C. elegans is a powerful model system for studying genetics, development, and neurobiology. The Phillips lab has helped pioneer the use of this species for evolutionary studies, particularly for experimental evolution. We are expanding this work into the molecular population genomic analysis of the closely related species, C. remanei, which has much more genetic variation.


Phillips Laboratory


Google Scholar record for Patrick Phillips


Timmermeyer, N., S.A. Banse, J.H. North, M. Sottile, S.R. Lockery, and P.C. Phillips. An open source worm sorter: robust sorting of Caenorhabditis nematodes using PDMS microfluidic chips.

Ebel, E.R., and P.C. Phillips. 2015. Female-specific inbreeding depression: sensitivity and genetic load.


M.F. Palopoli, C. Peden, C. Woo, K. Akiha, M. Ary, L. Cruze, J.L. Anderson, and P.C. Phillips. 2015. Natural and experimental evolution of sexual conflict within Caenorhabditis nematodes.
BMC Evolution 15:93

Wilkinson, G.S., F. Breden, J.E. Mank, M.G. Ritchie, A.D. Higginson, J. Radwan, J. Jaquiery, W. Salzburger, E. Arriero, S. Barribeau, P.C. Phillips, S.C.P. Renn, and L. Rowe. 2015. The locus of sexual selection: moving sexual selection studies into the post-genomics era.
Journal of Evolutionary Biology 28:739-55

Sikkink, K.L., R.M. Reynolds, W.A. Cresko, and P.C. Phillips. 2015. Environmentally induced changes in correlated responses to selection reveal variable pleiotropy across a complex genetic network.
Evolution 69:1128-42

Fierst, J.L., J.H. Willis, C.G. Thomas, W. Wang, R.M. Reynolds, T.E. Ahearne, A.D. Cutter, and P.C. Phillips. 2015. Reproductive mode and the evolution of genome size and structure in Caenorhabditis nematodes.
PLoS Genetics 11:e1005323

Phillips, P.C., and B. Bowerman. 2015. Scaling and the emergence of evolutionary cell biology.
Current Biology 25:R223-5.

Fierst, J.L., and P.C. Phillips. 2015. Modeling the evolution of complex genetic systems: the gene network family tree.
Journal of Experimental Zoology 324:1-12.


Sikkink, K.L., C.M. Ituarte, R.M. Renolds, W.A. Cresko, and P.C. Phillips. 2014. The transgenerational effects of heat stress in the nematode Caenorhabditis remanei are negative and rapidly eliminated under direct selection for increased stress resistance in larvae.
Genomics 104:438-446.

Carvalho, S., P.C. Phillips, and H. Teotónio. 2014. Hermaphrodite life history, adaptation and the maintenance of partial selfing in experimental populations of Caenorhabditis elegans.
BMC Evolution 14:117.

Sikkink, K.L., R. M. Reynolds, C.M. Ituarte, W.A. Cresko, and P.C. Phillips. 2014. Rapid evolution of phenotypic plasticity and shifting thresholds of genetic assimilation in the nematode Caenorhabditis remanei.
G3: Genes, Genomes and Genetics 4:1103-1112.

Jovelin, R., J. Comstock, A.D. Cutter and P.C. Phillips. 2014. A recent selective sweep on the age-1 PI3 kinase regulator of the insulin-like signaling pathway within Caenorhabditis remanei.
G3: Genes, Genomes and Genetics 4:1123-1133.


Arrighi, J.M., Lencer, E.S., Jukar, A., Park, D., Phillips, P.C., and R. H. Kaplan. 2013. Daily temperature fluctuations unpredictably influence developmental rate and morphology at a critical early larval stage in a frog.
BMC Ecology 13:18.

Reynolds, R.M., and P.C. Phillips. 2013. Natural variation for lifespan and stress response in the nematode Caenorhabditis remanei.
PLoS ONE 8:e58212.


