More than half of all Europe's war dead were civilians. America lost about 400,000 lives...almost none civilian.... Four years of bitter fighting and Hitler's scorched-earth retreat from the Soviet Union had destroyed 1,700 Soviet cities and towns, 70,000 villages. Three-quarters of the Soviet Union's industrial plant was wiped out, a loss that President John F. Kennedy in 1963 compared with 'the devastation of this country east of Chicago'. In Germany, massive Allied bombing had blocked harbors, blasted bridges and gutted homes. Someone estimated that to clear the mountain of rubble from Berlin would require continuous hauling of 500 freight cars per day for 16 years. In all of Europe, production of food, clothing and other goods had all but ground to a halt. Contraband cigarettes pilfered from the U.S. armies of occupation served in many places as a substitute for currency. England, for 200 years the seat of the world's greatest empire, was impoverished and demoralized, destined never again to play the part of a great power

About USA, Kennedy wrote =

record breaking billion-bushel wheat harvests in 1944 and 1945, 196,000 aircraft and more than 40 billion bullets since 1940. Gross national product vaulted from less than $100 billion in 1940 to more than $200 billion in 1945. Corporate profits rose from about $6 billion in 1940 to almost twice that amount four years later. Unlike the rest of the world, Americans had never had it so good--and they wanted it a lot better. [...] Almost in one stroke, the war swept away the blight of economic depression that had afflicted the United States for 12 stagnant years before Pearl Harbor.

Roosevelt's best New Deal unemployment rate was 14-plus per cent; in 1945, it was close to 1%. Millions came into the labor market: 3 million housewives, or 30% of total workforce.

The South received a disproportionate volume of defense contracts, including nearly $6 billion of federally financed industrial facilities. These wartime federal dollars helped give birth to the Sun Belt -- ironically, a region that would in time form the electoral base for assaults on the idea of government intrusion in the economy.

Indeed, "the war amplified to unprecedented proportions the role of the federal government in American life."
In summary: "Alone among the combatants, America emerged from the global conflict not merely intact, but invigorated."
*--LOOP on "finance"
*--Website on USSR WW2 casualties
*--RT News| "‘Children of War’: Heart-rending WWII diaries of Soviet children" [E-TXT]
*--Gerold Frank, The Tragedy of the DP's [displaced persons, refugees (rfg)] [P20:281]
*--Bruno Foa, specialist in Inter-American Affairs and member of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, described Europe in Ruins [P20:284 | Notice Foa's stunning disregard for destruction and death in the Soviet Union and eastern Europe (indirectly corrected by editors of P20 on p. 333)]
*--When the English biographer of Winston Churchill, Martin Gilbert, looked back on the role of the Soviet Union in WW2, he made pains to emphasize the remarkable flow of material aide from England and other Allies to the USSR during the war. One set of statistics implied something of the gruesomeness of modern warfare =

Medical supplies were likewise on a vast and comprehensive scale, including more than 10 million surgical needles and half a million pairs of surgical gloves. Other medical supplies, as the Soviet casualties mounted, included 20,000 amputation knives, 15,000 amputation saws, 100 portable X-ray sets, 4,000  kilograms of local anesthetics, more than a million doses of the recently discovered antibiotics, ... sedatives, heart and brain stimulants, 800,000 forceps for bone operations, instruments for brain and eye operations, and a million meters of oilcloth for covering wounds. [1985my19:MGW:10]

One-million meters worth of oilcloth to cover wounds equals 660 miles, the distance from Eugene OR to San Francisco CA and yet 100 more miles further south
Under the shadow of WW2 death and destruction, the forty-year-long "Cold War" broke out
*--LOOP on "Cold War"

<>1946:French author, philosopher, pundit and public figure Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980) published 1945 speech "Existentialism is a Humanism" [CWC:482-503] and "Existentialism" [CCS:587-608 | CCS,2:873-94 | BMC1:675-9 | BMC4:677-82] and "Materialism and Revolution" [BMC4:766-8]
*--Sartre was scholar and fighter. He participated in the underground French resistance to Nazi rule in France and spent nine months in a prison for that
*--Sartre built on existentialist teachings of Heidegger, with whom Sartre studied in 1933:1934; Berlin

