Back to Publications

Publications: Equity/Bias in Teaching Evaluations

  1. Gender Bias in Faculty Teaching Evaluations:Key Journal Articles and Additional Resources (Result of RIT’s NSF ADVANCE Grant; includes list of work of other NSF ADVANCE institutions with links)
  2. ADVANCE-Nebraska, Annual Evaluation of Faculty Best Practices, March 2013.
  3. Lehigh (University) ADVANCE Men Advocates:Statement on Gender Bias in Student Course Evaluations
  4. M. H. Abel and A. L. Meltzer, Students ratings of a male and female professors’ lecture on sex discrimination in the workforce, Sex Roles, 57, 173-180.
  5. Anderson, Kristin J. Students’ stereotypes of professors: An exploration of the double violations of ethnicity and gender. Social Psychology of Education: An International Journal. (2010) 13 (4) 459-472
  6. Anderson, Kristin J. and M. Kanner. Inventing a gay agenda: Students’ perceptions of lesbian and gay professors. Journal of Applied Psychology, (2011) 41-1538-1564
  7. K. Andersen, E. D. Miller, Gender and student evaluations of teaching, PS: Political science & Politics, 30 Issue 2, June 1997, 216-219.
  8. Anderson, Kristin J. and Gabriel Smith. 2005. Students’ Preconceptions of Professors: Benefits and Barriers According to Ethnicity and Gender. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences
  9. J. Arbuckle and B. D. Williams, Students’ perceptions of expressiveness: Age and gender effects on teacher evaluations, Sex Roles, 49 (9/10), 507-516.
  10. C. M. Bachen, M. M. McLoughlin, & S. S. Garcia, Assessing the role of gender in college students’ evaluations of faculty, Communication Education, 48, 193–210 (1999).
  11. Phyllis Baker & Martha Copp, Gender performance matters most: The interaction of gendered expectations, feminist course content and pregnancy in students' course evaluations. Teaching Sociology 25(1) (1997), 29-43.
  12. Baldwin, T. and N. Blattner, Guarding against potential bias in student evaluations. What every faculty member needs to know, College Teaching, 51(1) (2003), 27-32.
  13. Baker, P & M Copp, Gender performance matters most: The interaction of gendered expectations, feminist course content and pregnancy in students' course evaluations. Teaching Sociology 25(1) (1997), 29-43.
  14. Basow, S. A. Best and worst professors: Gender patterns in students’ choices, Sex Roles, 43 (5/6) (2000), 407-417.
  15. S. A. Basow, Student ratings of professors are not gender blind, Association for Women in Mathematics Newsletter, 24, no. 5 (Sept.-Oct. 1994).
  16. S. A. Basow, Student evaluations of college professors: When gender matters, Journal of Educational Psychology, 87, 656–665 (1995).
  17. S. A. Basow, Gender dynamics in the classroom. In J. C. Chrisler, C. Golden, & P. D. Rozee, Lectures on the psychology of women (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill (2000).
  18. S. A. Basow and N. T. Silberg, Student evaluation of college professors: Are female and male professors rated differently?, Journal of Educational Psychology 79 no. 3 308-314 (1987).
  19. Basow, S. A. and N. T. Silberg, Student evaluation of college professors: Are female and male professors rated differently?, Journal of Educational Psychology 79 no. 3 308-314 (1987).
  20. Basow, S. A. and S. Montgomery, Student rating and professor self-ratings of college teaching: Effects of gender and divisional affiliation, Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, 18, 91-106, (2005).
  21. L. Bates, Female academics face huge sexist bias – no wonder there are so few of them The Guardian, February 13, 2015.
  22. S. K. Bennett, Student perceptions of and expectations for male and female instructors: Evidence relating to the question of gender bias in teaching evaluations, Journal of Educational Psychology 74 no. 2 (1982), 170-179.
  23. A. Boring, Gender Biases in Student Evaluations of Teachers and their Impact on Teacher Incentives, Working Paper, OFCE-PRESAGE-SCIENCES PO and LEDa-DIAL, April 22, 2015.
  24. A. Boring, Gender biases in student evaluations of teaching, J. of Public Economics, 145 (January 2017), 27-41.
  25. A. Boring, K. Ottoboni, and P. B. Stark, Student evaluations of teaching are not only unreliable, they are significantly biased against female instructors, The London School of Economics and Political Science, February 4, 2016.
