#30,7:28–61|>Alisov,G| “Musul’manskii vopros v Rossii”| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

*1913:Mir islama#2,8–9:556–71, 596–619| “Panislamizm i Pantiurkizm”| ((A large number of students [in Turkey] with pleasure call themselves “true and legitimate descendants of Genghis” . . . they are enthusiastic about the idea that Genghis and Timur were not barbarians, but on the contrary, founding fathers of civilization [617 | RE&W(Wiederkehr):48))

*1915:Weimar|>Alp,Tekin|>Cohen,M's  pseudonym|_Türkismus und Pantürkismus| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl

*1917oc/de:L’Asie Française#17:174–82| “Le Mouvement pantouranien”| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

*1918:Oxford|>Czaplika,MA|_The_Turks of Central Asia in History and at the Present Day: An Ethnological Inquiry into the Pan-Turanian Problem, and Bibliographical Material relating to the Early Turks and the present Turks of Central Asia| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| Maps and other defining materials on "Turanian" ))

*1918:LND|_A_Manual on the Turanians and Pan-Turanianism| Compiled by Geographical Section of the Naval Intelligence Division, Naval Staff, Admiralty| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

*1918oc:Contemporary Review#114:371–79|>Pears,Edwin [ID]| “Turkey, Islam and Turanianism”| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl))

*1925c+:| <>Evraziiskii vremennik|>EvV|
*1926:PRS| <>Evraziistvo: Opyt sistematicheskogo izlozheniia
*1927:Redaktsionnoe primechanie| *1990:Vestnik MGU, Ser. 9: Filologiia#6: 77–80| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ?~~jrn EvX? ))
*1927: <>Evraziiskaia khronika|>EvX| ((jrn))

*1932ap:Svii put’| “Buria nad Aziei”| ((RE&W))

*1934:|_Enzyklopädie des Islam#4:951–57|>Minorsky,Vladimir|>Minorskii,Vladimir| “Turan”| ((noUO| RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

*1935:| <>Evraziiskie tetradi#5:13–14| ((RE&W))



<>Alekseev,Nikolai N| a{}n{}o{plt.dddist| gte
}r{
*1927:EvX#8| “O Evraziiskom patriotizme”| (( PRS gte jrn ID))
*1935:EvX#11| “Evraziitsy i gosudarstvo|
}s{
(BSE3)
}t{}8{}

<>Amaeva,LA, ed|
*1998:UFA| Musul’manskie deputaty Gosudarstvennoi Dumy Rossii. 1906–1917: Sbornik dokumentov i materialov| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)|Dmx ISL ntn ))

<>Arsharuni,A. and Kh. Gabidullin|
*1931:MVA| Ocherki panislamizma i pantiurkizma v Rossii| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

<>Berdiaev,Nikolai Axr*| a{874}e{948}n{}o{ [ID]
}r{
*1914:LND|RRe#3:| “Heroism and Service: Thoughts on the Religious Character of the Russian Intelligentsia”| ((ntg=rlg Mrx))
*1918:MVA| Sud’ba Rossii|
*1931:LND|_The Russian Revolution: Two Essays on Its Implications in Religion and Psychology| (())
*1955:PRS| Istoki i smysl' russkogo kommunizma|
*1972:PRS| O rabstve i svobode cheloveka|
*1944:Karl Marks kak religioznyi tip| English tlng = 1979:MA.Belmont|_Karl_Marx as a Religious Type: His Relations to the Religion of Anthropotheism of L. Feuerbach| ((Mrx scx=rlg psx))
*1950:NYC,Macmillan|_Dream and reality: An essay in autobiography| ((slf-bxo))
*1989+:PRS| SoS| 3vv|
*1989:MVA| Eros i lichnost': filosofiia pola i liubvi| ((lbv))
*1990:MVA| “Russkaia ideia”| In Berdiaev, O Rossii i russkoi filosofskii kul'ture: Filosofiia posleoktiabr’skogo zarubezh’ia
*:|_Dostoevsky according to Nikolai Berdiaev
*:|_Religion and politics, according to Nikolai Berdiaev
*:|RB-C| “Socialism as a Religion”
*:|SUQ:243-278| “The Ethics of Creativity”
}s{
}t{}8{}

<>Blavatsky,Madame|>Blavatskaia,Elena P| a{831}b{}c{}d{}e{891}n{}o{Famous figure of mystical fashion became a naturalized USAan| Her inspirations varied from spiritualism and séances to journeys in India. Her so-called powers are often considered trickery, but Russian theosophy in its widest and most philosophical meaning can be defined in three points =
(1) an attempt at social harmony through a spiritual transformation of the human personality
(2) an experimental test (by spiritualism, hypnosis, etc.) of “superior” phenomena which are not explainable by faith [or empiricism]
(3) a return to the Oriental spiritual inheritance -- the only one to have kept faith w/ the inseparability of man&nature, especially Buddhism and Hinduism
Her mysticism claimed to be synthetic -- simultaneously rlg, phl, and scs| Attracted many RUS intellectuals (EG=SlvVS) [RE&W(Laruelle):29]
}p{
*1875:Society of Theosophy fnder
}r{
Numerous books claimed to found a new “science”, Theosophy [Guénon*1921]
*1937:Riga| Tainaiia doktrina
}s{
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<>Chaadaev,Petr Y| 1829. Lettres philosophiques adressées à une dame . Paris, 1970

<>Gasprinskii,Ismail Bey| a{}b{}c{}d{}e[}n{}o{
}r{
*1881:| Russkoe musul’manstvo| 1985:Oxfprd reprint| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))
*1896:Bakhchisarai, Tip-Lit. Gazety Perevodchika| “Russko-Vostochnoe soglashenie: Mysli, zamietki i pozhelaniia” (Russo-Oriental Relations: Thoughts, Notes, and Desires)| TBy Edward J. Lazzerini in Allworth (1988:202–16)| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)))
}s{
A.CRM.TTR:149–69)|>Lazzerini, Edward J| “Ismail Bey Gasprinskii (Gaspirali): The Discourse of Modernism and the Russians”| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))
*1989:Koeln|>Kappeler.Amdreas. et al., eds| Die Muslime in der Sowjetunion und in Jugoslawien: Identität, Politik, Widerstand:35–47| “Reform und Modernismus (Djadidismus) unter den Muslimen des Russischen Reiches”| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))
*1991:CMR#32,1:43–46|>Ortayli,Ilber| “Reports and Considerations of Ismail Bey Gasprinskii in Tercümanon Central Asia”| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))
*1994:MVA|In Tsivilizatsii i kul’tury, vol. 1,Rossiia i Vostok: tsivilizatsionnye otnosheniia:239–49|>Iordan,MV, and S. M. Chervonnaia| “Ideia tiurko-slavianskogo soglasiia v nasledii Ismaila Gasprinskogo”| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))
}t{}8{}