Gaertner, B.E., M.D. Parmenter, M.V. Rockman, L. Kruglyak, and P.C. Phillips. 2012. More than the sum of it parts: a complex epistatic network underlies natural variation in thermal preference behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans.
Genetics 192:1533-1542.

Fierst, J.L., and P.C. Phillips. 2012. Variance in epistasis links gene regulation and evolutionary rate in the yeast genetic interaction network.
Genome Biology and Evolution 4:1080-7.

Wu, D., P.M. Tedesco, P.C. Phillips, and T.E. Johnson. 2012. Fertility/longevity trade-offs under limiting-male conditions in mating populations of Caenorhabditis elegans.
Experimental Gerontology 47:759-763.

Phillips, P.C. 2012. Self fertilization sweeps up variation in the C. elegans genome.
Nature Genetics 44:237-8.

Kimmel, C. B., K. McGuigan, P. C. Phillips, B. Ullmann, M. Currey, F. von Hippel, B. K. Kristjánsson, O. Gelmond, and W. A. Cresko. 2011. Independent axes of genetic variation and parallel evolutionary divergence of opercle bone shape in the threespine stickleback.
Evolution 66:419-432..

Chandler, C.H., G.E. Chadderdon, P.C. Phillips, I. Dworkin, and F.J. Janzen. 2012. Experimental evolution of the Caenorhabditis elegans sex determination pathway.
Evolution 66:82-93.


McCormick, K., B.E. Gaertner, M. Sottile, P.C. Phillips, and S. Lockery. 2011. Microfluidic devices for analysis of spatial orientation behaviors in semi-restrained Caenorhabditis elegans.
PLoS One 6:e25710.

Anderson, J.L., R.M. Reynolds, L.T. Morran, J. Tolman-Thompson, and P.C. Phillips. 2011. Experimental evolution reveals antagonistic pleiotropy in reproductive timing but not lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans.
Journal of Gerontology Series A: Biomedical Sciences and Medical Sciences 66:1300-1308.

Jovelin, R., and P.C. Phillips. 2011. Expression level drives the pattern of selective constraints along the insulin/Tor signal transduction pathway in Caenorhabditis.
Genome Biology and Evolution 3:715-722.

Chandler, C.H., G.E. Chadderdon, P.C. Phillips, I. Dworkin, and F.J. Janzen. 2011. Experimental evolution of the Caenorhabditis elegans sex determination pathway.
Evolution, in press.

Estes, S, P.C. Phillips, and D.R. Denver. 2011. Fitness recovery and compensatory evolution in natural mutant lines of C. elegans.
Evolution 65:2335-2344.

Anderson, J. L., L. Albergotti, B. Ellebracht, R. B. Huey, and P. C. Phillips. 2011. Does thermoregulatory behavior maximize reproductive fitness of natural isolates of Caenorhabditis elegans?
BMC Evol Biol 11:157.

Mendenhall, A. R., D. Wu, S. K. Park, J. R. Cypser, P. M. Tedesco, C. D. Link, P. C. Phillips, and T. E. Johnson. 2011. Genetic dissection of late-life fertility in Caenorhabditis elegans.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, in press.


Gaertner, B.E., and P.C. Phillips. 2010. Caenorhabditis elegans as a platform for molecular quantitative genetics and the systems biology of natural variation.
Genetics Research 92:331-348.

Morran, L.T., A. K. Ohdera, and P.C. Phillips. 2010. Purging deleterious mutations under self fertilization: paradoxical recovery in fitness with increasing mutation rate in Caenorhabditis elegans.
PLoS ONE 5:e14473.

Denver, D.R., D.K. Howe, L.J. Wilhelm, C.A. Palmer, J.L. Anderson, K.C. Stein, P.C. Phillips, and S. Estes. 2010. Selective sweeps and parallel mutation in the adaptive recovery from deleterious mutation in Caenorhabditis elegans.
Genome Research 20:1663-1671.