<>1946:German émigré philosopher Ernst Cassirer, The Myth of the State [P20:293]
*--In this same year, German Historian of broad and enduring European fame, Friedrich Meinecke (1862-1954), reflected on what he called The German Catastrophe [P20:308]

<>1946:Russian émigré religious philosopher Nikolai Berdiaev, The Russian Idea. A remarkable 40-year career was winding down
*1946:USA. Émigré Russian scholar George Fedotov published The Russian Religious Mind [cf. KMM:257-81]

<>1946ja10:England, London | United Nations Organization [W] [UNO] General Assembly met for first session
*--The UNO Charter reads,

We the peoples ... determined to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind [presumably referring to WW1 and WW2 without enumerating the dozens of lesser but devastating 20th-century military episodes] ... reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person
*--Paul Kennedy, The Parliament of Man: The Past, Present and Future of the United Nations | This book "rests on the reasonable assumption that whether we approve of the organization's past record or not, the changes taking place in world society will make us turn to it again and again"
*2006jy21:TLS:4-6 | Rosemary Righter offered a broad "hard-nosed" critique of Kennedy's optimistic account

<>1946fe:Moscow | USA ambassador to USSR George Frost Kennan sent "Long Telegram" [TXT] which laid out the urgent need to "contain" Soviet ambitions with firmness and clear adherence to the powerful principles of US life, all in anticipation of a time when the doomed Soviet experiment would surely collapse

<>1946fe24:1955; Argentina elected Juan Domingo Perón president

<>1946mr:Moscow | English charge d'affaires Frank Roberts telegraphed British Foreign Office, and later dispatched a copy of Kennan's "Long Telegram" and a statement [TXT] that he had collaborated in the composition of it [Kennan,Origins]

<>1946mr05:USA MO, Fulton | Winston Churchill delivered "Iron Curtain" speech [TXT], which was taken my many as a sufficient strategic vision for international relations in the post-WW2 world

<>1946mr15:1951; USSR fourth Five-year Plan actually lasted five years
*--Nikolai Voznesenskii now served as Chairman of the State Planning Commission of the USSR, delivered a "Report on the Five-Year Plan, 1946-1950", but did not survive to see its conclusion

<>1946mr08:mr18:USA, GA Savannah | Inaugural meeting of boards of governors of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund [IMF]
*--World Bank [W]
*--IMF [W]
*--Critical articles on history of World Bank [W]
*--CF=Bretton Woods Conference [ID]
*--William Easterly, The White Man's Burden: Why the West's Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Good
*2014no:Political underpinnings of IMF policy stretched into the new millennium [EG]
*--LOOP on "finance"

<>1946mr19:USSR renamed its "Commissariats". It adopted the older term "Ministries" for the main central state institutions
*--New Sovet ministrov [Soviet (or Council) of Ministers] with Stalin as chairman, replaced old revolutionary-sounding Sovnarkom [Soviet of Peoples' Commissariats]
*--Party and state were now even more closely and firmly joined as a single unit in the critical months of post-WW2 recovery

<>1946ap:Manchuria by this time was free of Soviet troops who had stripped regional industry as they pulled out
*--Soviet troops soon out of Sinkiang Province (and Tungsten mines) of far western China

<>1946ap25:jy15; Paris | Allied Council of Foreign Ministers meeting #2
*--USA Secretary of State Byrnes report [W]

<>1946my26:Czechoslovak elections gave plurality (38%) of vote to Communist Party

<>1946je14:UNO Atomic Energy Commission heard USA "Baruch Plan" for international atomic development authority [RFP2,3:88-92]

<>1946je19:UNO Atomic Energy Commission heard Soviet plan for international control of atomic energy [RFP2,3:97-9]
*--Soviet response followed by US response

<>1946jy29:oc15; Paris Peace Conference [W]

<>1946se19:USSR kolkhoz (collective farm) reestablished [SGv:356-61]

<>1946se27:Washington DC | USSR ambassador to USA Nikolai Novikov sent 19-page cable to Soviet Foreign Minister Viacheslav Molotov

<>1946oc:German zone occupied by USSR staged first elections, as described (along with much else of great interest) by ex-Party member Wolfgang Leonhard, Child of the Revolution

<>1946oc23:New York City | United Nations Organization General Assembly met
*1946de05:NYC became permanent headquarters of UNO