<>Guénon,René| a{}
*1921:PRS| Le théosophisme: Histoire d’une pseudo-religion| ((RE&W(Laruelle bbl)| ))
*1924:PRS| Orient et occident|
*1927:PRS| La crise du monde moderne|
*1945:PRS| La regne de la quantité et les signes des temps|
*1991:Milii Angel#1| “Mesto atlanticheskoi traditsii v Manvantare”|

<>Gumilev,Lev| a{}b{}c{}d{}e{}n{}o{
}r{ Much of the bbl from RE&W
*1966:Istoriko-etnograficheskii etuid| "Otkritie Khazarii"|
*1967:Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae#19| “New Data on the History of the Khazars”|
*1970:MVA, Izd.vostochnoi literatury| Poiski vymyshlennogo tsarstva|
*1974:Vestnik LGU#6| “Khazaria i Kaspii”|.
*1974:Vestnik LGU#24|. “Khazaria i Terek”|
*1974:Russkaya literatura#3| “Skazanie o khazarskoi dani”|
*1989:LGR| Etnogenez i biosfera Zemli| *1990:MVA| Ethnogenesis and the Biosphere|
*1989:MVA| Drevniaia Rus’ i Velikaia Step’| ((The super-ethnic system . . . is closely connected with the nature of its region. Each constituent part and subsystem finds an ecological niche for itself. . . . But if a new foreign ethnic entity invades this system and could not find a safe ecological niche for itself, it is forced to live at the expense of the inhabitants of the territory, not at the expense of the territory itself. This is not simply a neighborhood, and not a symbiosis, but a chimera, i.e., a combination of two different, incompatible systems into one entity. In zoology the combination of an animal and a tapeworm in the intestine is called a chimeral construction. . . . Living in his body the parasite takes part in his life cycle, dictating a heightened need for food and altering the organism’s biochemistry by its own hormones, forcibly secreted into the blood or bile of the host or parasite carrier. . . . All the horrors of clashes at symbiotic level pale before the poison of a chimera at the level of a super-ethnicity. (1989b: 302) [RE&W:125] CF=1993b))
*1991:Nash sovremennik#1| “Menia nazivaiiut evraziitsem”|
*1993:Ritmi Evrazii: Epokhi i tsivilizatsii:33–66| “Zapiski poslednego evraziitsa”|
*1993:MVA| Tysiacheletie vokrug Kaspiia| ((The parasitic ethnicity is like a vampire. It sucks out the drive from the ethnic environment and brakes the pulse of ethnogenesis. Chimera . . .receives all it needs from the ethnicities in the bodies of which it nestles.Thus, chimera has no motherland. It is an anti-ethnicity. Chimera arises on the border of several original super-ethnicities and opposes itself to all of them. It denies any tradition and replacing them with permanently renovated “novelty.” (1993b: 41 [RE&W:125] CF=1989b))
*1994:MVA| Chernaia legenda: Druziia i nedrugi Velikoi Stepi|>GQL|
}s{
*1991:Strana i mir#2|>Mirovich| “Lev Gumilev i drugie”|
*?:Svobodnaia mysl'#17|>Yanov,A| “Uchenie L’va Gumileva”|
Matern,Frederick| "The Discourse of Civilization in the Works of Russia’s New Eurasianists: Lev Gumilev and Alexander Panarin" [TXT]
}t{}8{}

<>Ivanov,Vsevolod N| a{}b{}c{}d{}e{}n{}o{
}r{
*1926:CHN Harbin| My. Kul’turno-istoricheskie osnovi rossiiskoi gosudarstvennosti| (((RE&W(Laruelle bbl) ))
}s{}t{}8{}

<>Karsavin,Lev P| a{}b{}c{}d{}e{}n{}o{
}p{
*1949se23:LYA [Lietuvos Ypatingasis Archivas], varied years. ((Karsavin testified = EURist mvt "based its ideological program on acknowledgment of the October Revolution and of the Soviet regime established in Russia, but rejected communism, setting itself the goal of replacing it with Greek Orthodoxy and a specifically Russian culture. In place of the socialist regime, the Eurasians favored a society without the dictatorship of the proletariat, a society based on harmonious coexistence between its various classes. In the economic field, it favored the existence of a private sector along-side the state sector. The aim of the Eurasian organization was thus to replace the communist ideology by the Eurasian ideology while at the same time keeping the Soviet regime. In my opinion, this replacement was conceived as a change from communism into Eurasianism thanks to a natural evolution of communism" [RE&W:62]))
}r{ bbl mainly from RE&W(Lesourd)
*1912:SPB| Ocherki religioznoi zhizni v Itali XII–XIII vekov|
*1912:SPB| Osnovy srednevekovoi religioznosti v XII–XIII veka|
*1912:MVA| Monashestvo v srednie veka|
*1918:PGR| Kul’tura srednikh vekov|
*1918:PGR| Katolichestvo|
*1922:PGR| Vostok, zapad i russkaia ideia|
*1923:BRL| Filosofiia istorii|
*1923:Sovremennye zapiski#15,2| “Evropa i Evraziia”|
*1924:BRL| O suscnosti pravoslaviia|
*1925:BRL| O somnenii, nauke i vere|
*1925:BRL| Uroki otrechennii very|
*1926:PRS| Evraziistvo (opyt sistematicheskogo izlozheniia)|
*1926:BRL| Fenomenologiia revolutsii| 1992:TVR reprint|
*1927:EvV#5| “Osnovy politiki”| 1992:TVR reprint|
*1928:| K poznaniiu russkoi revolutsii| 1992:TVR reprint|
*1928: “Rossiia i evreistvo” in *1993:SPB|Taina Israilia
*1929:Evraziia#19| “Eshche o demokratii, sotsializme i evraziistve”|
*1934:Zidinys#5/6| “Valstybe ir demokratijos krize”|
*1939:Naujoii Romuva#37|.“Didzioji Prancuzu revoliucija ir vakaru Europa”|
*1991:Baltos Lankos#1| “Apie Tobulybe”|
*1991:Novyi mir#1| “Gosudarstvo i krizis demokratii”| ((stt dmk))
*1992:TVR reprint??
}s{
Klement'ev,A| 1933:?| “Dziela i dni Lwa Platonowicza Karsawina”| In 1967:Vestnik russkogo Khristiianskogo dvizheniia|
Hauchard,Claire| 1996:Revue des Etudes Slaves#68,3| “L. P. Karsavin et le mouvement eurasien”|
Gerasimov,Yu. K| 1996de18:de20; SPB| Colloque Karsavin| “Khristianstvo i Evraziia”|
}t{}8{}