  26. J. H. Bray and G. S. Howard, Interaction of Teacher and Student Sex and Sex Role Orientations and Student Evaluations of College Instruction, Contemporary Educational Psychology 5 (1980), 241-248.
  27. S. Buck and D. Tiene, The combined effects of physical attractiveness, gender, and teaching philosophy on evaluations,The Journal of Educational Research, 82, no. 3, 172-177 (1989) (published online January 20, 2015, 172-177).
  28. A. L. Burns-Glover & D. J. Veith, Revisiting gender and teaching evaluations: Sex still makes a difference. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 10, 69–80 (1995).
  29. V. R. Brooks, Sex differences in student dominance behavior in female and male professors' classrooms. Sex Roles, 8 (7) (1982), 683-690.
  30. N. Collins, There’s No Easy Fix for Gender Bias in Student Evaluation of Teachers, Pacific Standard, January 8, 2016.
  31. M. Crossley, E. Johnston, Y. Fan, Male teachers are most likely to rate highly in university student feedback, The Conversation, February 13, 2019.
  32. P. B. Elmore and K. A. LaPointe, Effects of Teacher Sex and Student Sex on Evaluation of College Instructors, Journal of Higher Education 66 (3), 386-389 (1974).
  33. K. Doerer, Colleges are Getting Smarter About Student Evaluations. Here's How. The Chronicle of Higher Education, January 13, 2019.
  34. P. B. Elmore and K. A. LaPointe, Effects of teacher sex, student sex & teacher warmth on evaluation of college instructor, Journal of Higher Ed Psychology 67(3), 368-374 (1975).
  35. M. Falkoff, Why We Must Stop Relying on Student Ratings of Teaching, The Chronicle of Higher Education, April 25, 2018.
  36. Y. Fan, L. J. Shepherd, E. Slavich, D. Waters, M. Stone, R. Abel, E. L. Johnston, Gender and cultural bias in student evaluations: Why representation matters, PLOS One, February 13, 2019.
  37. K. A. Feldman, College students’ views of male and female college teachers: Evidence from the social laboratory and experiments – Part 1. Research in Higher Education, 33, 317–375 (1992).
  38. K. A. Feldman, College students’ views of male and female college teachers: Evidence from the social laboratory and experiments – Part 2. Research in Higher Education, 34, 151–211 (1993).
  39. F. E. Fich, Are student evaluations of teaching fair?, Computing Research News 15(3): 2-10 (2003).
  40. C. Flaherty, Bias Against Female Instructors, Inside Higher Ed, January 11, 2016.
  41. C. Flaherty, Zero Correlation Between Evaluations and Learning, Inside Higher Ed, September 21, 2016.
  42. A. G. Greenwald, & G. M. Gillmore, No pain, no gain? The importance of measuring course workload in student ratings of instruction, J of Educational Psychology 89(4), 743-751 (1997).
  43. M. E. Heilman and T. G. Okimoto, Why Are Women Penalized for Success at Make Tasks? The Implied Communality Deficit, Journal of Applied Psychology 92(1) (2007), 81-92.
  44. N. Hensel, Realizing Gender Equality in Higher Education, ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report 2, (1991).
  45. C. Hogan, Review of the literature: The evaluation of teaching in higher education, Instructional Development Center, McMaster University (1978).
  46. E. Kaschak, Sex bias in students' evaluations of professors' teaching methods. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 3 (3) (1978), l35-l43.
  47. E. Kaschak, Another look at sex bias in students evaluations of professors: Do winners get the recognition that they have been given? Psychology of Women Quarterly, Summer, 1981.
  48. Ellen M. Key and Phillip J. Ardoin, Students rate male instructors more highly than female instructors. We tried to counter that hidden bias, Washington Post, August 20, 2020.
  49. D. Kierstead, P. D’Agostino, & H. Dill, Sex role stereotyping of college professors: Bias in students' ratings of instructors. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(3), 342-344 (1988).
  50. N. Koblitz, Are Student Ratings Unfair to Women, Association for Women in Mathematics Newsletter 20 no. 5 (1990), 17-19.
  51. N. Koblitz, Bias and other factors in student ratings, Chronicle of Higher Education 93/9/1 (1993), B3.
  52. J. M. Lang, We Don't Trust Course Evaluations, but Are Peer Observations Much Better? Chronicle of Higher Education, June 09, 2019.
