<>1921:German sociologist Max Weber’s "life work", Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft [Economy and Society], published posthumously. Contained influential treatment of "class and status" [CCS:409-23 | CCS,1:701-15]. A great European, whose career got under way in 1904:1905, had his most influential work published only after his death

<>1921fe21:Persian coup d'état, carried out by a small force of 1200 troops under the command of Reza Khan returned power to a ministerial government within the Majlis [the Persian parliament]

<>1921fe22:Soviet Central State Economic Planning Commission [GosPlan] created
*1921fe:Peasants were sentenced for petty commercial activities [RWR:166]
*--Further examples of economic conditions and abuses on eve of NEP in rural Russia [RWR:167-70]
*1919:1921; Three years of peasant unrest preceded NEP [RWR:270-82]

<>1921fe27:Georgia [Gruziia] Soviet regime established

<>1921mr01:mr08; Kronstadt (fortress island protecting Petrograd) the scene of a significant rebellion against Communist rule, though in favor of Soviet rule
*--Resolutions [RWR:288-95 | BNE:239-41 | Chamberlin,2:495-7 | SGv:147-8 | DPH:435-6 | Voline:passim | PWT2:298-300]

<>1921mr08:mr16; Communist Party Congress #10 laid final foundation for institutionalization of NEP (below) [McC2:207-14]
*--Resolution on Party unity [RWR:308-10 | Chamberlin,2:497-9 | SGv:149 | DPH:436-7]

<>1921mr16:English-Russian [NB! not yet "Soviet Union"] commercial treaty [Senn,2:74-80]

<>1921mr18:Poland gained international recognition of independence by Treaty of Riga [Wki], which favored Poland
*--1/3 of the population in the new Poland were non-Poles, mainly East-Slavic peoples of Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine
*--The askew eastern geo-physical location of the nation-state Poland did not correspond to the geo-physical location of the Polish nation
*1921mr:Report on Comintern activities [RWR:201-3]

<>1921mr23:1927de; Russian Soviet Federated Republic issued its
New Economic Policy [NEP]
which lasted seven years

<>1921my30:je01; USA Oklahoma | Tulsa race riot, arguably the worst in US history [W]

<>1921je:jy; Mikhail Gershenzon & Viacheslav Ivanov wrote philosophical reflections on post-revolutionary Russia, Correspondence Across a Room (1984) [Excerpts = Raeff3:373f]

<>1921jy:Soviet Republic hosted Third World Congress of the Communist International (Comintern) [RFP2,2:158-61]

<>1921fa:1922wi; Soviet Republic suffered famine
*1921oc:Volga region famine described by Philip Gibbs [Eye:493-5]
*--Anna Louise Strong witnessed NEP-era famine and described it [TXT]
*1922mr05:Russian Orthodox Metropolitan Veniamin described Church-supported famine relief [RWR:310-12]

<>1921no05:Mongolia and the Soviet Republic signed treaty after Mongolia broke away from China

<>1921no25:Tambov province again the site of peasant disorders
*--300 Tambov hostages submitted petition to the All-Russian Cheka [RWR:280-2]
*--Throughout the territories of the old Empire, storms arose on the "peasant sea" (as described in an earlier Ukrainian memo to Comintern Congress #3 [ID] )
*--The NEP years were not all wine and roses

<>1921de06:Ireland and Great Britain signed Treaty of Irish independence

<>1921de19:de22; USSR Communist Party conference#11 officially named the new revolutionary nation the "Union of Soviet Socialist Republics" (USSR)
*--The USSR came into institutional existence in the NEP years & survived seventy years, almost to the day, until 1991de31

<>1922:Irish author James Joyce published Ulysses in book form [TXT], a great 20th-century fine arts landmark

Disorientated by the radical novelty of Ulysses, many early readers relied instead on the critical compass of insiders like Larbaud, whose influential 1922 essay in La Nouvelle Revue Française had been informed by access to Joyce's private schemata of the novel's structure. This experience of heavily mediated reading remains just as true today. Joyce asks that we be well versed in Catholic rite, fluent in Latin and with few snatches of Greek, on intimate terms with Homer, naturally, but no less with Dante, Shakespeare, St Augustine, Aristotle, Aquinas, music hall, opera, the Celtic twilight, and the demography, topography and historiography of turn-of-the-century Dublin -- the whole kit and boodle in a word. Because our cultural competence is not up to the task now, if ever it were, we fall back on a wealth of reference materials.... Where earlier reviewers complained of the book's unreadability, today's critics regard this resistance to reading as a legitimate means of keeping the work ‘open' [IE=keeping it alive to new interpretation]

<>1922ja26:China and USSR issued Joint statement of Sun Yat-sen and A. A. Joffe [RFP2,1:177-8]

<>1922ja31:German financier Walther Rathenau became German Foreign Minister

<>1922mr:ap; USSR Communist Party Congress #11

<>1922mr01:Sweden signed commercial treaty with USSR

<>1922ap10:1922my19:Genoa Italy| International conference tried to put European economy back together after devastation of WW1 [Conference docs]

<>1922my:Russian Orthodox Church Patriarch Tikhon arrested

<>1922my25:Vladimir Lenin 1st stroke seriously incapacitated him

<>1922je24:German Foreign Minister Walther Rathenau murdered by right-wing nationalists
*--Wki summary of Rathenau's position in post-WW1 events

<>1922au04;au07; Communist Party Congress #12 [McC2:214-17]
*1922au06:Trial of SRs under way| Speech by Abram Gots [RWR:314-16]
*--Political in-fighting picked up as NEP era matured

<>1922se19:Germany, Kiel | USA author Ernest Hemingway described scene of economic collapse [Eye:497-501]

<>1922oc:Vladivostok,Siberia | Japan withdrew its forces from the vital Russian port after almost 4 years of occupation, since the early days of the Revolutionary Civil War

<>1922oc30:1943jy26; Italian Fascist Party came to power and remained for 21 years after Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) led march of paramilitary supporters on Rome [DPH:387-8]

<>1922oc30:USSR | NEP era labor law [SGv:413-24]

<>1922no:USSR hosted Fourth World Congress of the Comintern [RFP2,2:161-5]

<>1922no01:Turkey | Mustafa Kemal (Kemal Pasha or Kemal Atatürk -- Kemal the Father of the Turks) led modernizing revolution to power at the head of a rebel army

<>1922no16:Italian Chamber of Deputies heard Fascist Party leader Mussolini's speech [DPH:388-9]
*--LOOP on "fascism" and "fascist"

<>1922de13:de30; USSR [Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; Soiuz sovetskikh sotsialisticheskikh respublik] was formally declared [RWR:339]

<>1922de23:1923ja04; Vladimir Lenin's "Testament" [TXT] dictated over two week period [SGv:155-9 | RWR:340-4]
*--A critique of Joseph Stalin and others, but essentially a belated call for radical democratization of Party and state here in the NEP era
*--Too little, too late?

<>1923:Austrian-born Hebrew scholar and moral philosopher Martin Buber published I and Thou
*--Buber described a highly personal relationship between the individual and God
*--The relationship with God provided the ideal model for all human relationships
*--The relationship was a subjective dialogue rather than interaction between objectivities
*1929 he published an essay "Zwiesprache" [dialogue] which concentrated on this idea [CCS,1:337-61]

<>1923:NYC etc | Sergei Esenin, "An Iron Mirgorod" [Hasty:144-58]

<>1923:Spanish philosopher José Ortega y Gasset (1883-1955) published El tema de nuestro tiempo [1931:translated as The Modern Theme] [CCS,2:709-729]
*--Ortega argued that "the modern theme is to subject reason to living, to localize it within the biological field, to subordinate it to the spontaneous"
*--He celebrated razon vital [living reason, vital consciousness, rationality for life]

<>1923:USSR and Finland sought advisory opinion in international law from the League of Nations Permanent Court of International Justice [ID] regarding jurisdiction in eastern Karelia [RWP1,2]

<>1923ja:German industrial center in the Ruhr area was occupied by French and Belgian troops to ensure that Germany make reparation payments
*--German officials adopted passive resistance to occupying forces [DPH:412-13]
*--Versailles settlement crumbled yet further

<>1923mr04:Lenin published his last substantial piece, "Better Fewer, But Better" [SAC.TXT | E-TXT] [Moshe Lewin, Lenin's Last Struggle:156-74]

<>1923ap17:1923ap25; Russian Communist Party Congress #12 [W-ID]

<>1923my12:Italian periodical Il Mundo employed the political term "totalitarian" to describe the Fascist state
*--Fascist Party leader Mussolini coined and used, with approval, the term totalitario
*--LOOP on "fascism" and "fascist"

<>1923jy24:Turkey | Convention Relating to the Regime of the Straits [ TXT#1 | TXT#2 | TXT#3] [W.ID]

<>1923se:German officials called off passive resistance to Allied occupation of Ruhr district
*--Within the next year the "Dawes Plan" put reparation payments back on track, still without any time limit
*--Heavy payments from Germany continued for six more years, until the Dawes Plan was replaced by a less harsh "Young Plan" in 1929 [DPH:413-118] *--The aftershocks of the Paris Peace Treaties continued to rock Europe and AfroAsia

<>1923oc08:Trotsky launched political attack on Soviet bureaucracy

<>1923de06:USA President Coolidge on "interrupted" USA foreign policy and on the special problem of Russia and earlier famine relief, with Soviet responses [RFP2,2:37-9]
*--Coolidge was willing to tolerate private commercial relationships with USSR but repeated the now standard reasons for USA refusal to open diplomatic relations with USSR = Failure of USSR to pay off WW1 debts and restore confiscated property

<>1924:China | Guomindang party declaration [SPE2:875-9] China

<>1924:USA culture critic Gilbert Seldes published The Seven Lively Arts, a pioneer study of popular commercial culture in the new electronic media

<>1924:German novelist Thomas Mann published his third great novel, Der Zauberberg [The Magic Mountain]

<>1924:Russian political émigré, ex-terrorist and anti-Bol'shevik insurgent Boris Savinkov slipped over the border into the USSR but was soon arrested