<>1946no04:de12; NYC | Allied Council of Foreign Ministers meeting #3 [W]
*--LOOP on "Cold War"

<>1947:1948; USSR cultural apparatchik Andrei Zhdanov on literature and the arts [RRC1,3:695-704]

<>1947:Amsterdam | German theorists and culture critics, Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer, published Philosophische Fragmente [Dialectic of Enlightenment] with a chapter titled "The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass Deception" [TXT]

<>1947:USA composer and businessman Charles Ives won Pulitzer Prize for his "Fifth Symphony" [Wagar:179]

<>1947:Scottish-born USA political philosopher Robert M. MacIver argued in his book The Web of Government (CF=Georg Simmel [ID]) that diversity and multiplicity, rather than unity and harmony, were the essence of liberal democratic society [CCS,1:988-1006]

<>1947ja:AJS published USA anthropologist Robert Redfield's "The Folk Society" which opened with its main hypothesis = "Understanding of society in general and of our own modern urbanized society in particular can be gained through consideration of the societies least like our own: the primitive, or folk, societies" [CCS,1:568-89]
*--Redfield gave new vitality to the late-19th-century ideas of Tönnies, Durkheim and Veblen

<>1947fe14:UNO Security Council heard Andrei Gromyko's critique of Baruch Plan [RFP2,3:92-7]

<>1947mr10:UNO Security Council heard US critique of Soviet atomic energy plan [RFP2,3:99-101]

<>1947mr10:ap24; Moscow | Allied Council of Foreign Ministers meeting #4. USA Secretary of State George Marshall report [W]

<>1947mr12:USA "Truman Doctrine" announced [TXT = (1) F/militant minority/ and (2) read next 12 short paragraphs to learn Truman's definitions of (a) the problems and (b) the solutions for Greece]

<>1947mr22:ap28; USSR Foreign Ministry considered the German problem [RFP2,3:104-6]

<>1947je05:USA Secretary of State (General) George C. Marshall (1947-1949 = Secretary of State | 1950-1951 = Secretary of Defense) announced "Marshall Plan" for US-funded economic recovery of Europe [P20:290]

<>1947je23:USA Taft-Hartley Act moved toward reversal of the more progressive features of the Roosevelt "New Deal"

<>1947jy:FoA. George Frost Kennan, "The Sources of Soviet Conduct" (so-called "Mr. X" article) [TXT], a refinement of Kennan's "Long Telegram" with an eye to providing a strategic vision for the Marshall Plan
*--Compare Kennan's views with the views of Kennan's Soviet counterpart
*--See Decline of the West? George Kennan and His Critics, with a debate by John Lewis Gaddis and Eduard Mark on Kennan's famous "Mr. X article"

<>1947jy08:USA, Roswell NM| Opening of the "UFO" era = Roswell Daily Record ran this headline: "RAAF [Roswell Army Air Field] captures flying saucer on ranch in Roswell region", and the story was picked up across the country
*2016:Aljazeera| "Aliens on the mind: Roswell and the UFO phenomenon" [E-TXT]

<>1947au:Soviet economist Evgenii Varga interpreted post WW2 world in which what he called "new democracies" would play a decisive role [RFP2,3:159-66]

<>1947au15:India and Pakistan were declared independent of English imperial rule and separate from one another as two sovereign nation-states

<>1947se:USSR established Cominform [Communist Information Bureau] as umbrella structure over eastern European territories, with Andrei Zhdanov playing a key role [RFP2,3:77-87 and 167-71 | RWP1,3:172-8 | ORW:240-3]
*--Was this in reaction to the "Truman Doctrine" and the "Marshall Plan"? [ID]
*--Was it an independent act of Soviet diplomatic aggression?
*--Did the Cominform represent the rebirth of the Comintern? [ID]
*--LOOP on "Cold War" ends temporarily here, after covering the initial 2-year-long chronology| Much that follows in SAC over the next 40 years is directly relevant to the full sweep of the world-shaping "Cold War"| F/Cold War/

<>1947oc:Geneva | Twenty-three nation-states stepped outside the UNO to sign the first General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) [ID]
*--The agreement was meant to be taken up as a function of the UNO, where it would have come under some degree of global administrative oversight within an International Trade Organization (ITO), but that world institution was never created [ID]
*--GATT lasted, with expansion and amendment, up to the 1995 creation of the WTO 