<>Nalbandian,Vartouhie and Zaven Nalbandian, under pseudonym "Zarevand"|
*1926:Boston(?) Original pbc in Armenian| 1930:Russian tlng| 1971:Leiden| United and Independent Turani: Aims and Designs of the Turks [TXT]| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

<>Nikitin,Valentin P| a{}b{}c{}d{}e{}n{}o{ | Do not confuse w/Nikitine,Basil
}r{
*1927| “Iran, Turan i Rossiia”| 1992:Vestnik MGU, Ser. 9: Filologiia, 5:61–90| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))
*1928no24:Evraziia#1| “My i Vostok”| ((RE&W(Laruelle bbl) ))

<>Nikitine,Basil| a{}
*1922:Revue du Monde Musulman#52:1–53| “Le problème musulman selon les chefs de l’émigration russe”| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

<>Panarin,Aleksandr| a{}b{}c{}d{}e{}n{}o{
}r{
}s{
G/Matern
}t{}8{}

<>Savitskii,Petr Nxi*|>SvcPN| a{}b{}c{}d{}e{}n{}o{
}r{
*1921:Sofiia| “Povorot k Vostoku”| In IkV|
*1921:Sofiia| Iskhod k Vostoku: Predchuvstvie i sverzheniia|>IkV| Trans. 1996:CA Idylwild, Schacks| Exodus to the East: Forebodings and Events|>EtE| TBy Vinkovetsky,Ilya [SMT]| (( In worldly matters our mood is the mood of nationalism. But we do not want to confine it within the narrow bounds of national chauvinism . . . we direct our nationalism not merely toward “Slavs,” but toward a whole circle of peoples of the “Eurasian” world, among whom the Russian people has the central position. This inclusion of a whole circle of East European and Asian peoples into the mental sphere of the culture of the Russian world has its roots, it seems to us, in even measure, in a secret “affnity of souls” -- which makes Russian culture comprehensible and close to these peoples and conversely establishes the fecundity of their participation in the Russian enterprise -- and in the commonality of their economic interest, the economic interrelationship of these peoples. Russians and those who belong to the peoples of “the Russian world” are neither Europeans nor Asians. Merging with the native element of culture and life which surrounds us, we are not ashamed to declare ourselves Eurasians. [IkV:vii | EtE:4= slightly modified trans | RE&W(Wiederkehr):49-50] | Is it possible to find people in Russia who don’t have Khazar or Polovtsy, Tatar or Bashkir, Mordvin or Chuvash blood? Are there many Russians who are completely devoid of the oriental mind, its mystic, its love of contemplation, its contemplative laziness? In the Russian popular masses one notices some inclinations toward the Orient. Because of this organic fraternity between the Orthodox and the nomad or the Asian, Russia is eventually an Orthodox/Moslem, Orthodox/Buddhist country.[2 | RE&W{Lareuelle}:33] ))
*1927:PRG| Rossiia -- osobyi geograficheskii mir| ((Defined mestorazvitie, “The socio-historic milieu and its territory have to merge . . . into one whole, into a geographical individual or landschaft.” [RE&W(Wiederkehr)]))
*1931:PRS| Tridtsatye gody:53–63| “Nauchnye zadachi evraziistva”|Logovikov,V = pseudonym| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)
*1993:MVA| Rossiia mezhdu Evropoi i Aziei| “Step’ i osedlost’ ”| ((RE&W(Laruelle bbl)| ))
}s{
}t{}8{}

<>Solov'ev,Vladimir Srg*|>SlvVS| a{}b{}c{}d[}e{}nm{}o{[ID]}

<>Stepun,FA| a{}n{}o{phl
}r{
*1926:Sovremennye zapiski#29| “Ob Obshchestvenno-politicheskikh putiakh ‘Puti’ ”|
}s{
(BSE3)
}t{}8{}

<>Sviatopolk-Mirskii,Dmitrii P|>Mirsky,Dmitry|>Mirskii,Dmitrii| a{}b{]c{}d{}e{}n{}o{
}r{
*1929:Evraziia#26| “Natzionalnosti SSSR Evrei”| (())
}s{
*1992:Nachala#4|>Kazin,DP| “D. P. Sviatopolk-Mirskii i evraziiskoe dvizhenie”|
}t{}8{}

<>Trubetskoi,Nikolai Srg*|>ToiNS| a{}b{}c{}d{}e{}n{}o{
}r{

*?:| "The Russian Problem" [LGX:103] ((was just this =

Collectively, Europeans look upon Russia as a potential colony. Her vast dimensions disturb them not in the least. In terms of population, India is larger than Russia, but England has snapped up the entire country. Africa exceeds Russia in size, but it has been divided among several of the Romano-Germanic states. The same will probably happen to Russia. Russia is [seen only as] a territory on which certain things grow and within which such and such minerals are available.

))

*1920:Sofiia, Rossiisko-Bolgarskoe knigoizdatel’stvo| Evropa i chelevechestvo|>ToiNS.E&Q| In Trubetskoi (1995:55–104). Trans.“Europe and Mankind” in ToiNS.LGX:1–64| ((

The first duty of every non-Romano-Germanic nation is to overcome every trace of egocentricity in itself; the second is to protect itself against the deception of “universal human civilization” and against all efforts to become “genuinely European” at any cost. These duties can be expressed by two aphorisms: “Know thyself” and “Be thyself.” [E&Q:72 | LGX:66 | RE&W(Wiederkehr):51]

The intelligentsia of all the non-Romano-Germanic nations . . . must never . . . be distracted by nationalism or by partial, local solutions such as pan-Slavism and other “pan-isms.” One must always remember that setting up an opposition between the Slavs and the Teutons or the Turanians and the Aryans will not solve the problem. There is only one true opposition: the Romano-Germans and all other Peoples of the World -- Europe and Mankind. [E&Q:104 | LGX:63–64 | RE&W:49]