<>1924ja13:USSR Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets approved first USSR Constitution, based on deliberations that got under way in 1922de

<>1924ja21:Vladimir Il'ich Lenin died, ending a remarkable revolutionary career that spanned 28 years

<>1924ap:Moscow | Joseph Stalin (1879-1953) laid his ideological claim to Communist Party leadership with a series of lectures, later gathered and augmented in a booklet Foundations of Leninism [CWC:233-51 | BPE:560-72 | MDF:122-3]

<>1924my31:China & USSR Agreement on General Principles [RFP2,1:179-83]

<>1924oc02:Geneva Protocol set procedures and obligations in connection with the League of Nations effort to settle international disputes without war [DPH:462-5]
*--The protocolsfailed, in significant measure due to English refusal to ratify them

1924no24:Mongolian People's Republic declared

<>1924de:USSR hosted Fifth World Congress of the Communist International [RFP2,2:165-9]

<>1925:1926; NYC, Chicago, etc.| Russian revolutionary poet Vladimir Maiakovskii wrote about his visit to USA, "My Discovery of America" [Hasty:159-220]

<>1925:English philosopher, who was then an émigré in the USA, Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947) published an influential book on Science and the Modern World [BMC1:606-9 | BMC4:699-701]
*--Whitehead sought to give science its due respect -- he had co-authored Principia Mathematica [ID] with Bertrand Russell
*--But Whitehead rejected the absolutist optimism of simplistic "scientism"

<>1925:Germany | Austrian-born political conspirator Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) described his main political ideas with bold clarity, Mein Kampf [My struggle TXT]

In the big lie there is always a certain force of credibility; because the broad masses of a nation are always more easily corrupted in the deeper strata of their emotional nature than consciously or voluntarily; and thus in the primitive simplicity of their minds they more readily fall victims to the big lie than the small lie, since they themselves often tell small lies in little matters but would be ashamed to resort to large-scale falsehoods. It would never come into their heads to fabricate colossal untruths, and they would not believe that others could have the impudence to distort the truth so infamously. Even though the facts which prove this to be so may be brought clearly to their minds, they will still doubt and waver and will continue to think that there may be some other explanation. For the grossly impudent lie always leaves traces behind it, even after it has been nailed down, a fact which is known to all expert liars in this world and to all who conspire together in the art of lying.

<>1925:USSR scholar and leading Marxist ideologist D. Riazanov published article [TXT] on Engels' Peasant War in Germany

<>1925:Spanish writer and thinker Miguel de Unamuno published The Agony of Christianity [CCS,2:858-72]
*--Born in Basque country, Unamuno grew up mindful of cultural distinctions. He resisted simple-minded generalizations like "Europe" and "The West"
*--His thought was full of lively paradox, and he placed highest value on immediate experience rather than theory
*--He and Ortega y Gasset contributed a distinct, innovative yet somehow also traditional flavor to 20th-century thought, a "Spanish" flavor, if you find such generalizations to your taste

<>1925ja:USSR Communist Party dismissed War Commissar Leon Trotsky
*--Trotsky's aggressive promotion of the idea of "permanent revolution" brought him under attack from moderates, led by Nikolai Bukharin [RRC1,3:534-41]
*--Having sided with Stalin against Trotsky, now Bukharin would come under attack from Stalin
*--Deadly in-fighting among top leaders became an obvious feature of the first years of the NEP-era

<>1925ap:USSR Communist Party congress#12 heard Joseph Stalin's formal announcement of his concept "socialism in one country"

<>1925oc16:Locarno Treaties negotiated by France, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Czechoslovakia, Poland, and England in an effort normalize relations in the post-WW1 era

<>1925oc:Persian Majlis (parliament) declared the rule of the Qajar dynasty to be terminated and deposed Ahmad Shah while he was absent in Europe

<>1925de24 Christmas Eve:Italian parliament neutralized by laws that allowed Mussolini to rule as a Fascist dictator [DPH:389-90]
*--1925:Italy, Perugia | Fascist Party activist Alfredo Rocco delivered authoritative speech in which he defined "The Political Doctrine of Fascism" [CCS:1015-36 | CCS,2:648-69 | BMC1:640-6 | BMC4:738-44]
*--LOOP on "fascism" and "fascist"

<>1925de25:Moscow premier of two movies: ROBIN HOOD, starring Douglas Fairbanks, and BATTLESHIP POTEMKIN, directed by Sergei Eisenstein
*--Soviet cinema industry was responding very vigorously to Lenin's insistence that movies were the most revolutionary art form [EG]
*1999su:WiQ#23,3:56-70| Richard Schickel, "Cinema Paradiso", a brief history of movies ("film") as a world cultural phenomenon, lamenting decline in recent years. Moscow premier is the central symbolic moment in his tale of movies and the pop-arts

<>1926:Austrian Count Richard N. Coudenhove-Kalergi argued against nationalist and racist doctrines and in support of what he called Pan-Europe [P20:196]

<>1926:English economist John Maynard Keynes published Laissez-Faire and Communism [CCS:754-74] and "The End of Laissez-Faire" [E-TXT] [Excerpts = BPE:663-8]
*--In this epoch of serious and quickly globalizing market-economic collapse and widely expressed hysteria about the apparently thriving revolutionary Soviet economy, with its claim on social justice as well as prosperity, Keynes also wrote "A Short View of Russia"

<>1926:German political activist Robert Michels explained European class consciousness [CCS,1:739-65]

<>1926:Scottish-born USA political philosopher Robert M. MacIver sought to redefine relationship of individual to society and state, to defend liberal and democratic governments from the onslaught of European statist doctrines, in his book The Modern State [CCS,1:631-50]

<>1926ja31:Italian Fascist dictatorship of Mussolini strengthened by law on power of the executive branch to make decrees having the force of legislation or laws [DPH:390]

<>1926ap03:Italian Fascist dictatorship of Mussolini strengthened by law forcing state control over compulsory collective labor relations
*--Labor unions were absorbed into the "Corporative State", and a form of fascist welfare statism was put in place [DPH:390-1]
*--LOOP on "fascism" and "fascist"

<>1926my03:my12; British General Strike spread for nine days throughout major industrial centers of England, Wales and Northern Ireland
*--The general collapse of European capitalism intensified the economic struggle between wage-laborers and their bosses, and English domestic policy displayed an unexpected similarity to emerging harsh continental policies
*--See the following two news stories that did not break until more than 80 years after the events =
*2009no16:CSM| Kathy Marks, "Australia's Rudd apologizes to forced child migrants"| [The apology was for] a postwar plan to empty British orphanages and repopulate [Australia] with "good white stock". The children, who were shipped out [...,] believed their parents were dead. In reality, [one child, a so-called "orphan of Empire", learned years later that his] unmarried mother had been forced to give him up as a baby. That was the case with many of the "orphans", others had been placed in care by impoverished families. Some migrants learned that their parents had tried to seek them, without success – either because their names were changed when they arrived in Australia, or because parents were told by British authorities that their children were dead or had been adopted by wealthy families. Parliamentary inquiries in Britain and Australia in the past decade [1999-2009] concluded that physical and sexual abuse were "widespread and systematic" in the institutions, particularly those run by Catholic orders such as the Christian Brothers and Sisters of Mercy. [...] The children were cheap to house, and a ready source of labor. And, importantly for Australia, they were white; this was an era when Australia feared being overwhelmed by "Asian hordes" from neighboring countries. The institutions, though, were not properly inspected, and staff were mostly untrained and poorly supervised. The official inquiries heard that funds provided by the government for the children's upkeep were sometimes used to feed staff well, while the children were given scraps
*2009no16:guardian.co.uk| More than 150,000 British children, most of them from deprived backgrounds [impoverished wage labor], were sent to Commonwealth countries with the promise of a better life – but the reality was often very different, with many facing abuse and a regime of unpaid labor. Government records show that at least 150,000 children aged between three and 14 were sent to Commonwealth countries, mainly Australia and Canada, in a program that began in the 1920s and did not end until 1967. [...] Parents were told the children had gone to a better life, but many of them ended up in institutions or were sent to work unpaid on farms, with many facing abuse
*--These stories suggest that the long history of removal, transport and concentration stretched further into the 20th-century than we might conventionally expect
*--Anne Perkins, A Very British Strike... [noUO], offers an establishmentarian interpretation of the labor strikes in these years, with more attention to "Communist influence" on the union movement than to domestic economic and political actualities in the everyday life of wage-laborers

<>1926jy:USA Colonel Raymond Robins decried lack of normal USA-USSR relations [RFP2,,2:42-8]

<>1926oc:USSR | Leon Trotsky & other "Joint Opposition" leaders, Leo Kamenev & Grigorii Zinoviev, dismissed from Politbiuro [F/]. [Excerpt from Trotsky's "defense" (TXT)]
*1926:1928; Documents of Soviet History, v4 [DSH,4]
*--The Soviet NEP era was winding down as the great pre-WW2 world-wide political and economic crises of the 1930s unfolded =

<>1927:1937; Decade-long and Europe-wide "free-market" collapse
An era of economic [ID], social [ID] and political [ID] crises

<>;1927:1928; French writer André Gide wrote Voyage au Congo and Le retour du Tchad, powerful but straightforward descriptive condemnations of imperialism based on eye-witness experiences in the Congo [CCC2,2:853f CCC3,2:1161-9]

<>;;1927:French philosopher Julien Benda, The Treason of the Intellectuals [BMC4:761-3]

<>;1927:German philosopher and educator Martin Heidegger (Marburg University, then Berlin) published Sein und Zeit [translated in 1949 as "Existence and Being"]
*--Heidegger may be thought of as the creator of non-Christian or "esthetic" existentialism
*--Sartre was his student
*--[W#1 | W#2]

<>1927:USSR feminist writer and public figure Aleksandra Kollontai’s novel Red Love
*--The book was taken to advocate "free love" relationships between men and women
*--So, once translated into English, it caused a stir among the moralistically righteous
*--But it also inspired active and more radical participation in women's movements
*--Kollontai had been the first woman ever appointed ambassador when she took up her post at the Soviet Embassy in Stockholm, Sweden
*--But her brilliant decade of revolutionary activism was over as she transitioned to honorific state service