<>1947oc:USA Department of State publication Korea's Independence reviewed international agreements on free and independent Korea (with particular attention to USA-USSR agreements) [Excerpts = RFP2,3:123-34]

<>1947no+: France was rocked by a two-month general strike, provoked by post-war shortages

<>1947no25;de16; London | Allied Council of Foreign Ministers meeting #5
*--USA Secretary of State George Marshall report [W TXT]

<>1947no25:1960s; USA House of Representatives Committee on Un-American Activities issued the first systematic "Hollywood blacklist" and launched an "anti-communist" witch-hunt that lasted more than a decade. Anti-Bolshevik hysteria spread beyond the entertainment industries, and not without encouragement from certain quarters
*--In the weeks prior to the issuance of the blacklist, Ronald Reagan (actor and future USA President) and Walt Disney (the creator of Donald Duck) gave the Committee damaging testimony about insidious communist influence in one of the major film-industry labor unions [E-TXT]
*--Just as before WW1 [LOOP on "wage-labor", 2 hops, 1912+], so also as the Cold War unfolded, establishmentarian fear of domestic political mobilization of post-WW2 wage-labor played a role in shaping international policy. Chauvinism (whether nationalistic or world-revolutionary) can work as an antidote to domestic unrest
*1992:Dan Georgakas, "The Hollywood Blacklist" [E-TXT]
*--Website on HUAC reach beyond movies [W]. You might click on Paul Robeson, or Aaron Copland, or Langston Hughes, or Dorothy Parker. And read on =

<>1947no26:USA National Security Act [E-TXT] created National Security Council [NSC] and Central Intelligence Agency [CIA]
*--WW2 was over, but influential interests in Washington DC felt the USA ought to take these big steps in the direction of something like a "national-security state" to meet perceived and much advertised national security threats, mainly from abroad but also generated domestically
*--The post-WW2 era provided many episodes that could be construed as apparent national security threats to the USA = [EG#1 | EG#2 | EG#3 | EG#4]
*--Official website of the CIA
*--A website history of the NSC
*--Soon these national security agencies much expanded earlier WW2-era efforts to shape public knowledge about world events when they introduced "Project Mockingbird", a USA example of what SAC calls "positive" state censorship of mass media [ID]
*--Hugh Wilford, The Mighty Wurlitzer: How the CIA played America
*--Garry Wills traces the results of "national security" from this time until well after the end of the Cold War in the time of the early 21st-century "war on terror" [TXT = five paragraphs]
*--LOOP on Censorship

<>1948:1951; USA Economic Cooperation Agency (ECA) administered
*1951:1955; Mutual Security Program
*1955+: Previous organizations absorbed into US State Department as International Cooperation Administration

<>1948:English activist and pundit George Orwell [W] wrote anti-utopian novel, 1984 (KNIGHT call number PR6029.R8N5+1 is a good student's edition, with text plus documents and commentary)

<>1948:English philosopher C.E.M. Joad attacked contemporary cultural "subjectivism" and lamented the failure of standards earlier common in "The West" [BMC4:658-9]

<>1948:USA mathematician and computer pioneer Norbert Wiener (1894-1964) published a pioneer work, Cybernetics

<>1948fe:Atlantic Monthly | Walter Lippmann addressed the need for USA to avoid abstract or ideological principles in international politics

<>1948fe25:Czechoslovakia fell under USSR dominated Communist Party rule
*--Defenestration of Jan Masaryk
*--G.E.R. Gedye witnessed the coup [P20:334]
*1950:1954; Political trials [as per 1968:Dubcek Government's Commission of Inquiry, P20:347]

<>1948mr:Cuba, Havana | Charter of International Trade Organization (ITO) adopted, but US and other nations refused to ratify

<>1948ap30:Colombia, Bogotá | Twenty Latin American republics and the United States of America signed the Charter establishing the Organization of American States [OAS] [W]

<>1948my14:Israel declared itself an independent republic, breaking free of the UNO mandate "Palestine"

<>1948je07:London Conference on German problems (USA, England, France, Belgium, Nederland, and Luxembourg) [RFP2,3:106-9]