  53. E. Lilienfeld, How Student Evaluations are Skewed against Women and Minority Professors, Commentary:Higher Education, The Century Foundation, February 13, 2017.
  54. J. P. Lombardo and M. Tocci, Attribution of positive and negative characteristics of instructor as function of attractiveness and sex of instructor and sex of subject, Perceptual & Motor Skills, 48 (1979).
  55. L. MacNell, A. Driscoll, and A. N. Hunt, What’s in a name: Exposing Gender Bias in Student Ratings of Teaching, Innovative Higher Education, 40 (4), 291-303 (2015) (published online 05 December 2014).
  56. A. Marcotte, Best Way For Professors to Get Good Student Evaluations? Be Male, Slate, December 9, 2014.
  57. E. Martin, Power and Authority in the Classroom: Sexist Stereotypes in Teaching Evaluations. Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 9 (1984), 482-492.
  58. F. Mengel, J. Sauermann, & Ulf Zölitz, Gender Bias in Teaching Evaluations, Journal of the European Economic Association, September 2017.
  59. P. Miles and D. House, The Tail Wagging the Dog;An Overdue Examination of Student Teaching Evaluations, International Journal of Higher Education, 40, no. 2, 2015.
  60. J. Miller & M. Chamberlin, Women are teachers, men are professors: A study of student perceptions, Teaching Sociology, 28 (4), 283– 298 (2000).
  61. K. Mitchell and J. Martin, Gender Bias in Student Evaluations Political Science & Politics, published online 06 March 2018 (downloadable pdf available at linked site)
  62. K. Mitchell, Student Evaluations Can't be Used to Assess Professors, Slate, March 19, 2018.
  63. G. Morrongiello, Female prof. calls for inflated course evaluations for female profs, Campus Reform, June 24, 2015.
  64. M. Moore, Student resistance to course content: Reactions to the gender of the messenger. Teaching Sociology 25(2) (1997), 128-33.
  65. V. Ray, Is Gender Bias an Intended Feature of Teaching Evaluations, Inside Higher Ed, February 9, 2018.
  66. A. S. Rosen, Correlations, Trends, and Potential Biases among Publicly Accessible Web-Based Student Evaluations of Teaching:A large-scale study of data, Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education January 2017: 1–14.
  67. B. R. Sandler, Women faculty at work in the classroom, or why it still hurts to be a woman in labor, Communication Education (1991)(January), 6-15.
  68. D. Savonick and C. Davidson, Gender Bias in Academe: An Annotated Bibliography of Important Recent Studies, HASTAC, January 26, 2015. (This page contains a wealth of information and is regularly updated)
  69. M. R. Schuster, & S. R. Van Dyne, The changing classroom. In M. R. Schuster & S. R. Van Dyne (Eds.), Women’s place in the academy, (pp. 161-171). Totowa, New Jersey: Rowman & Allanheld (1985).
  70. B. Schmidt, Gendered Language in Teacher Reviews (text analysis tool for looking at gender bias in teaching evaluations on RateMyProfessor) (2015)
  71. J. Sprague & K. Massoni, Student evaluations and gendered expectations: What we can't count can hurt us. Sex Roles, 53, 779–793 (2005).
  72. P. B. Stark, An Evaluation of Course Evaluations, ScienceOpen, 26 September 2014.
  73. A. Statham & L. Richardson, Gender and University Teaching, SUNY Press (1991).
  74. A. Statham, L. Richardson, and J. Cook, Gender and University Teaching: A Negotiated Difference, SUNY Press (1991).
  75. D. Storage, Z. Horne, A. Cimpian, & S-J. Leslie, The Frequency of “Brilliant” and “Genius” in Teaching Evaluations Predicts the Representation of Women and African Americans across Fields, PLOS ONE, March 3, 2016.
  76. B. Uttl, C. A. White, and D. W. Gonzalez, Meta-analysis of faculty's teaching effectiveness: Student evaluation of teaching ratings and student learning are not related, Studies in Educational Evaluation, 54, September 2017, 22-42.
  77. N. Wagner, M. Rieger, and K. Voorvelt, Gender, ethnicity and teaching evaluations: Evidence from mixed teaching teams, Economics of Education Review 54, 79-94 (October 2016).
  78. S. Young, L. Rush, & D. Shaw, Evaluating gender bias in ratings of university instructors’ teaching effectiveness, International Journal of Scholarship of Teaching and Learning 3, 1–14 (2009)