<>1927mr:China, Hunan Province | Communist activist of peasant origins, Mao Tse-Tung [Zedong], published analysis of rural conditions, "Report of an Investigation into the Peasant Movement in Hunan" [CCS::1120-52]
*1927mr01:Nanching Uprising led by People's Liberation Army [PLA] signaled new strength of the Chinese Communist-Party
*--The Comintern now thought it could count on serious participation of Chinese revolutionary forces

<>1927ap21:Italian "Corporate statism" consolidated itself by gaining dominion over the wage-labor movement with its "Charter of Labor" [DPH:393-6]
*1927my:Italian leader Mussolini addressed his puppet parliament and attacked political opposition as "silly and superficial in a totalitarian regime" [Nicholas Farrel, Mussolini: A New Life:161 | Also see 2005mr25:TLS:17]

<>1927my30:Comintern Executive Committee debated and formulated a resolution on China [Gruber,2:490-500 | BNE:299-303]

<>1927oc:USSR "Joint Opposition", including Trotsky, expelled from Communist Party & banished
*--Robert Conquest, The Great Terror [E-TXT, abridged but including first sections dealing with the origins of the Stalinist purges]

<>1927oc15:oc20; Turkey | Mustafa Kemal delivered 6-day speech [SPE2::855-6]

<>1927no:USSR Foreign Affairs Commissar (de facto) Maksim Litvinov proposed "the complete abolition of all land, naval and air forces" to members of the League of Nations

<>1927de02:de19; USSR Communist Party Congress#15. The end of nearly 7-year-long NEP and the beginning of the Stalin era

<>1927de27:Joseph Stalin condemned Trotskyist Opposition [SGv:160-2]

<>1928:Peruvian Marxist and member of the Comintern José Carlos Mariátegui (1895-1930) published Seven Essays Interpreting the Peruvian Reality
The second essay was "The Land Problem" [CCS,2:730-52]

<>1928ap14:USA Secretary of State Kellogg stated impossibility of USA-USSR relations so long as Comintern existed [RFP2,2,2:39-41]

<>1928my28:USSR | Stalin on Collectivization of agriculture [ID] [SGv:325-30] [skz ecx]

<>1928jy:USSR | Conclusion of Shakhty [Mines, Miners] Trial, early Stalinist purge trial

<>1928jy:USSR | Sixth World Congress of the Communist International [the Comintern] [RFP2,2:192-8]

<>1928au27:Kellogg-Briand Pact | Germany, USA, France, England, Italy, Japan, plus Belgium, Czechoslovakia and Poland solemnly declared "that they condemn recourse to war for the solution of international controversies, and renounce it as an instrument of national policy in their relations with one another" [DPH:468-9]
*1922fe06:1936de31; Fourteen years of negotiations between USA, France, England, Italy and Japan, in an effort to limit naval armament, lay behind the landmark Kellogg-Briand Pact [RWP1,3:230-7] USA isolationism began to crumble, but was it too little, too late?
*--The Pact affirmed good sentiments, and was eventually signed by 65 nation-states. But the Pact provided for no enforcement mechanisms and thus reflected a general structural fault in the design of the League of Nations

<>1928se:Scotland | Achnacarry Agreement among the seven great trans-national petroleum corporations -- "The Seven Sisters" -- created global petroleum cartels
*--International Petroleum Cartel (WDC:Gvt. Printing Office,1952)

<>1928oc:1932de; USSR First Five-year Plan lasted four years and became the industrial cornerstone of Stalinism
*--Paul R. Gregory, The Political Economy of Stalinism: Evidence from the Soviet Secret Archives

<>1928de09:Italian Fascist state strengthened by its absorption of the Grand Council of Fascism (something like the fascist party executive)

<>1929:English novelist Virginia Woolf published personal declaration of independence, requiring only, as her title put it, A Room of One's Own [TXT] [CWC:386-98]. Yes, a room of one's own, but also, as her text added, a steady income of 500 British Pounds a year. A feminist manifesto by a representative of the English social, economic and cultural elite, one of the great novelists of the 20th-century, was also a plea for economic independence. Economic pressures caused by the commercialization of the fine arts and the rise of pop-arts was felt in Woolf's circles. Her manifesto had long-term influence, and not only on women's movements

<>1929:German writer Erich Maria Remarque published powerful novel about WW1, All Quiet on the Western Front
*--German sociologist (Hungarian-born) Karl Mannheim published pioneer work in the "sociology of knowledge", Ideology and Utopia [CCS:329-56]

<>1929:Spanish philosopher Ortega y Gasset, Revolt of the Masses [TXT] [TXT] [Excerpts = (W) | (W) | CCS:485-506 | CCS,2:508-29 | BMC4:659-61] Critical of mass culture [of which pop-arts were but a superficial expression] and suspicious of undisciplined democracy, he was nonetheless a liberal who fought against old regime Spain and helped establish a brief republican epoch before defeat in the Spanish Civil War brought militarist, right-wing movement of Franco to power
*--A praiseful contemporary "right-wing" critique of Ortega's central ideas (with long quotes) [W]

<>1929fe09:USSR | Joseph Stalin criticized Nikolai Bukharin and the Right Deviation [SGv:163-6]
*1929:1931; Documents of Soviet History, v5 [DSH,5]

<>1929fe11:Italian Fascist state signed concordat with Pope [DPH:398-9]

<>1929ap08:USSR | Status of Religious Groups Defined [SGv:63-70]
*--Changes over the following half century documented = [PS&C:298-304]

<>1929oc29:USA | New York Times reported "Stock Prices Slump", marking the beginning of the US phase of the global collapse of the capitalist economy

<>1929no:USSR | Nikolai Bukharin dismissed from Politbiuro. The so-called "right opposition" was defeated, and Stalin's path to unchecked power was nearly clear of obstacles

<>1929de21:USSR | Fiftieth birthday of Joseph Stalin

<>1929de27:USSR Collectivization of agriculture intensified as Stalin delivered speech which called for "the liquidation of the kulaks as a class" and "the eradication of the distinction between city and countryside" [SGv:330-1 | DPH:440-1 | PWT2:306-7]

<>1929:French scholar and public intellectual, Elie Halévy lectured on "The World Crisis of 1914-1918: An Interpretation" [E-TXT]
*--European catastrophes since 1914 shifted the attentions of Halévy from English "Classical Economics" toward vast general-European themes, the political-economic and cultural causes and consequences of the "Great War", including the deep harmonies of war and revolution
*--LOOP on "Political-Economy"

<>1930:Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud published Civilization and its Discontents  (Das Unbehagen in der Kultur) [Summarized TXT w/quotes | Excerpts = CCS:623-40 | CCS,1:365-82 | PWT2:242-7 (includes other excerpts) | BMC1:617-20]

<>1930:German journalist and Nazi ideologist Alfred Rosenberg wrote the influential Der Mythus des 20. Jahrhunderts [The Myth of the Twentieth Century] [BMC1:651-3 | BMC4:749-51]

<>1930ja05:USSR | Collectivization of agriculture accelerated [SGv:331-2]

<>1930mr:Stalin signaled crisis in the implementation of Collectivization with his deceptively titled speech "Dizzy with Success" [SGv:332-3]

<>1930mr:USSR| Menshevik Party trial signaled intensification of political terror as a facet of Stalinism

<>1930mr20:Italian labor law, reforming the Italian National Council of Corporations, further strengthened Fascist statism [DPH:399-401]
*--LOOP on "fascism" and "fascist"

<>1930mr28:German Socialist Party [SPD] addressed an Executive Appeal to the German working people

<>1930my21:India | Followers of Gandhi marched on salt deposits at Dharsana to protest English arrest of their leader, as described by Webb Miller [Eye:501-4]

<>1930se:USA ex-Socialist John Spargo argued for recognition of USSR [RFP2,2:49-58]

<>1930oc09:1940je26; USSR | Stalinist decade of labor laws (prior to WW2) [SGv:425-32]

<>1930oc18:German Social-Democratic [SD] deputies in the Reichstag declared their unwillingness to cooperate with either the National Socialists [Nazis] or Communists [supporters of international Soviet programs designed within the Comintern]

<>1930no:USSR "Industrial Party" trial under way

<>1931:Austrian (born in Czech region) mathematician Kurt Gődel (sometimes "Goedel" and incorrectly as "Godel") (1906-1978) published his Incompleteness Theorems in Uber formal unentscheidbare Sätze der Principia Mathematica und verwandter Systeme
*--The Goedel Society website explains that Goedel

proved fundamental results about axiomatic systems showing in any axiomatic mathematical system there are propositions that cannot be proved or disproved within the axioms of the system. In particular the consistency of the axioms cannot be proved This ended a hundred years of attempts to establish axioms to put the whole of mathematics on an axiomatic basis.