<>1948je24:1949my; Soviet Union and its Warsaw Conference allies imposed Berlin Blockade for 11 months
*--USA air transport kept American, English, and French zones supplied

<>1948je28:Yugoslavian (Croatian) leader of anti-fascist resistance to Hitler Germany, Joseph Broz Tito was expelled from the Soviet dominated Cominform (a successor institution to the now disbanded Comintern)

<>1948au:Andrei Zhdanov death terminated 14-year career of Stalin's right-hand man

<>1948au:USSR ideological botanist T.D. Lysenko came to prominence in agriculture [BMC1:634-7]

<>1948au:South Korea declared independence from Korea. North Korea followed suit the next month
*--USA Department of State publication Korea, 1945-1948 detailed mounting crisis [Excerpts = RFP2,3:134-7]

<>1948fa:USSR Five-year Plan expert Nikolai Voznesenskii disappeared. He led the Soviet economy through WW2

<>1948de:Polish political parties were dissolved into a single pro-Soviet organization, consolidating Soviet dominance in Poland

<>1948de:Soviet troops out of North Korea

<>1948de10:UNO Universal Declaration of Human Rights [TXT]

<>1948de23:Hungarian dissident Catholic primate Jozsef Cardinal Mindszenty was arrested by Communist authorities
*--He later described his experience in his Memoirs [P20:351]

<>1949:English economic theorist, member of the Labour Party [LOOP] and government figure E.F.M. Durbin expounded on state planning and socialism in Problems of Economic Planning [CCS:861-78 | CCS,2:317-34]

<>1949:French writer and intellectual Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex [TXT], was an inspiration to women seeking to define their independent identity and role
*--Her influence was particularly great among European and North American women's movements which flourished for more than a century [P20:374]

<>1949:USA | Leading American and European Communist intellectuals from previous decades described their disenchantment in The God that Failed [CCS,2:580-601]
*--Italian Ignazio Silone
*--Arthur Koestler [P20:206]
*--Afro-American activist and novelist Richard Wright
*--French novelist André Gide
*--American journalist Louis Fischer
*--English poet Stephen Spender

<>1949ja:USSR announced formation of Council for Mutual Economic Assistance [SEV or "ComEcon"] to manage economic development and relationships within USSR dominated eastern European region

<>1949mr:Hungarian Communist Party leader and state official Jozsef Revai defined nature of Hungarian revolution [RFP2,3:186-95]

<>1949mr29: Syrian coup organized by CIA

<>1949ap04:USA leading force in creation of NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) [W]

<>1949my23;je20; Paris | Allied Council of Foreign Ministers (USA, USSR, England, France) meeting #6, again with the questions of Germany and Austria before them [W TXT]
*--This was the last such meeting for joint diplomatic resolution of post-WW2 problems
*--Three and a half years of Council meetings failed to resolve conflicting interests of WW2 Allies

<>1949au12:Geneva Conventions renewed, expanded into four international treaties [ID], and signed
*--Websites [W] [W]

<>1949:Germany divided into two "sovereign" nation-states, one under the close supervision of the WW2 western allies and the other under close Soviet control

<>1949oc01:China, Beijing | People's Republic of China [PRC, aka "Red China" or "Communist China"] proclaimed, with Mao Tse-Tung [Zedong] as President

<>1949de:European-wide Socialist International reconstituted itself

<>1949de27:Indonesian independence formally recognized, after nearly a decade of intense national-liberationist struggle, first against Japanese imperialist occupation then against re-imposition of Dutch imperialist rule

<>1950:Average annual alcoholic intake of the Soviet adult=7 litres. More than doubled by 1983:14.6 [Kerblay,Mikhail Gorbachev:15]. In fiscal terms,1984:51B rubles (16% of consumer spending). By 1987:35B rubles. Thus the state lost between 1.5 and 2B rubles in tax revenue. Money flowed to bootleggers

<>1950:London | Russian philosopher Simon Frank published Reality and Man [Edie,3:281-305; 306-14]

<>1950:USA | Norbert Wiener [ID] published The human use of human beings; Cybernetics and society [ID]