Hohenlohe, P., P.C. Phillips, W.A. Cresko. 2010. Using population genomics to detect selection in natural populations: key concepts and methodological considerations.
International Journal of Plant Science 171:1059-1071.

Baker, B.S., P.C. Phillips, and S.J. Arnold. 2010. A test of the conjecture that B-matrices are more stable than G-matrices.
Evolution 64:2601-2613.

Dowell, R.D., O. Ryan, A. Jansen, D. Cheung, S. Agarwala, T. Danford, D.A. Bernstein, P.A. Rolfe, L.E. Heisler, B. Chin, C. Nislow, G. Giaever, P.C. Phillips, G.R. Fink, D.K. Gifford, and C. Boone. 2010. Genotype to phenotype: a complex problem.
Science 328:469.

Anderson, J.L., L.T. Morran, and P.C. Phillips. 2010. Outcrossing and the maintenance of males within C. elegans populations.
Journal of Heredity 101:S62-74.


Morran, L.T., M, M.D. Parmenter, and P.C. Phillips. 2009. Mutation load and rapid adaptation favour outcrossing over self-fertilization.
Nature 462:350-352.

Jovelin, R. 2009. Rapid sequence evolution of transcription factors controlling neuron differentiation in Caenorhabditis.
Molecular Biology and Evolution 26:2373-2386.

Jovelin, R., and P.C. Phillips. 2009. Evolutionary rates and centrality in the yeast gene regulatory network.
Genome Biology 10:R35.

Morran, L.T., Brian J. Cappy, J.L. Anderson, and P.C. Phillips. 2009. Sexual partners for the stressed: facultative outcrossing in a predominantly self-fertilizing species.
Evolution 63:1473-1482.

Jovelin, R., J.P. Dunham, F.S. Sung, and P.C. Phillips. 2009. High nucleotide divergence in developmental regulatory genes contrasts with the structural elements of olfactory pathways in Caenorhabditis.
Genetics 181:1387-97

Chandler, C.H., P.C. Phillips, and F.J. Janzen. 2009. The evolution of sex-determining mechanisms: lessons from temperature-sensitive mutations in sex determination genes in Caenorhabditis elegans.
Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22:192-200.


Phillips, P.C. 2008. Epistasis: the fundamental role of gene interactions in the structure and evolution of genetic systems.
Nature Reviews Genetics 9:855-867.

Kammenga, J.E., P.C. Phillips, M. de Bono, and A. Doroszuk. 2008. Beyond induced mutants: using worms to study natural variation in genetic pathways.
Trends in Genetics 24:178-185.

Phillips, P. C. 2008. Evolutionary genetics: who shouldn't be your daddy.
Nature 451:640-641.

Baltrus, D.A., K. Gullemin, and P.C. Phillips. 2008. Genetic exchange increases the rate of adaptation in the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori.
Evolution 62:39-49.


Phillips, P.C. 2007. What maintains genetic variation in natural populations? A commentary on the paper ‘The maintenance of genetic variability by mutation in polygenic characters with linked loci’ by Russell Lande.
Genetical Research 89:385-386.

Anderson, J.L., L. Albergotti, S. Proulx, C. Peden, R.B. Huey, and P.C. Phillips. 2007. Thermal preference in Caenorhabditis elegans: a null model and empirical tests.
Journal of Experimental Biology 210:3107-3116.

Maneol, D., S. Carvalho, P.C. Phillips, and H. Teotónio. 2007. Selection against males in Caenorhabditis elegans under two mutational treatments.
Proceedings Royal Society of London B 274:417-424.

Cresko, W.A., K. McGuigan, P.C. Phillips, and J. Postlethwait. 2007. Developmental genetic basis of microevolution in threespine stickleback: progress and promise.
Genetica 129:105-126.


Estes, S., and P.C. Phillips. 2006. Variation in pleiotropy and the mutational underpinnings of the G matrix.
Evolution 60:2655-60.