))

*1927:EvX#9:24–31| “Obshcheevraziiskii natsionalizm”|

*1935: “O rasisme” in ToiNS.LGX|  Reprint 1994:Neva#7| (())

*1921: In IkV:71–85| “Ob istinnom i lozhnom natsionalizme”| Trans.“On True and False Nationalism” in ToiNS.LGX:65–79| (())

*1921: In IkV:86–103 | “Verkhi i nizy russkoi kul’tury (etnicheskaia osnova russkoi kul’tury)”| Trans. “The Upper and Lower Stories of Russian Culture:The Ethnic Basis of Russian Culture” in ToiNS.LGX:81–99). ((

Thus from an ethnographic point of view, the Russian people are not purely Slavic. The Russians, the Ugro-Finns, and the Volga Turks comprise a cultural zone that has connections with both the Slavs and the “Turanian East,” and it is diffcult to say which of these is more important. The connection between the Russians and the Turanians has not only an ethnographic but an anthropological basis: Turkic blood mingles in Russian veins with that of Ugro-Finns and Slavs. And the Russian national character is unquestionably linked in certain ways with the “Turanian East.” [1921b:100 | LGX:96 | RE&W(Wiederkehr):51 | CF=1925a]

In order for Russian Culture to be completely “ours,” it must be closely linked to the unique psychological and ethnographic characteristics of Russian national life. Here one must bear in mind the special properties of Russianness. We have often heard that it is Russia’s historical mission to unite our Slavic “brothers.” But it is usually forgotten that our “brothers” (if not in language or faith, then in blood, character, and culture) are not only the Slavs, but the Turanians, and that Russia has already consolidated a large part of the Turanian East under the aegis of its state system . . . Russian culture . . . must not be based exclusively on Eastern Orthodoxy but must also manifest those traits of the underlying national life that can unite into a single cultural whole the diverse tribes that are linked historically with the destiny of the Russian people. [102–3 | LGX:99 tlng slightly modified]

))

*1925:EvV#4:315-77| “O turanskom elemente v russkoi kul’ture”| ((

The living together of the Russians with the Turanians is a recurring motif throughout Russian history. If the association of Eastern Slavs and Turanians is the fundamental fact of Russian history . . ., then it is perfectly obvious that for a correct national self-knowledge we, Russians, have to take into account the presence of the Turanian element in ourselves, we have to study our Turanian brothers. [351–52] RE&W(Wiederkehr):51 | CF=1921b]

Drawing the conclusions of all that has been said about the role of the Turanian ethno-psychological traits in the Russian national character it can be said that altogether this role has been positive. . . . We are rightfully proud of our Turanian ancestors no less than of our Slavic ancestors and we are obliged to gratitude to both of them. The consciousness of not only belonging to the Aryan but also to the Turanian psychological type is indispensable for any Russian striving to personal and national self-knowledge. [375 | RE&W:39]

))

*1925:| “Nasledie Chingis khana: Vzgliad na russkuiu istoriiu ne s Zapada, a s Vostoka”| In Trubetskoi (1995a:211–66)| Trans. “The Legacy of Genghis Khan: A Perspective on Russian History Not from the West but from the East” in ToiNS.LGX:161–231| ((

The territory of Russia . . . constitutes a separate continent . . . which in contrast to Europe and Asia can be called Eurasia . . . . Eurasia represents an integral whole, both geographically and anthropologically. . . . By itsvery nature, Eurasia is historically destined to comprise a single state entity.From the beginning the political unification of Eurasia was a historical inevitability, and the geography of Eurasia indicated the means to achieve it. [1925:213–14 | LGX:164–65, italics original) RE&W(Wiederkehr):53]

Eurasia is a geographically, ethnographically, and economically integrated system whose political unification was historically inevitable. Genghis Khan was the first to accomplish this unification. . . . In time the unity of Eurasia began to break up. Instinctively the Russian state has striven and is striving to recreate this broken unity; consequently, it is the descendant of Genghis Khan, the heir and successor to his historical endeavors. (1925:216 | LGX:167) RE&W:54

As they merged with the Russian tribe, the Russified Turanians imparted their own characteristics to the Russian people and introduced them into the Russian national psychology, so that together with the Russification of the Turanians there occurred a simultaneous Turanianization of the Russians. From the organic merger of these two elements there arose a new, unique entity, the national Russian type, which is in essence not pure Slavic but Slavo-Turanian. The Russian tribe was created not through the forcible Russification of “indigenous peoples,” but through the fraternization of Russians with those peoples. . . . Artificial, government-inspired Russification was a product of complete ignorance of the historical essence of Russia-Eurasia, the result of forgetting the spirit of her national traditions. Consequently, this seemingly nationalistic policy did great damage to Russia’s historical interests. [248 | RE&W:39]

The political unification was first accomplished by the Turanians in the person of Genghis Khan; these Turanian nomads were the first bearers of the idea of a common Eurasian state system. Later . . . the idea of a common Eurasian state passed from the Turanians to the Russians, who became its inheritors and bearers. It was now possible for Russia-Eurasia to become a self-contained cultural, political, and economic region and to develop a unique Eurasian culture. [258–59 | LGX:221 | RE&W:54]

Everywhere we can see the genuine Russia, historical Russia, ancient Russia, not an invented “Slavic” or “Slavo-Varangian” Russia, but the real Russo-Turanian Russia-Eurasia, heir to the great legacy of Genghis Khan. . . . In Russian physiognomies . . . one is beginning to notice something Turanian.In Russian language itself one is beginning to hear new sound combinations that are also “barbarous,” also Turanian. [261 | LGX:224 | RE&W:54]

The legacy of Genghis Khan is inseparable from Russia. Whether Russia wants it or not, she remains forever the guardian of this legacy. . . . Even during the period of the antinational monarchy [in the post-Petrine era] . . . Russia was compelled by the very nature of things to continue the historical enterprise of uniting Eurasia into one state--the enterprise of Genghis Khan. The annexations of the Crimea, the Caucasus, the Transcaspian region, and Turkestan . . . were all steps along the path toward reunification of the scattered parts of the Eurasian ulus of Genghis Khan’s empire, while the colonization and cultivation of the steppe . . . consolidated the transfer of the Eurasian state idea from the Turanians to the Russians. [1925:261 | LGX:225 | RE&W:55]

))

*1927:EvX#9:24–31| “Obshcheevraziiskii natsionalizm”| Trans. “Pan-Eurasian Nationalism” in LGX:233–44).((Trubetskoi had a kind of matrioshka -like nationalism in mind:

Every nationalism contains both centralist elements (the affirmation of unity) and separatist elements (the affirmation of uniqueness and distinctiveness). Inasmuch as ethnic entity is contained in another ... there may exist nationalism of various amplitudes ... . These nationalisms are ... contained in each other like concentric circles ... . For the nationalism of a given ethnic entity not to degenerate into pure separatism, it must be combined with the nationalism of a broader ethnic entity. With regard to Eurasia this means that the nationalism of every individual people of Eurasia (the contemporary U.S.S.R.) should be combined with Pan-Eurasian nationalism, or Eurasianism. [230?]