<>1950:USA | American Economic Association issued report which sought to define the best balance of private enterprise with governmental initiative in order to stabilize the "boom and bust" cycles of the unregulated laissez faire capitalist economy [CCS,2:373-409]

<>1950ja12:USA Secretary of State Dean Acheson confirmed USA defense perimeter in Pacific which did not include Korea or Formosa (Taiwan [ID])

<>1950ap14:National Security Council Report 68 "United States Objectives and Programs for National Security" [NSC 68] [TXT]

<>1950my09:French government spokesperson Robert Schuman proposed European Coal and Steel Community

<>1950my23:USA note to USSR opposing "re-militarization" of GDR ("East Germany") [RFP2,3:113-14]
*--GO se19

<>1950sp:USSR gripped by bitter ideological dispute about linguistics and the theories of N. Ya. Marr (1864-1934) [CCS:968-89]
*--Stalin made so bold as to enter this technical dispute with his amateur but authoritative [authoritarian?] views
*--Soviet dissident Roy Medvedev later described Stalin's last years [P20:343]

<>1950je25:North Korea invaded the South in an attempt to reunite the peninsula which had been artificially cut in two as part of post-WW2 Allied agreements

<>1950se19:USA, England, and France (without other "Big Four" ally USSR) formally signed communiqué on ending state of hostility with Germany and combination of the three western Allied sectors into a new Federal Republic of Germany [RFP2,3:114-15]
*1950oc22:USSR-led Prague Conference of east European states took stand against the actions of the erstwhile "Western" allies [RFP2,3:116-17]

<>1950oc25:People's Republic of China entered Korean War to aid North Korea

<>1951:1955;USSR Fifth Five-year Plan

<>1951:English economist Joan Robinson tried to reconcile ideas of Marx and Keynes in an essay "Marx and Keynes" [CCS:829-39]
*--The image of Keynes had come full circle since his earliest days

<>1951:French author Maurice Duverger published a study later translated into English as Political Parties: Their organization and Activity in the Modern State (1959), a theoretical critique of political parties over more than a century. Suggested reading =

<>1951:German professor of philosophy at Heidelberg University Karl Jaspers (having returned to his post after the Nazis threw him out), published Way to Wisdom in which he extolled intense personal involvement and choice [BMC4:682-3]
*--He also wrote Man and the Modern Age

<>1951:German-born political philosopher Hannah Arendt published The Origins of Totalitarianism

<>1951:Russian thinker and historian of thought Nikolai Losskii, History of Russian Philosophy

<>1951:UNO | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization [UNESCO] questionnaire, drawn up by Oslo [Norway] University Professor Arne Naess, on ideological conflicts about democracy, collated and published as Democracy in a World of Tensions
*--Naess concluded from the replies of hundreds of world "experts" that "for the first time in the history of the world, no doctrines are advanced as undemocratic" [BMC4:752-7]
*--UNO could be naive in its global optimism

<>1951:USA foreign policy specialist Hans Morgenthau published In Defense of the National Interest
*--Morgenthau warned about confusing two great issues: Russian imperialism and genuine revolution =

American foreign policy ought not to have the objective of bringing the blessings of some social and political system to all the world or of protecting all the world from the evils of some other system. [...] If we allow ourselves to be diverted from this objective of safeguarding our national security, and if instead we conceive of the American mission in some abstract, universal, and emotional terms, we may well be induced, against our better knowledge and intent, yet by the very logic of the task in hand, to raise the banner of universal counter-revolution abroad and of conformity in thought and action at home. In that manner we shall jeopardize our external security, promote the world revolution we are trying to suppress, and at home make ourselves distinguishable perhaps in degree, but not in kind, from those with which we are locked in ideological combat.... [RFP3:431-2]
*--Morgenthau's was a lonely voice of warning about the damaging consequences of inflated threats to national security

<>1951ap11:USA commander in Korea, General Douglas MacArthur, came out in favor of carrying Korean War into China

<>1951je:English Foreign Office senior diplomat R.H. Scott wrote to Britain's ambassador in Kabul reporting that the French were suggesting an "obvious solution" to the Afghanistan problem, an "engineered partition". He went on =