*--Morris Kline, Mathematics: The Loss of Certainty (1981)

<>1931:German author of world fame, Thomas Mann, tried to put rise of Nazism in broadest cultural and historical framework in a article titled "An Appeal to Reason"
*--Mann reflected that Europe was in

a crisis which heralded the end of the bourgeois epoch that came in with the French revolution and the notions appertaining to it. A new mental attitude was proclaimed for all mankind, an attitude that has nothing to do with bourgeois principles such as freedom, justice, culture, optimism, faith in progress. As art, it gave vent to expressionistic soul-shrieks; as philosophy it repudiated ... reason, and the ... ideological conceptions of bygone decades; it expressed itself as an irrationalistic throwback, placing the conception life at the center of thought, and raised on its standard the powers of the unconscious, the dynamic, the darkly creative, which alone were life-giving. [P20:169 | PWT2:351-2]

*--Late this same year in Germany, Arthur Koestler joined the Communist Party and remained a member into the year 1938. Later he explained the circumstances that attracted him to the Communist Party [PWT2:352-4]

<>1931:Berlin, Rome and Moscow were the only places where the 100th anniversary of Hegel's death was celebrated
*--Hegel might not have approved of  Hitler, Mussolini or Stalin, but they all had reasons to approve of him
*--How are philosophy and totalitarianism linked in this episode?
*--In this same year, as the Nazi movement grew in strength, Free Corps spokesman Ernst von Salomon described the brutalization of post-war life [P20:86 | PWT2:286-7]

<>1931:USSR | Stalin delivered speech (1931fe05:Pravda) in which he said,

One feature of the history of old Russia was the continual beatings she suffered for falling behind, for her backwardness. She was beaten by the Mongol Khans [ID]. She was beaten by the Turkish beys [ID]. She was beaten by the Swedish feudal lords [ID]. She was beaten by the Polish and Lithuanian gentry [ID]. She was beaten by the French [ID] and British capitalists [ID]. She was beaten by the Japanese barons [ID]. All beat her--for backwardness, for military backwardness, for cultural backwardness, for political backwardness, for her industrial backwardness, for agricultural backwardness. She was beaten because to beat her was profitable and went unpunished.... In the past we [Soviet working peoples] had no fatherland and could have none. Now, however, that we have overthrown capitalism and the workers wield power in our country, we have a fatherland and shall defend its independence. Do you want our Socialist fatherland to be beaten and to lose its independence? If you do not want that, then you must abolish its backwardness and develop a really Bolshevik pace in the establishment of its Socialist economy.... We are fifty or a hundred years behind the advanced countries. We must make good this lag in ten years. Either we accomplish this or we will be crushed." [The hyperlinks are to plausible historical events behind  Stalinist fear of defeat at the hands of foreign armies. Commentators have taken note of the fact that ten years after this speech, USSR was invaded by Hitler Germany] [BNE:248-55]

<>1931my31:Pope Pius XI issued Quadragesimo Anno [TXT], referring to the 40th anniversary of Rerum Novarum and bringing the message into line with the authoritarian and anti-secular temper of the depression era [BPE:669-99]
*1937mr14:Pius XI, Mit brennender Sorge [TXT], criticized Nazi anticlericalism and paganism, then =
*1937mr19:Restated anti-communism, Divini Redemptoris [TXT] [BPE:585-604]

<>1931se18:1945; Japan invaded Manchuria and waged war in disintegrating Republic of China for 14 years until the end of WW2

<>1932:1933; Ukraine experienced collectivization of agriculture and famine, statistically the most murderous dimension of Stalinism [93je18:MNe#25:15]
*1932:1934; Documents of Soviet History, v6 [DSH,6]
*--Stalin's personal life also took a tragic turn
*2016de09:Независимая газета| Рада призвала мировое сообщество признать голод 1932-1933 годов в СССР геноцидом украинцев [E-TXT]

<>1932: writer Aldous Huxley (1894-1963) published Brave New World, a nightmare vision of a totally managed -- a "scientifically" managed -- culture, government, and society

<>1932:German/Swiss novelist Herman Hesse published Morgenland Fahrt [Journey to the east] and concentrated on completing Glasperlenspiel [The Glass Bead Game or Magister Ludi], not published until 1943

<>1932:Italian Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini, "The Political and Social Doctrine of Fascism" [TXT | E-TXT with notes and supplemental materials]
[Excerpts = BNE:261-4 | CWC:219-33 | CCC2,2:1147-60 | BMC1:646-9 | BMC4:744-7]
*--LOOP on "Fascism" and "fascist"

<>1932:Swiss child psychologist Jean Piaget published The Moral Judgment of the Child [CCS,1:455-79]
*--Piaget sought to expand psychology beyond its main fixation on sexuality and the study of psychic pathology
*--He sought to illuminate how in general the human brain works, especially how adult consciousness grows from earliest childhood

<>1932:USA Protestant theologian Reinhold Niebuhr promoted the idea of democracy in his Moral Man and Immoral Society
*--Niebuhr used the Christian concept of "original sin" to justify checks and balances
*--He used the concept of choice to justify hope for human progress [CCS:552-70 | CCS,2:839-57]

<>1932:USA social/economic theorists close to FDR’s New Deal administration, Adolf Berle, Jr. (1895-1971), and Gardiner Means published The Modern Corporation and Private Property [CCS:729-53 | CCS,2:222-46]

<>1932ja:Soviet journal Kul'tura i byt [Culture and Everyday life] became the organ of "Obshchestvo bor'by s alkogolizmom" [Society for the struggle with alcoholism] and absorbed the journal Kul'turnaia revoliutsiia [Cultural Revolution]
*--Lenin’s and Stalin’s styles of struggle for revolutionary culture were illustrated in this transition from Lenin's call for more culture & retreat from revolutionary extremes of War Communism, from that to Stalin’s struggle against alcoholism; from "Beethoven for the proletariat" to "no booze" -- from literary dreams to Socialist Realism

<>1932fe:League of Nations Disarmament Conference convened

<>1932mr:Leon Trotsky journal Bulletin of the Opposition (Bolshevik Leninists) contained powerful letter

<>1932jy30:German physicist Albert Einstein wrote a letter to the Austrian psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud in which he explored the question of why humans go to war

<>1932au21:USSR | Riutin's "Appeal" [Tucker,Stalin in Power:211-12]

<>1932oc27:London | Hunger marchers converged on House of Commons, as described by Wal Hannington [Eye:504-5]

<>1932no09:Joseph Stalin's wife Nadia killed herself

<>1932de27:USSR | Internal Passport re-established [SGv:74-7 | PS&C:164-6]

<>1933:1937; USSR Second Five-year Plan lasted four years

1932 New Years postcard created by N. I. Dormidontov
depicting "Moscow-Narva House of Culture" in Leningrad

<>1933:USSR Foreign Commissar Maksim Litvinov proposed definition of "aggression" to League of Nations [ORW:198-9]

<>1933ja:1941; Eight pre-WW2 years in which USA President Franklin D. Roosevelt [FDR] introduced his "New Deal"

<>1933ja11:USSR Machine Tractor Stations nationalized and centrally administered large farm implements
*--Agriculture mechanized or industrialized as agricultural collectivization advanced [SGv:334-6]

<>1933fe22:Germany, Berlin | D. Sefton Delmer described Hitler's reaction to the burning of the Reichstag [Eye:507-9]

<>1933fe28:Nazis persuaded ineffective President Hindenburg to issue an ordinance "for the protection of the people and state", on the basis of which Hitler was able to attack all political opposition to his party in upcoming elections [DPH:420-1]

<>1933mr05:1945ap30; Adolf Hitler elected head of German State, the beginning of 12-year-long "Thousand Year Reich" (the "Third Reich") in Nazi Germany
*--Ended with Hitler’s suicide and, two days later, the surrender of Berlin to the Soviet Red Army and the end of WW2 in Europe
*--But over the next dozen years, Hitler reshaped European history

<>1933mr07:Austrian Premier Engelbert Dollfuss (Christian Socialist Party) suspended parliamentary government, ousting Social Democrats
*--Dollfuss sought support from Fascist Italy, but he nonetheless tried to keep native-born Austrian Nazi Party activists at arms length
*--Dollfuss assumed dictatorial power
*--LOOP on "fascism" and "fascist"

<>1933mr24:German "Weimar Constitution" suspended in emergency "enabling law" which gave Hitler unchecked authority "to relieve the distress of the people and the Reich"
*--Only the SDs voted against this measure
*--Liberalism appeared politically inert
*--Other laws followed in quick succession over the next few months in which Hitler carried out his "revolution after power", establishing a dictatorship for himself and his Nazi Party [DPH:421-4]

<>1933ap:USSR Metro-Vickers Trial

<>1933ap16:USSR | Sholokhov letter to Joseph Stalin re. excesses of Collectivization [Tucker, Stalin in Power:194]

<>1933ap26:English ambassador to Germany Horace Rumbold sent to London a clear description of what Hitler and his Nazi Party meant for the wider world [BNE:270-3]. Political life darkened in central and eastern Europe

<>1933ap28:USSR Central Committee directive re. Communist Party purge [Tucker, Stalin in Power:221-2 | SGv:167-70]

<>1933my10:German university students burned books which the Nazis identified as objectionable. In Berlin, the local Associated Press bureau chief Louis P. Lochner observed and reported on book burning [P20:177]

<>1933je:USA consul general at Berlin George S. Messersmith reported, "The Nazis were after...unlimited territorial expansion" [P20:218]

<>1933se01:Germany | Nuremberg Nazi Party rally, became an annual event of high theatre

<>1933se02:Winnipeg Free Press. An article by Frank H. Williams on conditions in western Canada during the Depression =

How families in stricken prairie areas have managed to live during these trying times. Those too proud to accept relief have exhibited considerable ingenuity in devising ways and means of augmenting the family income. For one thing the old spinning wheel has come back into use again. In a small Manitoba town a blacksmith took advantage of this sudden demand for spinning wheels to revamp his shop into a spinning wheel factory and business boomed so quickly he had to take on additional help. In the Edenwold district, east of Regina, one family with butter and eggs to sell debated whether it was worth while to spend the money for gasoline to take their produce to Regina. They solved the problem by filling the old Model T Ford with cut firewood and the sale value of the wood paid the expenses of the trip. Another farmer near Rouleau, Sask., despaired of selling his hogs in the ordinary way for the price was at rock bottom. He conceived the idea of manufacturing the entire hog into sausage and the word spread that his sausage was good, so he was forced to go out and buy the hogs of his neighbors. The spinning industry was revived because the price of wool was so low as to make it unprofitable to sell. The government instructors quickly adapted their training to the changed conditions and showed the farm women how to make blankets out of the raw wool. Unable to buy new cars and by the same token unable to buy gasoline for the old car, or even to buy a buggy, the farmers have taken the engines out of their old Model T Fords, hitched a tongue and whiffle-trees to the front axle and called it a "Bennett" buggy. Others have put a seat on the front wheels of a Model T and have christened this an "Anderson" cart. Probably Premiers Bennett and Anderson will not feel flattered at the use of their names in this connection, but it is a reflection of the spirit of the times.... One item of expense the farmer has eliminated is that of flour. With thousands of bushels in his granaries that the market price doomed to remain there, the farmer took five or ten bushels to the small grist mill for his own flour. If he had no money to pay for the milling he left the bran and shorts with the miller in payment. The average farm family has limited its purchases to sugar and tea, for which no substitutes can be found on the land. A few dozen eggs or a few pounds of butter can take care of these requirements. Some enterprising businessmen, such as local theatre and skating rink managers offered to take wheat and barley as payment for admission prices. They tell the story of a Manitoba farmer who met two acquaintances outside a beer parlor. "Lets go in for a beer," he suggested. The three quaffed their bottles of beer and when the host arose to go he turned to the hotel-keeper. "I'll bring you ten bushels of barley to pay for that." he said. Until organized relief measures came to the aid of the farmer the fuel problem was his greatest worry. You can drive a day at a time in some parts of Saskatchewan and never see a tree or a bush. Those farmers burned coal in the good days, but in their necessity they had no money with which to buy coal. So they burned barley. But they have caught a vision of better times, with the upward trend of the wheat market. Those courageous enough to hold their crop over from last year have sold it this summer, mostly in small lots, for a carload shipment would excite comment and perhaps invoke a seizure order from the bank, the implement agent or the mortgage company. So they have sold a lot of their grain a hundred bushels at a time and they are paying their small debts, preferably their store bills. They feel the banks, the implement companies and the mortgage companies can wait a bit longer for their money.... There will be money to spend in western Canada this year if the market price of grain keeps up. The farmer is starved for everything that contributes to the comfort and well-being of his family and as soon as he gets some surplus cash he will turn it loose into the avenues of trade .... [SOURCE]