An extreme nationalist, whose aim is that Russians should be the sole master in their own state, come what may, and that the state itself should belong to the Russians as their full and undivided property--at present such a nationalist must reconcile himself to a “Russia” that would lose all the “outlying provinces” and have borders coinciding approximately with those of the exclusively Great-Russian population up to the Ural mountains; a radically nationalistic aim could now be realized only within such narrowed geographic boundaries. [...] [An] extreme Russian nationalist turns out to be a separatist no different from a Ukrainian, Georgian, Azerbaijanian, or any other nationalist-separatist. [Bassin:4 cites LGX:235]

[Pan-Eurasian nationalism is] not only pragmatically valuable, [but] nothing less than a vital necessity, for only the awakening of self-awareness as a single, multi-ethnic Eurasian nation will provide Russia-Eurasia with the ethnic substratum of statehood, without which it will eventually fall to pieces.... [...] [T]here is no return to the situation in which Russians were the sole owner of the state territory, and, clearly, no other people can play such a role. Consequently, the national substratum of the state formerly known as the Russian Empire and now know as the USSR can only be the totality of peoples inhabiting that state, taken as peculiar multiethnic nation and as such possessed of its own nationalism. We call that nation Eurasian, its territory Eurasia, and its nationalism Eurasianism. [Bassin:9-10 cites LGX:239]

Eurasianism, rather than pan-Slavism for Russians, Pan-Turanianism for Eurasian Turanians, or Pan-Islamism for Eurasian Muslims, should become predominant. These “pan-isms,” by intensifying the centrifugal energies of particular ethnic nationalisms, emphasize the one-sided link between the given people and certain other peoples by only a single set of criteria; they are incapable of creating any real, living and individual multi-ethnic nation. But in the Eurasian brotherhood, peoples are linked not by some one-sided set of criteria, but by their common historical destiny. Eurasia constitutes a geographical, economic, and historical whole. The destinies of the Eurasian peoples have become interwoven with one another, tied in a massive tangle that can no longer be unraveled; the severance of anyone people can be accomplished only by an act of violence against nature, which will bring pain. This does not apply to the ethnic groups forming the basis of pan-Slavism, Pan-turanianism, and Pan-Islamism. Not one of them is united to such a degree by a common historical destiny. . . . Pan-Eurasian nationalism . . . is not only pragmatically valuable; it is nothing less than a vital necessity, for only the awakening of self-awareness as a single, multi-ethnic Eurasian nation will provide Russia-Eurasia with the ethnic substratum of statehood without which it will eventually fall to pieces, causing unheard-of suffering in all its parts [1927:29-30 | LGX:240–41 tlng slightly modified | RE&W(Wiederkehr):52]

Each people of Eurasia must be conscious of itself first and foremost as a member of that brotherhood. The consciousness of belonging specifically to the Eurasian brotherhood of peoples must become stronger for each member than the consciousness of belonging to any other group. [Bassin:9 cites LGX:241]

For Pan-Eurasian nationalism to function effectively as a unifying factor for the Eurasian state, it is necessary to re-educate the self-awareness of the peoples of Eurasia. . . . The individuals who have already fully recognized the unity of the multi-ethnic Eurasian nation must spread their conviction. . . . It is necessary to re-examine a number of disciplines from the point of view of the unity of the multi-ethnic Eurasian nation, and to construct new scientific systems to replace old and antiquated ones. In particular, one needs a new history of the Eurasian peoples including the history of the Russians [1927:30 | LGX:242–43 | RE&W:53]

))

*1975:Hague| N. S. Trubetzkoy’s Letters and Notes| Roman Jakobson,Roman=ed| ((UO))

*1991:MI Ann Arbor, Mich.Slavic Pbc| The Legacy of Ghengis Khan and Other Essays on Russia’s Identity|>ToiNS.LGX| EBy Liberman,A| (())

*1994:GQL| “O turanskom elemente v russkoi kulture”|

*1995;MVA| Istoriia, kul’tura, iazyk| EBy Tolstoi,NI | Gumilev,LN | and Zhivov.VM|

}s{
Riasanovsky
Liberman,Anatolii| “Postscript: N. S. Trubetzkoy and His Works on History and Politics”| In LGX:295–389| (())
}t{}8{}

<>Vambéry,Arminius| a{}n{}o{ [ID#1 | ID#2]
}r{
*1905:Nineteenth Century#57:217–27| “The Awakening of the Tatars”| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))
*1906:Nineteenth Century#59:906–13| “Constitutional Tatars”| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))
*1907:Deutsche Rundschau#132:72–91| “Die Kulturbestrebungen der Tataren”| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))
}s{}t{}8{}

<>Vernadskii,Georgii V|>Vernadskii,George|>VrnGV| a{}b{}c{}d{}e{}n{}o{
}r{
*1914:RMy#1:| “Protiv solnca: Rasprostranenie russkogo gosudarstva k Vostoku”| ((RE&W(Laruelle bbl)))
*1934:BRL| Opyt istorii Evrazii s poloviny VI veka do nastoiashchego vremeni| ((Pan-Turkism was particularly strong, when it could be linked to Pan-Islamism in practice . . . through the rupture of Pan-Turkism and Pan-Islamism in Ottoman Turkey the political position of Pan-Islamism is rather weak. As to Pan-Turkism, how far its objective is to tear away the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from their political union with the latter, such a down-fall of Eurasia (if it were possible) would first of all be extremely disadvantageous for the Turkic peoples themselves, who now belong to Eurasia. [24–25 | RE&W(Wiederkehr):52] ))
*1938:Yasa
}s{}t{}8{}

 

Secondary Bibliography

*1992:MVA| Evrasiia: Istoricheskie vsgliadi russkikh emigrantov|
*1993:MVA| Rossiia mezhdu evropoi i Asiei: Evrasiiskii soblasn|