If there is to be an upheaval sometime, as looks not unlikely, the ultimate disappearance of Afghanistan (as we now know it) might be no tragedy. In modern conditions, Afghan viability may in the long run be doubtful
*--Behind the English concern was the growing dependence of Afghanistan on Soviet trade and diplomatic support
*--At an even deeper level, there was also the growing independence of Afghanistan as it associated with other "Third World" countries to function outside the network of either "Western" or Soviet control
*--Afghan developments threw into question the bi-polar myth that sustained the Cold War and provided camouflage for continuation of old imperialist practices
*--The English "senior diplomat" still presumed authority to draw and redraw borders, even to erase Afghanistan from the AfroAsian map

<>1951se:USA Senator Joseph McCarthy attacked Secretary of Defense George C. Marshall, accusing this major USA government figure of being a communist sympathizer

<>1951no13:UNO General Assembly heard Andrei Vyshinskii's objection to international commission on general elections throughout Germany [RFP2,3:118-19]
*--GO de19

<>1951de19:UNO Resolution on investigation of possibilities for general elections in Germany [RFP2,3:119-21]

<>1952:English economic historian and labor party supporter R.H. Tawney published the last of three editions of his defense of liberal democracy against its many different sorts of enemies, Equality (1931:First ed., 1938:Second ed.) [CCS,1:825-43]

<>1952:USA (German-born) Protestant theologian Paul Tillich published The Courage To Be [BMC4:655-6]
*--"Neo-orthodox theology" thrived from the WW1 period, through the tumultuous depression era, through WW2, and into the Cold War
*--In this same year, Wladimir Weidle [Vladimir Veidle] published English translation of his socio-cultural explanation of why the Russian old-regime collapsed and the Soviet Union arose, Russia: Absent and Present

<>1952mr01:India held first national elections
*--Pandit Nehru's and Congress Party win 3/4th of seats in the National Assembly
*--India's century and a half under European imperial dominion was over
*--Imperialism came under widespread assault in South-Asia, AfroAsia and in Eastern-Europe
*--LOOP on "AfroAsia"

<>1952my15: Lansing, Michigan| Douglas MacArthur delivered a puzzling speech, in view of USA political events over the 14 months since he was fired for disobeying his Commander In Chief, President Harry Truman, and in view of the hysterical anti-Communism that filled this election year

<>1:European Coal and Steel Community [ECSC--France, West Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg] came into force, representing the first substantial accomplishment of the pan-European idea

<>1952jy27:Volga-Don Ship Canal completed, realizing a Russian dream of economic development delayed more than 260 years
*--The Ottoman Turks were the first to attempt this project nearly 400 years earlier

<>1952au08:German elections commission adjourned indefinitely [RFP2,3:121-2]

<>1952se:oc02; Stalin stated Cold War views [RFP2,3:227-32 | RFP3:433-8 | ORW:244-6]

<>1953:1956; Eastern Europe in the grip of anti-Soviet disturbances
*--1953mr05:Joseph Stalin died [SGv:176-8]

<>1953mr27:First post-Stalin amnesty for political prisoners [SGv:256-7]

<>1953ap16:USA President Dwight Eisenhower used occasion of Stalin's death to call for end to the Cold War

<>1953my25:USA composer Aaron Copland's "Americanism" questioned by Senator Joseph McCarthy, chairman of the US Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations
*2005my03:Minnesota Public Radio | Bill Morelock, "Conscience vs. McCarthy: the Political Aaron Copland" [TXT]
*--Compare with earlier experience of Soviet composer Dmitrii Shostakovich
*--Was "McCarthyism" a form of "negative convergence" of USSR & USA?
*--Was it designed to re-ignite Cold-War hysteria and to stifle the post-Stalin optimism and the new atmosphere of hope?

<>1953my:Siberia | Norilsk revolts in GULag system

<>1953je17:GDR ("East Germany") | Liberalization stimulated riots in the streets, put down by Soviet power
*--Dissent vigorous but vulnerable in the uncertain months after Stalin's death

<>1953je27:Korean War armistice
*--Six-year crisis in Korea over, though Korea remained divided long after most other areas divided by "Cold War" had been rejoined

<>1953je18:Egypt declared self an independent republic. Peoples throughout AfroAsia were awakening to a new era of struggle for sovereign identity
*--LOOP on "AfroAsia"

<>1953jy10:Moscow | Beria denounced and "purged" [SGv:179-81]