<>1933oc14:Germany, under Nazi rule, withdrew from League of Nations and from its Disarmament Conference [DPH:472-3]
*--The Disarmament Conference was just then reconvening. Perhaps we should say "just then coming too" after being knocked out in its first phase

<>1933no:USA-USSR diplomatic relations restored based on USA formal recognition of USSR that summer [Related documents = RFP2,2:59-67]

<>1934+: China in the grip of a persistent and militarized revolutionary movements engaged in a complex civil war situation, soon to be expanded into global WW2

<>1934:English philosophical historian Arnold Toynbee helped make sense out of confusing times for countless readers when he first published A Study of History [BMC1:688-94 | BMC4:782-8]
*--Toynbee, in a time of decline, helped popularize the notion of "The West" as an ascendant civilization [IE=northwestern Europe and its North American off-shoot]
*--The concept "The West" sprouted and grew over the previous half-century
*--Then the concept "The West" came to full blossom in the half century of Cold War at the end of the 20th century

<>1934:French artist André Breton, What is Surrealism? [CWC:368-86]
*--Breton rejected Tristan Tzara's "Dada" movement, with its influential two-decade-long emphasis on the unconscious, chaotic and irrational elements of creativity in the fine arts

<>1934:1937; German classicist Werner Jaeger, Paideia: die Formung des griechischen Menschen (3 volumes, Berlin and Leipzig:1934-1937; English translation)
*--A student remembers her professor and considers his legacy [W]

<>1934:German physicist and Nobel Laureate Johannes Stark urged scientists to embrace Nazi racist doctrine and pitted "Jewish Science" versus "German Science" [P20:175]
*1934:German-born (USA émigré) theoretical physicist Albert Einstein, "What is the Theory of Relativity?" [BPE:723-6]
*1934:Soviet struggle to establish proper "Marxist" science of agriculture increasingly came under authority of ideological hacks
*--David Joravsky, "The Vavilov Brothers"

<>1934:Soviet Psychologist Lev Vygotskii published Myshlenie i rech [translated as Thinking and speech about the inter-relationship of language development and thought

<>1934:Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung (1875-) wrote "Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious" [BMC4:718-22 (includes excerpt from later work)]
*--Selections from Jung's works [TXT#1 | TXT#2]
*1908:Jung met Freud [ID] and was thrown into the psychological movement of the early 20th century. He soon found his own voice and broke with Freud. For one thing, he did not accept the nearly exclusively sexual inclination of Freudian analysis. He was more mystical, religious and anthropological in his psychology
*--Jung sought to understand what he called "the collective unconscious", a cluster of archetypical emotions, images and inclinations that helped identify the individual within the larger collective of general human consciousness and subconscious
*--[W#1 | W#2]

<>1934:USA public intellectual Lewis Mumford published Technics and Civilization [CCS,2:18-39]

<>1934:1935; USA| Paul Robeson was an athlete, scholar, actor, singer, and increasingly an activist on behalf of blacks and other oppressed minorities [Archives]
*--In this year, Robeson accepted an invitation from the film-maker Sergei Eisenstein to visit the USSR
*--This was the beginning of a complex and troubled epoch of activism in Robeson's life [W]
*--Robeson sang "Sometimes I feel like a Fatherless Child" on the sound-track of a Soviet propaganda cartoon [YouTube]

<>1934wi:French political crisis threatened possibility of right-wing takeover [DPH:328-36]

<>1934ja:Stalin speech on relations of USSR with Capitalist States represented a reasonably unambiguous statement of Stalinist foreign policy in the aftermath of Nazi victory in Germany [RFP2,1:118-28 | ORW:205-7]

<>1934fe04:USA New Deal agency, FERA [ID], received report on the feasibility of establishing an agricultural colony in the Alaska Matanuska Valley

<>1934fe05:Italian Fascist state complete with Law on Corporations [DPH:401-2]
*--LOOP on "fascism" and "fascist"

<>1934fe10:USSR | Rules of the Communist Party [DPH:441-5]

<>1934ap:Austrian strong-man Dollfuss, after crushing a Social Democratic uprising against his dictatorship, declared his government an authoritarian or "corporate state" with a constitution drafted by Austrian Nazis
*--Julius Deutsch, Commander of the Schutzbund, a private Social Democratic army defeated by Dollfuss, gave an eyewitness account of the brief Vienna-based civil war, Destruction of Austrian Socialism [P20:185]

<>1934ap:USA commercial attaché in Berlin, Douglas Miller, reported to consul general Messersmith that "The Nazis were determined to secure more power and more territory in Europe" [P20:219]

<>1934my13:USSR | Russian poet Osip Mandelshtam arrested, as described by his wife Nedezhda Mandelshtam [Eye:510-11]

<>1934je08:USSR Decree emphasized dangers of treason [ORW:207-8]

<>1934je30:Germany experienced "the Night of the Long Knives" in which Nazis began to "purge" SA [Sturm Abteilung, storm troopers, a paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party]

<>1934jy10:USSR upgraded its NKVD [Narodnyi komissariat vnutrennikh del; Interior Commissariat, with heavy "police" overtones] [SGv:254-5]
*--Compare with earlier Cheka & OGPU, and with later MVD. These institutional arrangements were essential features of Stalinism
*--Soviet theorists worked on new interpretations of the Marxist concept of the "withering away" of the state and law [Jaworskyj:303-14]
*--Compare with treatment of this topic a quarter-century later

<>1934jy25:Austrian dictator Dollfuss assassinated by local Nazis as they tried unsuccessfully to seize power
*--Finally Hitler Germany moved in to complete what the local Nazis could not finish on their own

<>1934au:USSR Union of Soviet Writers held its first Congress [SAC NARRATIVE EXTENSION]

<>1934se18:USSR became a member of the League of Nations after 30 member-states offered invitation to join, plus membership on the Permanent Council

<>1934de01:Decree on the assassination of Leningrad Communist Party boss, Sergei Kirov, a popular rival to Stalin [SGv:251-3]
*--Central Executive Committee issued order to track down terrorists [DPH:445] Later the world learned of Stalin's complicity in this act of political terror

<>1935:Russian Christian philosopher in exile from the USSR, Nikolai Berdiaev, described how Christian civilization was being destroyed by Nazism, Communism and other forms of "collective demoniac possession"
*--Only Christian piety (active struggle for human dignity and social justice) could save Europe and all mankind, Modern Ideologies at Variance with Christianity [P20:209]
*--Berdiaev, "Socialism as Religion" [RRS:105-34]

<>1935:Turkey | Kemal Atatürk's Republican People's Party program [SPE2:861-2]
*--By this time Turkey had adopted features of the Stalinist five-year plans, emphasizing state controlled and planned heavy industrial development, and leaning heavily on an antiquated agricultural economy
*--Hostile to the USSR in foreign affairs, Kemal's Turkey nonetheless imitated the Soviet domestic economy
*--Turkey survived into the middle of the 20th century as an independent state as a result of the efforts of Kemal and the "Young Turks"
*--The movement that came to be known as "the young Turks" got under way in the years before the collapse of the Ottoman Empire

<>1935:USA journalist Eugene Lyons tried to explain the Soviet Union in Moscow Carrousel
*--Whitman Bassow, Moscow Correspondents: Reporting on Russia from the Revolution to Glasnost

<>1935:1936; Soviet writers Ilia Ilf and Evgenyi Petrov, famous for their biting satirical prose works, traveled across USA and wrote an account, Little Golden America (also a later 1974 translation)

<>1935fe17:USSR Seventh Congress of Soviets passed law about the kolkhoz [kollektivnoe khoziaistvo; collective farm] which joined Collectivization with Five-year Plans for industrialization and promoted "the liquidation of the distinction between town and countryside" [SGv:337f]

<>1935mr16:Germany denounced military clauses of the Versailles Treaty and announced its plans to rearm [DPH:473-6]

<>1935my25:Stalin disbanded the Society of Old Bolsheviks [Obshchestvo starykh bol'shevikov] & its printing/publishing establishment

<>1935au:Soviet "Stakhanovite" program introduced for industrial wage-labor

<>1935au:Moscow | Seventh World Congress of the Communist International [RFP2,2:198-205]
*--Comintern strained relations with USA to the extreme [RFP2,2:67-72]

<>1935se13:German Nazi Party rally in Nuremberg | Minister of Enlightenment and Propaganda Joseph Goebbels delivered speech in which he endeavored to distinguish National Socialist (Nazi) rule in Germany from Communist rule in the USSR [TXT]