<>Adam,Volker| 2000:Wiesbaden| “Auf der Suche nach Turan: Panislamismus und Panturkismus in der aserbaidschanischen Vorkriegspresse.” In Caucasia Between the Ottoman Empire and Iran, 1555–1914 (2000:Wiesvbaden):189–205| EBy Raoul Motika and Michael Ursinus| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))
------------------. 2002. Russland muslime in Istanbul am Vorabend des Ersten Weltkrieges: Die Berichterstattung osmanischer Periodika über Russland und Zentralasien. Frankfurt a. M| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

<>Alevras, N. N| *1996:Vestnik Evrazii#1:5–17| “Nachala evraziiskoi kontseptsii v rannem tvorchestve G. V.Vernadskogo i N. Savitskogo”| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

<>Allworth, Edward A., ed|
*1988:Durham|>A.CRM.TTR| Tatars of the Crimea: Their Struggle for Survival| Original Studies from North America, Unofficial and Official Documents from Czarist and Soviet Sources| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))
*1990:Stanford| The Modern Uzbeks: From the Fourteenth Century to the Present: A Cultural History| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

<>Arnakis,GG|
*1960:Balkan Studies#1:19-32| “Turanism: An Aspect of Turkish Nationalism”| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

<>Bassin,Mark| “Classical Eurasianism and the Geopolitics of Russian Identity”, Collaborative Research Network Working Paper Archive [TXT]

<>Bennigsen, Alexandre and Chantal Lemercier-Quelquejay|
*1960:PRS| Le “Sultangalievisme” au Tatarstan| “Les mouvements nationaux chez les Musulmans de Russie”| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))
*1986:PRS| Sultan Galiev: Le père de la révolution tiers-mondiste| ((RE&W(Laruelle bbl)| ))

<>Bennigsen, Alexandre and S. Enders Wimbush| 1979.Muslim National Communism in the Soviet Union: A Revolutionary Strategy for the Colonial World . Chicago| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

<>Böss,Otto|>Boss,Otto|
*1961.Die Lehre der Eurasier: Ein Beitrag zur russischen Ideengeschichte des 20.Jahrhunderts. Wiesbaden| ((RE&W(Laruelle & Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

<>Breuer,Stefan| *1993:Darmstadt| Anatomie der Konservativen Revolution| ((cnx.REV))

<>Brower,Daniel R., and Edward J. Lazzerini, eds| *1997:Boomington| Russia’s Orient: Imperial Borderlands and Peoples,1700–1917|>ROr|

<
>Burbank,Jane

<>Dahl,Göran| *1996:Theory, Culture and Society#13,1| “Will the Other God Fail Again? On the Possible Return of the Conservative Revolution”| ((rvs.trx| cnx.REV))

<>Geraci, Robert|
*1997:ROr:138–61|  “Russian Orientalism at an Impasse: Tsarist Education Policy and Eurasianism as a Reaction to Pan-Turkism: the 1910 Conference on Islam”| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

<>Hahn,Gordon M| “The Rebirth of Eurasianism”| The Russia Journal 14 (July 12-18, 2002) ((A sloppy and tendentious piece [TXT] }}

<>Hauner, Milan. 1992:LND| What Is Asia to Us? Russia’s Asian Heartland Yesterday and Today| ((RE&W(Laruelle bbl)| ))

<>Isaev,I| a{}
*1992:MVA| Puti Evrasii: Russkaiia intelligentsiia i sud'bi [??sud'ba] Rossii|
*1993:Druzhba narodov#11| “Geopoliticheskie korni avtoritarnogo mishleniia”|

<>Karlov, VV|
*1997:Etnograficheskoe obozrenie#1:3–13| “Evraziiskaja ideia i russkii natsionalizm: Po povodu stat’i V. A. Shnirel’mana ‘Evrazijskaja ideja i teorija kul’tury’ ”| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))
*1997:Etnograficheskoe obozrenie#2: 125–32| “O evraziistve, natsionalizme i priemakh nauchnoi polemiki”| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

<>Kessler, Joseph A|
*1967:Berkeley, University of California, PhD Dissertation| “Turanism and Pan-Turanism in Hungary, 1890–1945”| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

<>Khazanov,Anatoly M| *2002:Transit-Europäische Revue#21| “Contemporary Russian Nationalism between East and West”|

<>Kluchnikov, Sergei| 1997:MVA| Russkii uzel evraziistva|

<>Koulieri,Olga| “Russian ‘Eurasianism’ and the Geopolitics of the Black Sea,” The Defence Academy of the United Kingdom Conflict Studies Research Centre, Special Studies document S43

<>Laruelle,Marlène| a{}
*1999:PRS|.L’idéologie eurasiste russe ou comment penser l’empire|
*--RE&W:9-38| "The Orient in Russian Thought at the Turn of the [20th] Century"|

<>Layton, Susan. 1994:ENG, Cambridge| Russian Literature and Empire: Conquest of the Caucasus from Pushkin to Tolstoy| ((RE&W(Laruelle bbl)| ))

<>Luks,Leonid| a{}
*1986:JGO#34:374–95| “Die Ideologie der Eurasier im zeitgeschichtlichen Zusammenhang”| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl) ))
*1993:VoF#6. “Evraziistvo”|
*1996:VoF#3| “Evraziistvo i konservativnaiia revolutsiia: Soblasn antizapadnichestva v Rossii i Germanii”| ((cnx.REV))

<>Niqueux,Michel| *1999:Slavica occitania| “Les différents Orients de la Russie.”| (())

<>Nivat,Georges| *1966:CMR:| “Du panmongolisme au mouvement eurasien. Histoire d’un thème millénaire”| ((RE&W(Laruelle bbl)| ))

<>O Evrazii i evraziitsakh: Bibliograficheskii ukazatel’ (1997:Petrozavodsk) ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

<>Petrovich,Michael B. 1966:NYC The Emergence of Russian Panslavism,1856–1870

<>Riasanovsky,Nicholas V| a{}
*1964:JGO#12:207–20| “Prince N. S. Trubetskoy’s ‘Europe and Mankind.’ ”| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))
*1967:CSS#4:39–72| “The Emergence of Eurasianism”| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| EUA))

<>Shlapentokh,Dmitry ed|
*2007:Leiden, Brill | Russia Between East and West: Scholarly Debates on Eurasianism|>RE&W| [TXT] ((EUA))

