The Dismantling of the European Empires and the New Realities of Migration
I. “Decolonization”: what’s in a word?
II. Why did it happen?
III. Three paths to a postcolonial world
IV. Why did the new immigrants come to Europe?
V. One case: Predrag and Darinka Ilic´

map:  decolonization after 1945


The original can be found at:

Causes of Decolonization
1. nationalist movements in the colonies
2. the thirty-years’ crisis, 1914-1945: Europe lost its ability to control its colonies
3. the example of Japan: military defeats of European powers
4. Europe’s rivalry with the United States
5. economics: costs of empire outweigh economic benefits, espcially after WWII

Three paths to a postcolonial world
1. rapid disengagement (Great Britain/India)
2. armed European resistance (France/Indochina, Algeria)
3. neo-imperial intervention (GB, France/Suez crisis)

British Commonwealth
Labour Party (Third Labour Government)
the partition of India / Pakistan
Indonesia (“Dutch East Indies”)
Indochina (including Vietnam)
Dien Bien Phu (1954)
Algeria / “Algerian War”
Gillo Pontecorvo, “The Battle of Algiers” (1966)
Charles de Gaulle
Fifth Republic (France, 1958-present)
Suez canal
Suez crisis

Why did the new immigrants come to Europe?
1. migration was not new
2. postwar reconstruction created a demand for labor
3. declining European birth rates (a long term trend demographers call “the demographic transition”)
4. the end of migrations caused by the war>>>shift to new migration patterns

Shifting migration patterns in postwar Europe
1. from east to west: stops with Cold War
2. from south to north: Italy, Spain, Yugoslavia, Turkey
3. from overseas: former colonies (e.g. Great Britain’s “new Commonwealth” immigrants from Pakistan and West Indies, or return of French settlers from Algieria--"pieds noirs")

Jane Kramer, “The Invandrare” (in Kramer, Unsettling Europe) (on regular and e-reserve)
"invandrare" =  in Swedish, "immigrants"
Serbia (then part of Yugoslavia)
Gastarbeiter = “guest workers” (Germany)