<>1935:Germany| A series of Nazi laws on racial purity were put in force [DPH:424-6]
*--German textbook by Jakob Graf explained Heredity and Racial Biology for Students [P20:177]
*1933ap01:1938au05:Berlin. German medical doctor Hertha Nathorff (Albert Einstein's niece) kept a diary record of Jewish persecution, A German Jewish Doctor's Diary [P20:179]
*--Marta Appel described her similar experiences in Dortmund, Memoirs of a German Jewish Woman [P20:181]

<>1936:1937; French coalition of socialist, communist and other left political parties joined in a movement called "The Popular Front"

<>1936:USA socialist leader Norman Thomas published After the New Deal, What? in which he urged the nation to a fuller realization of workers' democracy [Excerpts RWP1,1:86-93]

<>1936:Netherlands historian Johan Huizinga published his gloomy vision of the future with a warning that European civilization was at a breaking point: The Shadow of Tomorrow [CCS,2:463-484]

<>1936:French political philosopher Elie Halévy (1870-1937) put a fierce polemical edge to his liberal social and economic views in The era of tyrannies: Essays on socialism and war (1965:English translation)

<>1936:English economic theorist John Maynard Keynes addressed problems of collapsed market economies in The General Theory of Employment, Interest & Money[TXT]
*--The brief opening chapter summarized his argument [bold face and hypertext hop supplied by SAC editor] =

I HAVE called this book the General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, placing the emphasis on the prefix general. The object of such a title is to contrast the character of my arguments and conclusions with those of the classical theory of the subject, upon which I was brought up and which dominates the economic thought, both practical and theoretical, of the governing and academic classes of this [post-WW1] generation, as it has for a hundred years past. I shall argue that the postulates of the classical theory [ID] are applicable to a special case only and not to the general case, the situation which it assumes being a limiting point of the possible positions of equilibrium [ID]. Moreover, the characteristics of the special case assumed by the classical theory happen not to be those of the economic society [in] which we actually live, with the result that its teaching is misleading and disastrous if we attempt to apply it to the facts of [our contemporary] experience
*--The 24th and final chapter summarized the broader implications of his general theory [E-TXT]
*--Keynes shifted attention from production and distribution of commodities to the complex role of money in this process
*--He sought ways to overcome the central human weaknesses of modern industrial economies = unemployment and great disparities of wealth within the industrial social structure
*--John Maynard Keynes emphasized the financial underpinnings of modern industrial economies
*--Wki !
*--LOOP on "finances"

<>1936:German "Frankfurt School" member Walter Benjamin published "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction" [CWC:413-33], an effort to subject industrial age pop-arts to serious theoretical analysis

<>1936:Paris | Russian émigré philosopher Leon Shestov (pseudonym of Lev Isaakovich Shvartsman, 1866-1938) contributed to the growth of "existentialist" philosophy, particularly Christian existentialism, with his Kierkegaard et la philosophie existentielle [Edie,3:227f]

<>1936ja28:Pravda article, "Muddle Instead of Music" attacked 29-year-old Dmitrii Shostakovich's opera "Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk" [Alan Pavlik précis on article and comments]
*--The attack was possibly written by Stalin, certainly under the direct influence of his views
*--Compare with later experience of USA composer Aaron Copland
*1989mr:NewRepublic| Richard Taruskin on Shostakovich, questioning some popular, late-Cold-War views on the composer's sufferings in USSR [E-TXT]

<>1936mr07:German Nazi troops occupied left and right banks of Rhine River, demilitarized by the Versailles settlement, now all but nullified by Nazi action
*--French reaction [BNE:273-5]
*--Hitler continued into WW2 to justify Nazi aggression as proper or natural response to the Versailles settlement imposed on Germany 17 years earlier

<>1936ap:Ethiopia [Abyssinia] defeated by Italian Fascist army after a half-year struggle

1938ja02:Rome. L'Aquilone
Weekly propaganda magazine for young people,
intended to spark their interest in flying and to call attention to the prowess of Italian pilots

  • The Italian Fascist movement, founded 17 years earlier, was solidly in power and ready for any challenge, having now "erased" the humiliation of earlier defeat at the hands of Ethiopia
  • Europe was showing itself unwilling or unable to keep the peace, and then came the Spanish Civil War which ended in overthrow of the liberal Spanish Republic and victory of fascist militarists there =

  • <>1936au:1938se; Spanish Civil War; General Francisco Franco and Falange (fascist militarists) defeated legitimate Republican government

    <>1936au:1938mr; Purge trials snared first central leaders of 1917 Soviet Revolution and terminated their political careers, beginning w/Grigorii Zinoviev and Leo Kamenev
    *--Stalin was eradicating old Bolsheviks
    *--As Stalin's power became more secure, the vozhd [leader, boss] became more harsh
    *--As an "ism", Stalinism appears less a way to achieve or protect power than a way to exercise power
    *2004:Russian movie tries to capture the atmosphere of interpersonal relationships among top leaders at the time of a banquet hosted by Stalin down in Georgia, his native land = Piry Valtasara, ili, Noch' so Stalinym [Baltazar's feasts, or, The night with Stalin]

    <>1936se25:USSR | Stalin and Zhdanov sent telegram to Politbiuro about NKVD [Narodnyi komissariat vnutrennikh del, People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs -- a secret, political police agency] [DPH:204-05]

    <>1936no25:Berlin | Germany and Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact [RFP2,3:3-4 | DPH:487-8]
    *--The complete "Axis" alliance followed within the next four years

    <>1936de:USSR Third Constitution (Stalin Constitution) [RRC1,3:600-14 | CCC2,2:1194-1203 | DPH:446-9]

    <>1937:England, Oxford | World Ecumenical Conference passed resolutions on market economies that built significantly on earlier church pronouncements on economic questions (1908:USA Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America and its 1932 depression-era update) [CCC2,2:996-1011]

    <>1937:German theoretical physicist Max Planck (1858-1947) delivered a lecture in which he endeavored to explain the relationship between religion and the natural sciences [BMC1:604-6]

    <>1937:Italian Communist writer Ignazio Silone resisted Fascism but more generally became a dissenter from all ideologies
    *--His novels, for example, Bread and Wine, gave expression to a personal disillusionment but also to a new affirmation of socialist idealism and Christian ethics
    *--LOOP on "fascist" and "fascism"

    <>1937:Russian émigré religious philosopher Nikolai Berdiaev, published Origin of Russian Communism [cf. KMM:251-7]

    <>1937ja23:Stalinist purge trials of Radek, Piatakov, etc [RRC1,3:664-73 | Tucker,Stalin in Power:394f!]

    <>1937ap:League of Nations Disarmament Conference suspended its inconclusive 5-year-long operations as Japan stepped up its military aggression in China
    *--After 18 years of existence, the League of Nations was an obvious failure
    *--It was not formally dismantled until the end of WW2 when the second great effort at trans-nation-state governance, the United Nations Organization, was created [UNO LOOP]

    <>1937my:je; Stalinist purge trial of Marshal Tukhachevskii & other Red Army officers

    <>1937jy15:Moscow-Volga Canal opened

    <>1938:1941; USSR Five-year Plan3
    *--The third five-year plan built on a cruel decade of forced "modernization"

    <>1938:Netherlands cultural historian Johan Huizinga, Homo Ludens: Proeve eener bepaling van het spel-element der cultur (1949:English translation, Homo Ludens: A Study of the Play-Element in Culture) [UO=CB151.H815 | E-TXT#1 | E-TXT#2 | CCS,1:83-110]

    <>1938ja19:Stalinist purge trials officially said to be over [SGv:171-5]. But they were not

    <>1938ap30:Spanish Republican Government, about to be defeated by Franco's fascist armies in their civil war, issued war aims and guiding "liberal" principles, including guarantee of property but "within limits prescribed by the higher interest of the nation"; agrarian reform in which "the peasant will own the land he tills"; protection of wage-labor rights through "up-to-date social legislation"; welfare measures, etc. [DPH:491-2]
    *--LOOP on "fascist" and "fascism"

    <>1938mr:Stalinist purge trials ended on dramatic note with Nikolai Bukharin, Rykov, Krestinskii, Rakovskii, Yagoda (head of NKVD), etc. [Senn,2:]

    <>1938mr13:Austria seized by Nazi Germany and declared a part of the Reich, an act of "incorporation" or Anschluss [DPH:498-500]
    *--Austrian author Stefan Zweig expressed his disgust at general European trends that contributed to the Anschluss , The World of Yesterday [P20:225]
    *--Austria had been slanting toward corporate statism over the previous five years

    <>1938se:Munich Accord [TXT], signed by England (Neville Chamberlain), France (Édouard Daladier), Italy (Benito Mussolini) and Germany (Adolf Hitler)

    <>1938oc:French socialist Daniel Guérin [W-ID], after visiting Hitler Germany, wrote "Fascism and Big Business", a Marxist critique of those who believe in the "progressive" implications of Europe-wide fascist movements [E-TXT]
    *--LOOP on "fascist" and "fascism"

    <>1939:English political figure, famous for his no-nonsense acknowledgment of the role of pure power in politics and for his sympathetic interest in Russian/Soviet studies, Edward H. Carr analyzed the European crisis since WW1 in The Twenty Years' Crisis [RWP1,2:96-102]

    <>1939:German legal scholar Ernst Huber defined the Nazi state in legal/political terms in Verfassungsrecht des grossdeutschen Reiches [Constitutional Law of the Greater German Reich] in which he argued that "the authority of the Führer is...all-inclusive and unlimited" [P20:171]
    *--Beginning 20 years earlier as a small party, the Nazis now ruled a powerful central European state

    <>1939:German ex-communist Franz Borkenau argued in World Communism that the Comintern ought to be considered no more than an instrument of Soviet foreign policy [RFP2,2:206-20]

    <>1939:Irish author James Joyce published Finnegans Wake., an extreme moment in the evolution of literary fine arts. Try part one

    <>1939:USA philosopher and educator John Dewey published a defense of liberal democracy against the rising tide of managerial statism in the world = Freedom and Culture [CCS,1:866-80]

    <>1939ja20:USSR | Stalin telegram to Party Secretaries and the NKVD about use of "physical pressure" [i.e., torture] against those under interrogation