<>Shnirel’man,VA|
*1996:Etnograficheskoe obozrenie#4:3–16| “Evraziiskaia ideia i teoriia kul’tury”| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))
*1997:Etnograficheskoe Obozrenie#2:112–25| “Evraziistvo i natsional’nyi vopros. Vmesto otveta V. V. Karlovu”| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

<>Urchanova,RV|
*1995:Vestnik Evrazii#1:12–31| “Evraziitsy i vostok: pragmatika liubvi?” ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

<>Vandalkovskaia,MG|
*1997:MVA| Istoricheskaia nauka rossiiskoi emigratsii: “Evraziiskii soblazn”| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

<>Vinkovetsky,Ilya, and Charles Schlacks, Jr
*1996:Idylwild| Exodus to the East. Forebodings and Events. An Affirmation of the Eurasians| ((noUO| RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

<>Ward,Christopher J| "A Return to the Past: Teaching Russian and Soviet History from a Eurasian Perspective" [TXT]

<>Wiederkehr,Stephan|
*2000:Studies in East European Thought#52:119–50| “Der Eurasismus als Erbe N. Ja. Danilevskijs? Bemerkungenzu einem Topos der Forschung”| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))
--|In RE&W:39-60| "Eurasianism as a Reaction to Pan-Turkism"|

<>Zenkovsky,SA|
*1967:MA.C, HUP| Pan-Turkism and Islam in Russia| 2nd ed| (())

 

Post-Soviet "neo-Eurasianism"

*2007:Marina Peunova's scholarly analysis of "neo-Eurasianism" [TXT]

<
>Berdiaev,Nikolai

<>Dugin,Aleksandr Gelevich| a{962ja07}b{}c{}d{}e{}n{}o{ [ID]
}r{ Much of Dugin bbl frm RE&W
*1990:Elementi#1| “Probuzhdenie stikhii”|
*1991:MVA| Kontinent Rossiia|
*1991:MVA| in René Guénon, Krisis sovremennogo mira| “Prorok zolotogo veka”|
*1991:Milii Angel#1| “Velikaiia metafizicheskaiia problema i Traditsiia”|
*1991:Milii Angel#1| “Metafizicheskie korni politicheskikh ideologii”|
*1992:Den"#4-7| “Velikaiia voina kontinentov”|
*1992:Nash sovremennik#8| “Karl Shmitt: Piat’ urokov dlia Rossii”|
*1993:MVA| Konspirologiia|
*1993:Den'#2| “Sumerki geroev. Pominalnoe slovo o Zhan ?Thiriart?”|
*1993:Den'#9| “Chego boitsia Bolshoi Bill”|
*1993:Den'#26| “Khaos”|
*1993:Den'#38| “Apologiia natsionalisma”|
*1993:Elementi#3| “Geopoliticheskie problemy blizhnego zarubezhiia”|
*1993:Elementi#4| “Ot sakralnoi geografii k geopolitike”|
*1993:Elementi#4| “Zaveschanie’ Ayatolli Khomeini”|
*1993:MVA| Giperboreiskaia teoriia|
*1994:MVA| In Konservativnaia revolutsiia|>cnx.REV| Seven chapters =
--| “Apologiia natsionalisma”| ((Russian nationalism is inseparably linked with space. Russians distinguish themselves not by blood, ethnicity, phenotype or culture. They are more sensitive to space than any other people. . . . It is diffcult to understand the origins of this “national intoxication” with Russian space. Perhaps, this unprecedented phenomenon and the religious metaphors of Russia -- the“Last Kingdom,” the “country as the world,” the “Ark of Salvation” -- can be explained by the combination of Slavic sensitivity and the nomadic instincts of the Turks in the steppe. . . . Russians regard space as sacred.Their attitude to space is anti-utilitarian. They never tried to exploit their land or to derive profits from it. They are guardians of space, initiated into its mysteries, rather than its colonizers. . . . Therefore, in many cases Russians prefer non-Slavic people affiliated with Russian space to other Slavs. (142) [RE&W160] || A person of Russian of origin who is detached from other Russians is erased from the sphere of interests of Russian nationalism. It is not surprising that a Russian Diaspora never existed in history. . . . Falling out of the social field of Russian people, a Russian ceases to be a bearer of Russian spirit. (142) [RE&W:165] ||  Israel is the only country that has successfully realized in practice some aspects of the Conservative Revolution. In spite of striking ideological similarities [between Nazi Germany and Israel] nobody dared to suspect or blame Israel for “fascism” and “Nazism” bearing in mind the great number of Jewish victims during the rule of Conservative Revolutionaries in Europe. The establishment of Israel was accompanied by the ideas of complete revival of the archaic tradition, Judaic religion, ethnic and racial differentiation, socialist ideas in economy (in particular, of the system of kibbutzes) and the restoration of castes. (1994b) [RE&W:186]))
--| “Poniat znachit pobedit”|
--| “Metafizika natsii v kabbale”|
--| “Golem i evreiskaiia metafizika”|
--| “Erotism i imperiia”|
--| “Konservativnaiia revolutsiia: Tipologiia politicheskikh dvizhenii Tretego Puti”|
*1995:MVA| Tseli i zadachi nashei revolutsii| ((Within the Indo-European civilization the traders ( torgovtsi ) as a special caste or class emerged only at the late stages of development as foreign and racially alien components. In the Greek-Latin and in the Mediterranean area, the ‘Semites’ and other representatives of the Levant were the bearers of the trade order . . . Thus, capitalists and traders are the social ‘saboteurs,’ the social ‘strangers’ (inorodtsi) within the economic systems of Indo-European white people. . . . Their civilization had introduced special laws which curtailed trade and debarred usury. It was the socio-economic manifestation of the white race and its social ethics. . . . Capitalism introduced not only economic but also racial and ethnic alienation. (1995a: 23) [RE&W:170]))
*1995:Elementi#5| “Demokratiia protiv sistemi”|
*1995:Elementi#6| “Elevsinskie topi freidisma”|
*1995:Elementi#6| “Ad Marginem: Sacher-Masoch” (rev.)|
*1996:Elementi#7| “Begemot protiv Leviafana”|
*1996:Elementi#7| “The Rest Against the West”|
*1996:Elementi#7| “Revolutsiia nevozmozhnaia, neizbezhnaia”|
*1996:MVA| Misterii Evrasii| ((We are the God-bearing people. That is why all our manifestations -- high and vile, benevolent and terrifying -- are sanctified by their other-worldly meanings, by the rays of the other City. . . . In the abundance of national grace, good and evil turn from one into another. . . . We are as incomprehensible as the Absolute. [RE&W:188]))
*1996je26:Ngzt| “Imia moe--topor: Dostoevskii i metafisika Peterburga|
*1997:Elementi#8| “Apokalipsis stikhii”|
*1997:MVA| Osnovi geopolitiki| {{ggr.plt}}
*2005:Pop-cultura i znaki vremeni| ((pop-arts))
}s{}t{}8{}