Janzen, F.H., and P.C. Phillips. 2006. Exploring the evolution of environmental sex determination.
Journal of Evolutionary Biology 19:1775-1784.

Aagaard, J.E., J.H. Willis, and P.C. Phillips. 2006. Relaxed selection among duplicate floral regulatory gene in Lamiales.
Journal of Molecular Evolution 63:493-503.

Teotónio, H., D. Maneol, and P.C. Phillips. 2006. Genetic variation for outcrossing among Caenorhabditis elegans isolates.
Evolution 60:1300-1305.

Proulx, S., and P.C. Phillips. 2006. Allelic divergence precedes and promotes gene duplication.
Evolution 60:881-892.

Phillips, P.C. 2006. One perfect worm. Trends in Genetics 22:405-407.

Kaplan, R.H., and P.C. Phillips. 2006. Ecological and developmental context of natural selection: Maternal effects and thermally induced plasticity in the frog Bombina orientalis.
Evolution 60:142-156. Preprint

Phillips, P.C., and K.L. McGuigan. 2006. Evolution of genetic variance-covariance structure. In C. Fox and J. Wolf (eds.), Evolutionary Genetics: Concepts and Case Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford, England.


Aagaard, J.E., R.G. Olmstead, J.H. Willis, and P.C. Phillips. 2005. Duplication of floral regulatory genes in the Lamiales.
American Journal of Botany 92:1284-1293.

Jovelin, R., and P.C. Phillips. 2005. Functional constraint and divergence in the G protein family of Caenorhabditis elegans and C. briggsae.
Molecular Genetics and Genomics 273:299-310.

Ajie, B., S. Estes, M. Lynch, and P.C. Phillips. 2005. Behavioral degradation under mutation accumulation.
Genetics 170:655-660.

Estes, S., B. Ajie, M. Lynch, and P.C. Phillips. 2005. Spontaneous mutational correlations for life-history, morphological, and behavioral characters in Caenorhabditis elegans.
Genetics 170:645-653.

Kimmel, C.B., B. Ullmann, C. Walker, C. Wilson, M. Currey, P.C. Phillips, M.A. Bell, J.H. Poslethwait, and W.A. Cresko. 2005. Evolution and development of facial bone morphology in threespine stickleback.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA 102:5791-6.

Proulx, S., D. Promislow, and P.C. Phillips. 2005. Network thinking in ecology and evolution.
Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20:345-353.

Phillips, P.C. 2005. Testing hypotheses about the genetics of adaptation.
Genetica 123:15-24. [Reprinted in Genetics of Adaptation, R. Mauricio (ed.), Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands (2005).]

Proulx, S., and P.C. Phillips. 2005. The opportunity for canalization and the evolution of genetic networks.
American Naturalist 165:147-162.


Aagaard, J.E., and P.C. Phillips. 2004. Accuracy and power of the likelihood ratio test for comparing evolutionary rates among genes.
Journal of Molecular Evolution 60:426-433.

Estes, S., P.C. Phillips, D.R. Denver, W.K. Thomas, and M. Lynch. 2004. Mutation accumulation in populations of varying size: The distribution of mutational effects for fitness correlates in Caenorhabditis elegans.
Genetics 166:1269-1279.

McGuigan, K., P.C. Phillips, J.H. Postlethwait. 2004. Evolution of sarcomeric myosin heavy chain genes: evidence from fish.
Molecular Biology and Evolution 21:1042-1056.

Cresko, W.A., A. Amores, C. Wilson, J. Murphy, M. Currey, P. Phillips, M.A. Bell, C.B. Kimmel, and J.H. Postlethwait. 2004. Parallel genetic basis for repeated evolution of armor loss in Alaskan threespine stickleback populations.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA 101:6050-6055.

Hersch, E., and P.C. Phillips. 2004. Power and potential bias in the detection of selection in natural populations.
Evolution 58:479-8.