    <>1939mr10:Stalin sized up recent events (especially the exclusion of the USSR from Munich deliberations [ID])

    <>1939au14:Moscow | USSR Marshal Voroshilov received little assurance of mutual defensive support from a joint meeting with the military missions of England and France [BNE:278-9]

    <>1939au22:Adolf Hitler delivered speech to his leading generals, "Poland Will Be Depopulated and Settled with Germans" [P20:232]
    *--These were war aims consistent with modern total war. The battlefield included both the war front and the home front

    <>1939au23:WORLD WAR TWO (first phase): Hitler Germany vs. western Europe

    <>1939se01:1945my08 (5 1/2 years -- about 2090 days in all); European WW2

    <>1939se19:Poland, Gdansk [Danzig is the German name of this Polish Baltic port city]. Adolf Hitler speech [KRW:827-8]

    <>1939no:1940mr; Finland-USSR "Winter War" flared as a result of Finland’s resolute refusal to accept Soviet troops =
    *--Contrast the Finnish experience with that of Estonia, Latvia, & Lithuania
    *--The Finns resisted, but the "Winter War" was a miserable stalemate

    <>1940:1950; USA | George Seldes [ ID#1 | ID#2 ] in his dissenting journal In Fact launched a crusade against fascist propaganda in USA

    <>1940sp:Katyn, Kalinin, Starobelsk | People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs [NKVD] shot 1000s of Polish officers in what has been called a "prophylactic genocide" of future Polish leaders [Tumarkin, Living:176f]

    <>1940my07:1945jy27; English Prime Minister Winston Churchill formed new war-time government
    *1945jy27:He and his Conservative Party were soundly defeated at the polls five years later, only weeks after the end of WW2
    *--England accepted Conservative Party leadership during the war, but in peacetime trusted the reigns of government in the hands of liberal and left political parties

    <>1940my10:Hitler Germany launched its attack to the west, against The Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium and France

    <>1940my10:je22; France invaded by Hitler Germany and defeated in 42 days

    <>1940my13:je18; English Prime Minister Winston Churchill delivered several inspiring speeches over the first month of the "Battle of Britain", "Blood, Toil, Tears, and Sweat" [P20:239]
    *--For Volk, Führer, and Fatherland (excerpts from Nazi propaganda tracts and personal letters) [P20:241]

    <>1940my26:je04; France |Germany surrounded Allied troops at Dunkirk beaches

    <>1940je14:Moscow | German Ambassador to USSR communicated back to Berlin about Soviet efforts to quell rumors of impending war with Germany [RFP2,3:36-8]
    *1940je:Soviet Union annexed Estonia, Latvia, & Lithuania
    *--These became Soviet republics after the end of WW2, but emerged again as independent states fifty years later as the USSR collapsed

    <>1940jy02:Belgium, near the small town Ypres, at the Langemarck Cemetery [ID], in the early months of Blitzkrieg success against Allies on the Western Front, Adolf Hitler, high-ranking Wehrmacht officers and an honor guard appeared at the Belgian cemetery in a ceremonial commemoration of an episode 26 years earlier in the first weeks of WW1 =

    <>1940jy25:German Economics Minister Walther Funk delivered speech which outlined Nazi plan for a united west Europe [BNE:279-81]
    *1940oc15:German leaders laid out less friendly plans for east European territories. once they were to come under Nazi rule [BNE:281-2]
    *1942oc03:Denmark's role in new Nazi united Europe [BNE:282-4]

    <>1940au:Mexico | Leon Trotsky assassinated, ending a 35-year political/revolutionary career, one of the most brilliant of the century

    <>1940se03:English Channel the scene of aerial combat, a "dogfight", in which English pilot Richard Hillary was shot down and lived to tell the tale [Eye:533-7]
    *--HD Stock Footage of WWII Battle of Britain [VIDEO = PART TWO]

    <>1940se07:se14; England | "London Blitz" began, described by Desmond Flower and Frances Faviell [Eye:537-41]

    *1941mr29:England, Southend | Gas drill [2006mr03:TLS:7]
    The domestic battlefield took on increasing importance
    Astonishing MAP of 1940oc07:1941je06; Seven months of aerial bombing impact points in London
    The aerial battlefield was ever reaching greater degrees of perfection

    <>1940se25:German Third Reich Foreign Minister Ribbentrop informed USSR that Tripartite Act would soon be signed by the "Axis Powers" (Germany, Italy and Japan)
    *--Ribbentrop insisted that the Axis was directed solely at USA, not for aggressive purposes but only to prevent USA from joining the European war to save England [RFP2,3:27-8]
    *--se27:Tripartite Act signed [TXT] [RFP2,3:28-9]

    <>1940no:Axis Powers (on German initiative) entered into negotiations with USSR over conditions under which USSR might join the Axis [RFP2,3:27-33]

    <>1940de10:German leader Hitler delivered speech to German wage-laborers in which he subjected post-WW1 English imperialism to a severe critique [CCC2,2:1171-82]

    <>1940de18:Germany concluded that USSR would not joint Axis and began more serious planning for "Operation Barbarossa", the invasion of the USSR [RFP2,3:33-6]

    <>1941:German Protestant theologian Rudolf Bultmann (1884-1976) published article "New Testament and Mythology" in which he tried to make the New Testament "modern" without losing hold of the charisma of the gospel [BMC4:668-70]

    <>1941:German-born American émigré psychiatrist and social theorist Erich Fromm published Escape from Freedom [CCS:1074-94]

    <>1941:Hungarian-born author Arthur Koestler "factual fiction", Darkness at Noon, exposed contradictions in a world communist movement which seemed to betray its own ideals [P20:141]
    *--He patterned the tragic hero on Nikolai Bukharin whose great promise for the Soviet Revolution had first suggested itself 20 years earlier

    <>1941mr11:USA passed "Lend-Lease Act" [TXT]
    *--Seriously undermined 1937my01:Neutrality Act [TXT] and 1939no04:Neutrality Act
    *--USA inched closer to open hostility toward Hitler Germany

    <>1941my:Half year before the USA was drawn directly into WW2, official efforts got seriously underway to mobilize for impending conflict

    <>1941je21:German Foreign Office outlined reasons for attack on USSR and instructed its Ambassador to USSR to prepare for impending invasion [RFP2,3:38-40]

    <>1941je22:1945my08; WW2: 2nd phase = Hitler Germany vs. USSR, nearly 4 years (just over 1400 days)

    <>1941je30:USSR created GKO [Gosudarstvennaia komiteta oborony; State Committee for Defense] to coordinate nation-wide total mobilization for total war. The economy was also a battlefield
    *--Talented young planner during WW2, Nikolai Voznesenskii, later wrote The Economy of the USSR during World War II (1948)
    *--However necessary such national mobilization, this promoted growth of the massive Soviet military-industrial complex and further consolidated Soviet-style statist-managerial control over the whole nation

    <>1941au11:USA President Roosevelt and English Prime Minister Winston Churchill signed the "Atlantic Charter" [TXT] as World War Two shifted decisively to the Soviet front

    <>1941au25:Iran (as Persia was officially renamed in 1933) was occupied by two European powers, now unlikely WW2 Allies seeking imperialist advantages in cooperation with one another, but also seeking cooperative positions from which to fight against Hitler Germany =

    <>1941se:Nazi Wehrmacht took Kiev
    *1941se:1944mr; USSR | Leningrad under 900-day siege.
    *1942sp:1942su; Aleksandr Fadeev described life under siege [Eye:562-4]
    *--Another major city became a battlefield, and for three years
    *2004fe06:St.Petersburg Times#914 | Survivors inspire siege novel by Matthew Brown [[TXT]

    <>1941se29:oc01; Moscow | In view of stalemate of ground war on western front, "Big Three" met to discuss getting supplies to the Soviet eastern front

    <>*1941no07:Moscow | Less than five months after the Nazi invasion of the USSR, at the time of the 24th anniversary of the Soviet Revolution, celebrants marched past the viewing galleries atop Lenin's Tomb on Red Square straight to the front to engage the Wehrmacht on the western outskirts of the capital city
    *--Compare a photo [pix] with a later propaganda poster [pix]
    *--Also consult FLM

    <>1941de07:1945au14; WORLD WAR TWO (third phase): USA joined directly in the fighting as the Pacific Front opened (lasted over 1330 days)

    <>1941de12:Germany | In Hitler's private Berlin apartment within the Reich Chancellery, Hitler declared that it was time to "clear the decks" on the "Jewish Question" without "sentimentality" or "pity"

    <>1942:Austrian (Czech-born) political theorist Joseph Schumpeter, from 1932 until his death in 1950 a professor of economics at Harvard University, published Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy [CCS:802-26 | CCS,2:436-60]

    <>1942ja11:Malasia | Kuala Lumpur awaited Japanese occupation, as described by Ian Morrison [Eye::559-61]
    *--Compare this Japanese paratrooper training film [FLM] with 1935 Soviet footage of paratroopers [ID]. The Japanese footage gives visual form to the vastly expanded "total-war" capabilities of industrialized nations, including flame-throwers
    *--Japan having great success in SE-Asia

    <>1942ja21:German commander Rommel opened northern African assault on British (largely colonial) troops, aiming eastward along the southern shores of the Mediterranean Sea (N.Africa) toward the English imperialist possession Egypt (within petroleum rich AfroAsia)

    <>1942ap06:England no longer able to provide citizens white bread

    <>1942my26:London | English-USSR anti-Hitler treaty signed
    *--USSR Foreign Minister Viacheslav Molotov explained treaty [RFP2,3:65-6]

    <>1942my30:German city Köln [Cologne] subject of mammoth English saturation bombing
    *1945su:At the end of the war, English poet Stephen Spender visited and described the suffering and destruction in Cologne [P20:278]

    <>1942je03;je07; Pacific, near Midway Island | Naval and air battlefield between USA and Japanese forces the turning point of the Pacific war even before six months were out
    *--Japanese witness Mitsuo Fuchida described it as a fatal five minutes that might have gone one way or the other [Eye::564-6]

    <>1942je12:Moscow, London, Washington DC | Three allied capitals announced firm intention to open "second front" -- the western front -- in the European war against Hitler