<>Schmitt,Carl|>Shmitt,Karl| a{888}b{}c{}d{}e{985}n{}o{ [ID#1 | ID#2]
}r{
*1932:NYC| Vital Realities| With chapters by Nikolai Berdiaev and Michael De a Bedoyère [ID]
*1950:Koeln| Des Nomos der Erde
*1976:New Brunswick| The Concept of the Political
*2000:LND| The enemy : an intellectual portrait of Carl Schmitt / Gopal Balakrishnan
}s{
*1990s:Telos (jrn):passim, EG=
*1993sp:Telos#95|>Ulmen,Gary| "The Concept of Nomos...." [TXT]
}t{}8{}

RE&W etc bbl =


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Niqueux, Michel. 1999. “Les différents Orients de la Russie.” Slavica occitania| ((RE&W(Laruelle bbl)| ))

Savelli, Dany. 1996. “Le péril jaune et le péril nègre: éléments pour une représentationde la France et de l’Allemagne chez V. Soloviev et A. Biély.” In Transferts culturels tri-angulaires France-Allemagne-Russie, ed. Katia Dimtrieva and Michel Espagne. Philologiques5. Paris. 257–72| ((RE&W(Laruelle bbl)| ))

Akçura,Yusuf| 1904. “Les trois systèmes politiques”| Reprinted in François Georgeon, Aux origines du nationalisme turc: Yusuf Akçura (1876–1935). Paris, 1980. 95–106| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

Altstadt, Audrey L. 1992. The Azerbaijani Turks: Power and Identity Under Russian Rule . Stanford| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

Arai, Masami. 1992.Turkish Nationalism in the Young Turk Era . Leiden| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

Baberowski, Jörg. 1999. “Auf der Suche nach Eindeutigkeit: Kolonialismus und zivil-istorische Mission im Zarenreich und in der Sowjetunion.”JGO#47: 482–504| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))
--------------------. 2000. “Nationalismus aus dem Geiste der Inferiorität: Autokratische Modernisierung und die Anfänge muslimischer Selbstvergewisserung im östlichen Transkaukasien1828–1914.” Geschichte und Gesellschaft 26: 371–406| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

Doronchenkov, A. I. 2001.Emigratsiia “pervoi volny” o natsional’nykh problemach i sud’be Rossii .St. Petersburg| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

Dumont, Paul. 1974. “La revue Türk Yurdu et les Musulmans de l’Empire Russe 1911– 1914.” CMR#15: 315–31| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))
------------------. 1975. “La fascination du Bolchevisme: Enver Pacha et le Parti des soviets populaires 1919–1922.”CMR#16: 141–66| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

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Georgeon, François. 1988. “La montée du nationalisme turc dans l’État ottoman (1908– 1914). Bilan et perspectives.” Revue du Monde Musulman et de la Méditerranée 50: 30–44| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

Gökalp, Zia. 1923. The Principles of Turkism. Ed. R. Devereux. Leiden, 1968| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

Hagemeister, Michael and Nikolai Fedorov. 1989. Studien zu Leben, Werk und Wirkung . Munich| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

Heyd, Uriel. 1950. Foundations of Turkish Nationalism: The Life and Teachings of Ziya Gökalp.London| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

Hostler, Charles Warren. 1957. Turkism and the Soviets: The Turks of the World and Their Objectives .London| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

Hyman, Anthony. 1997. “Turkestan and pan-Turkism Revisited.” Central Asian Survey16:339–51| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

Iskhakov, S. M. 1999. “Pervaia mirovaia voina glazami rossiiskikh musul’man.” In Rossiia i pervaia mirovaia voina: Materialy mezhdunarodnogo nauchnogo kollokviuma . St. Petersburg. 419–31| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

Kendirbay, Gulnar. 1997. “The National Liberation Movement of the Kazakh Intelligentsia at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century.” Central Asian Survey16: 487–515| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| KZX ntg ntn.ndp))

Khara-Davan,Erenzhen. 1991. Chingis-Khan kak polkovodets i ego nasledie: Kul’turno-istoricheskii ocherk Mongol’skoi imperii XII–XIV vv. 1929. Elista| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

Kirimli, Hakan. 1996. National Movements and National Identity among the Crimean Tatars,1905–1916 . Leiden| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

Kosik, V. I. 1997. Konstantin Leont’ev: Razmyshleniia na slavianskuiu temu. Moscow| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

Landau, Jacob M. 1995. Pan-Turkism: From Irredentism to Cooperation. London| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

Masayuki, Yamauchi. 1991. The Green Crescent under the Red Star: Enver Pasha in Soviet Russia, 1919–1922. Tokyo| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

von Mende, G. Der nationale Kampf der Russlandtürken: Ein Beitrag zur nationalen Frage in der Sovetunion. Berlin, 1936| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

Mouhammetchine, Rafiq. 1966:CMR#37:83–96| “L’apport de quelques sources russes officielles à l’historiographie du djadidisme chez les tatars de la Volga (aux Archives centrales d’État du Tatarstan)”| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

Mukhammetdinov,RF| 1996. Zarozhdenie i evoliutsiia tiurkizma iz istorii politicheskoi mysli i ideologii tiurkskikh narodov; Osmanskaia i Rossiiskaia imperii, Turtsiia, SSSR, SNG 70–e gg. XIX v. -90–e gg. XX v.). Kazan’.58| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

Noack, Chriatian. 2000. Muslimischer Nationalismus im russischen Reich: Nationsbildung und Nationalbewegung bei Tataren und Baschkiren 1861–1917. Stuttgart| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

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Pipes, Richard. 1964. The Formation of the Soviet Union: Communism and Nationalism 1917–1923 .Rev. ed. Cambridge| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

Risal (pseudonym of M. Cohen). 1912. “Les turcs à la recherche d’une âme nationale.” Mercure de France, 16 August, 673–707| ((RE&W(Wiederkehr bbl)| ))

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