Jovelin, R., B. Ajie, and P.C. Phillips. 2003. Molecular evolution and quantitative variation for chemosensory behavior in nematode genus Caenorhabditis.
Molecular Ecology 12:1325-1337.


Whitlock, M.C., P.C. Phillips, and K.A. Fowler. 2002. Changes in the genetic covariance matrix over twenty generations after a bottleneck.
Evolution 56:1968-1975.

Steppan, S. J., P. C. Phillips, D. Houle. 2002. Comparative quantitative genetics: evolution of the G matrix.
Trends in Ecology and Evolution 17:320-327.

Stewart, A.D., and P.C. Phillips. 2002. Selection and maintenance of androdioecy in Caenorhabditis elegans.
Genetics 160:975-982.


Phillips, P.C., M.C. Whitlock, and K.A. Fowler. 2001. Inbreeding changes the shape of the genetic covariance matrix in Drosophila melanogaster.
Genetics 158:1137-1145.


Whitlock, M.C., and P.C. Phillips. 2000. The exquisite corpse: a shifting view of the shifting balance.
Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15:347-348.

Phillips, P.C., S. P. Otto, and M.C. Whitlock. 2000. Beyond the average: the evolutionary importance of gene interactions and variability of epistatic effects. Pages 20-38 in J. D. Wolf, E.D. Brodie, III, and M. J. Wade (eds.), Epistasis and the Evolutionary Process. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England.


Phillips, P.C. and S.J. Arnold. 1999. Hierarchical comparison of genetic variance-covariance matrices. I. Using the Flury hierarchy.
Evolution 53:1506-1515.

Arnold, S.J., and P.C. Phillips. 1999. Hierarchical comparison of genetic variance-covariance matrices. II. Coastal-inland divergence in the garter snake Thamnophis elegans.
Evolution 53:1516-1527.

Whitlock, M.C., and P. C. Phillips. 1999. Genetic drift. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. Nature Publishing Group, London. www.els.net

Phillips, P.C. 1999. From complex traits to complex alleles.
Trends in Genetics 15:6-8.


Phillips, P.C., and N.A. Johnson. 1998. The population genetics of synthetic lethals.
Genetics 150:449-458.

Phillips, P.C. 1998. The language of gene interaction.
Genetics 149:1167-1171.

Phillips, P.C. 1998. Genetic constraints at the metamorphic boundary: Morphological development in the wood frog, Rana sylvatica.
Journal of Evolutionary Biology 11:453-463.

Phillips, P.C. 1998. Designing experiments to maximize the power of detecting correlations.
Evolution 52:251-255.


Phillips, P.C. 1997. The rise and fall of new mutations.
Trends in Ecology and Evolution 12:466-468.

Phillips, P.C. 1996. Waiting for a compensatory mutation: phase zero of the shifting-balance process.
Genetical Research, Cambridge 67:271-283.

Phillips, P.C. 1996. Maintenance of polygenic variation via a migration-selection balance under uniform selection.
Evolution 50:1334-1339.

Whitlock, M.C., P.C. Phillips, F.B.G Moore, and S. Tonsor. 1995. Epistasis and multiple fitness peaks.
Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 26:601-29.

Whitlock, M.C., P.C. Phillips, and M.J. Wade. 1993. Gene interaction affects the additive genetic variance in subdivided populations with migration and extinction.
Evolution 47:1758-1769.

Phillips, P.C. 1993. Peak-shifts and polymorphism during phase three of Wright's shifting-balance process.
Evolution 47:1733-1743.

Phillips, P.C., and M.J. Wade. 1990. Rana sylvatica (wood frog). Reproductive mortality.
Herpetological Review 21:59.

Phillips, P.C., and S.J. Arnold. 1989. Visualizing multivariate selection. Evolution 43: 1209-1222.

Phillips, P.C., and R.H. Kaplan. 1987. A microscope-computer interface for the measurement of size and shape.
Herpetologica 43: 384-385.