    <>1942je21:Northern African coastal stronghold Tobruk taken by Rommel
    *--Wehrmacht advances continued in the E. Mediterranean
    *--Old imperialist hopes for AfroAsia plus very practical concerns to grab or to protect oil sources motivated German and English strategic thinking
    *--LOOP on "AfroAsia"

    <>1942jy29:de26; Stalingrad Battle front. The tide was about to turn on the WW2 Eastern Front [MAP]

    <>1942au19:France | Dieppe attacked by Canadian force in costly failure to establish continental beach head, a second front, witnessed by Ross Munro [Eye:566-9]

    <>1942oc:USSR | Ukraine the scene of Nazi extermination of Jews, described by Hermann Graebe [Eye:569-71]

    <>1942oc21:North Africa | El Alamein battle began

    <>1943:English astronomer James Jeans offered a few words on the question of free-will, on freedom and determinism, in Physics and Philosophy [BMC4:702-3]

    <>1943ja:Stalingrad USSR| Nazi German 6th Army was encircled & defeated

    <>1943fe12:USA President Roosevelt, in his radio address to the nation, discussed results of the three-power meeting (USA, England, France) at the Casablanca Conference [Photos at Casablanca]

    <>1943fe17:USSR, Korsun Salient | Nazi Wehrmacht routed, as described by Soviet commander, Major Kampov [Eye:578-80]

    <>1943fe23:Munich University students Hans and Sophie Scholl and Christoph Probst executed for circulating anti-Nazi leaflets and for association with the university student organization, The White Rose| An example of one of their leaflets [P20:259]
    *1943jy13:Professor Kurt Huber and other members of White Rose dissident group executed
    *--Germany experienced the opening of a domestic battlefield as objections to Nazi policy mounted

    <>1943my22:USSR dissolved the Comintern (in its 24th year) [RFP2,3:67-70 | RFP3:417-20 | RWP1,3:168-71 | ORW:229-31]

    <>1943jy05:au23; USSR | Kursk battle, the greatest clash of modern mechanized armor ever

    <>1943jy10:Italian forces in Sicily invaded by western Allies from north Africa
    *--The two-year-long Mediterranean front turned decisively in favor of western Allies

    <>1943jy26:Italian Fascist leader Mussolini toppled from power

    <>1943jy27:German city Hamburg was destroyed by saturation firebombing

    <>1943se04:Stalin ordered creation of Council for Affairs of the Russian Orthodox Church at the SovNarKom level
    *--New era in Soviet church-state relations dawned in midst of WW2

    <>1943oc:Moscow Conference issued a "four-power declaration" (WW2 allies USA, USSR, England and China)

    <>1943no:USSR | The city Kiev was liberated from Nazi occupation and began rebuilding
    *--1944sp:Though shattered, Kiev was returning to normal = [pix] [pix]. More on Kiev tramlines = [W]

    <>1943no20:Pacific island Tarawa | Amphibious landing assault described by USA Marine Robert Sherrod, including the use of a new weapon on the  modern battlefield, a flaming chemical, napalm [Eye:587-8]

    <>1943no28:de01; Iran | Teheran Conference [W]. Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill (USSR, USA, Great Britain) devoted to questions about the scope and timing of WW2 [PHOTO]

    <>1943de01:Cairo Conference| USA, China and England issued a three-power declaration [TXT]

    <>1944:Austrian-born political-economist Friedrich A. Hayek criticized state intervention into economic life in The Road to Serfdom [CWC:433-45 | CCS:840-60 | CCS,2:335-55]

    <>1944:Hungarian (Vienna-born) political-economist Karl Polanyi in The Great Transformation [E-TXT] explored the reasons for the brief life and eventual collapse of liberal/laissez faire systems in Europe [more]

    <>1944:French Catholic theologian, Professor at the Institut Catholique de Paris, Jacques Maritain published Christianity and Democracy [CCS:571-86 | CCS,2:823-38]
    *--Maritain contributed to development of 20th-century European Christian or "Thomist" existentialism
    *1931:He published a study of St. Thomas Aquinas, Angelic Doctor [BMC1:671-4 | BMC4:673-7]

    <>1944:Swedish economist Karl Gunnar Myrdal’s research team, funded by the Carnegie Corporation of New York, published the results of their study of African-Americans in the USA, An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy [CCS:449-70 | CCS,1:844-65,922-33]

    <>1944ap30:jy16; German dissident Protestant Theologian Dietrich Bonhoeffer, in Nazi prison where he would soon be executed as a result of his participation in anti-Hitler conspiracies. Bonhoeffer wrote letters from prison in which he suggested a radical new Christian theology which relaxed its fixation on the vast, transcendent God and concentrated on Jesus Christ [BMC4:671-3]

    <>1944je06:1945my08; WORLD WAR TWO (fourth phase) lasted just over 300 days:
    Western allies re-opened second (western) front
    when western Allies (i.e., USA with significant English and nominal French support) invaded European continent at Normandy

    Le Havre destroyed by ground action
    [ source ]

    <>1944je:1944se; England under 4-month German V-2 rocket attack

    <>1944jy:Algerian-born French writer Albert Camus wrote letter explaining his resistance to Nazi occupation of France [P20:256]

    <>1944jy01:jy22; USA New Hampshire| All 44 nations allied against Axis powers gathered at the "Bretton Woods Conference"

    <>1944au01:Poland | Warsaw uprising against Nazi occupation broke out

    <>1944se:USA diplomat George Frost Kennan wrote "Russia -- Seven Years Later" =

    There will be much talk about the necessity for "understanding Russia"; but there will be no place for the American who is really willing to undertake this disturbing task. The apprehension of what is valid in the Russian world is unsettling and displeasing to the American mind. He who would understand this apprehension will not find his satisfaction in the achievement of anything practical for his people, still less in any official or public [530-1] appreciation for his efforts. The best he can look forward to is the lonely pleasure of one who stands at long last on a chilly and inhospitable mountaintop where few have been before, where few can follow, and where few will consent to believe that he has been. [Kennan,Mem:530-1]

    *--Kennan was soon in the thick of "understanding Russia"

    <>1944oc:1945au; Pacific Front over the final ten months. USA experienced Kamikaze [divine wind] attacks, suicidal Japanese airships crashed on Allied naval vessels
    *1945my09:Attack described by eyewitness Michael Moynihan [Eye:630-1]
    *--Modern industrial war and ancient tradition combined artificially on the aerial and naval battlefield

    <>1945:English economist Barbara Wootton [Wki] criticized Hayek's extreme laissez faire doctrine in her book Freedom under Planning [CCS,2:356-72]
    *--Her thesis here and in other works was that public planning need not conflict at all with democratic freedoms

    <>1945:Austrian-born political philosopher Karl Popper published The Open Society and Its Enemies (2vv)

    <>1945fe04:fe11; Yalta Conference [TXT] [Related territorial agreements which the USSR entered into at this time in BNE:287-91 & RFP2,3:71-4]
    *--Yalta agreements declared =

    1. War to complete defeat of Hitler Germany, followed by Four-power occupation
    2. Create UNO with Security Council and veto power [ID]
    3. Secret agreement about USSR entry into Pacific war against Japan 3 months after defeat of Hitler Germany, giving Sakhalin and Kurile islands and Port Arthur to USSR; joint USSR/Chinese administration of the Manchurian railroad [no consultation with China on this one] [ORW:231-6]

    <>1945fe14 (Saint Valentine's Day):Germany, Dresden, a refugee center in the final months of WW2, was destroyed

    <>1945ap14:my01; Germany, Berlin under 2-week siege, then taken by USSR when the Soviet Red Army entered the Nazi capital [FLM]

    <>1945my28:Syrian capital Damascus shelled by French artillery in an effort to consolidate post-WW2 French imperialist authority in its old colonial possession

    <>1945je05:Germany, Potsdam | After Four-Power Declaration of victory over Hitler Germany, Soviets hosted victory banquet

    <>1945je26:USA, San Francisco | Charter of the United Nations Organization [UNO official website] signed [CCC2,2:1232-51]
    *--Avalon documents website [W#02 | W#03 | W#04 | W#05 | W#06 | W#07 | W#08 | W#09 | W#10 | W#11 | W#12]

    <>1945jy17:au02; Germany | Potsdam Conference reaffirmed first paragraph of Yalta Agreement

    <>1945au06:Asia | USSR joined the Pacific Front, precisely according to the Yalta agreement, with declaration of war on Japan and movement of troops along eastern-most stretch of Trans-Siberian railroad, spilling into Manchurian and Korean territories

    <>1945au09:USA dropped a second A-bomb, this time on Nagasaki

    <>1945au17:Indonesian independence denied by the Netherlands
    *--High-minded declarations of progressive allies were at first contradicted by their reluctance to support freedom and independence to colonial peoples
    *--CF=The stated ideals of Allied participation in WW2 [EG]

    <>1945au28:Soviet troops reached 38th parallel in Korea

    <>1945se01:USA General George C. Marshall, "Biennial Report" (summary history of World War Two) [SPE2:9:960-3]

    <>1945se02:Vietnam President Ho Chi Minh declared independence from French colonial rule [P20:326 | BNE:309-12]

    <>1945se11:oc02; London. Allied Council of Foreign Ministers meeting #1. USA Secretary of State Byrnes report [W TXT]

    <>1945se13:Events in AfroAsia ("the Middle East) hinted at a dawning post-WW2 world, adumbrating a central feature [ID] of the "Cold War" and of the early 21st century=

    <>1945oc05:Paris | Charles de Gaulle created École Nationale d'Administration [ENA] [ID] to train a French administrative or managerial elite

    <>1945oc21:French Constituent Assembly revealed significant political shift "leftward". Communists took 152 seats and socialists 151

    <>1945no14:1946oc01; Germany, Nuremburg. Trial of the Major War Criminals Before the International Tribunal... (42 volumes)

    <>1945de16:de21; Moscow Allied Council of Foreign Ministers (USA, USSR, England) interim meeting dealt further with post-war arrangements in defeated and/or occupied territories, especially on the Soviet eastern front [W TXT]


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