<>1953:USA. B. F. Skinner, Science and Human Behavior [Read chapter one = TXT]
*--Some feared that Skinner's "behavioral science" was designed less to promote scientific understanding of behavior and more to explore ways to make people behave

<>1953au09:Iran | Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadegh [Muhammad in more common Arabic transliteration] [ID] was arrested as a result of US and English intervention in Iranian domestic politics

<>1953se:Nikita Khrushchev became First Secretary (and Politbiuro member) of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
*--The "succession crisis" caused by Stalin's death was on its way to solid resolution

<>1953no:1955no; New Yorker published in serial form four chapters from Russian émigré writer Vladimir Nabokov's fourth English-language novel, Pnin, in serial form
*2016my24:NYT| "On the Trail of Nabokov in the American West" [E.TXT]
*--Brian Boyd, Vladimir Nabokov: The American Years (1991)
*--Gennady Barabtarlo, Phantom of Fact: A Guide to Nabokov's Pnin (1989)
*--Leona Toker, Nabokov: The Mystery of Literary Structures (1989)

<>1954:USA geochemist Harrison Brown, a professor at the California Institute of Technology, raised social,economic and environmental questions and described a grave but avoidable future of global modernization in The Challenge of Man's Future [CCS:643-59 | CCS,2:48-64]

<>1954:1956; USSR "Virgin Lands" campaign extended agricultural cultivation into dry steppe regions

<>1954mr:USSR KGB [F/] (Komitet gosudarstvennoi bezopasnosti; Committee of State Security) created out of earlier security police agencies

<>1954ap:jy; Geneva Conference met to discuss the status of Vietnam

<>1954je:Guatemala suffered coup d'état engineered by USA international spy agency CIA, a very independent subsection of the USA Executive Branch of government (as are the FBI and Pentagon)

<>1954oc03:London conference of nine European nations deliberated on the question of European Union [EU]
*--They were expanding the 1948mr17:Brussels Treaty
*--Along the way, they agreed on a very provocative plan to bring West Germany into NATO

<>1954oc23:USA, USSR, England and France agreed to end occupation of Germany

<>1954no29:Moscow Conference of east European "sattelite" nations, with PRC (China) as observer

<>1954de02:USA Senate adopted resolution censuring Joseph McCarthy

<>1955mr:European Union [EU] ratified by Italy, West Germany and France

<>1955ap18:ap24; INDONESIA | Bandung Conference, formally "Asian-African Conference at Bandung" [SPE2:1030-2]

<>1955my09:Federal Republic of Germany ("West Germany") became sovereign nation-state, combining the US, English and French zones without including the Soviet zone ("East Germany")

<>1955my14:USSR created Warsaw Pact [W] in direct response to the establishment of NATO and especially to the creation of "West Germany" as a NATO state

<>1955my15:Vienna Treaty was signed by USSR USA, England and France

<>1955jy:COLD WAR: Winter again. Geneva Four-power meeting involved USA, USSR, Great Britain and France

<>1955fa:1956no; USA AL,Mongomery (state capital) | Mrs. Rosa Parks, a 43-year-old seamstress whose skin color made her legally ineligible to ride in the front of a public bus, refused to move to the back

<>1956fe14:USSR. Twentieth Party Congress of the Communist Party heard Khrushchev's so-called secret speech [TXT]

<>1956mr28:Iceland demanded revision of 1951 agreement with USA and withdrawal of USA troops
*--Cracks in "The West" accompanied cracks in the Soviet Bloc

<>1956ap25:se08; Nikita Khrushchev labor reform [SGv:433-37]
*--In this year, Machine Tractor Stations abolished

<>1956ap28:Soviet law on state secrecy provided list of censored topics, state secrets [PS&C:136-7]

<>1956my:USA stepped up spy-plane over-flights within territory of USSR

<>1956je:Polish industrial wage-labor disturbances were an early harbinger of disorder and dissent in the Soviet dominated Warsaw Pact

<>1956jy26:Egyptian President Gamal Abdal Nasser seized Suez Canal from English-dominated, imperialist corporation, the Suez Canal Company
*--"Western" client states were as restive as Soviet client states
*--AfroAsia was a place of resistance to the discredited but still persistent west European imperialist states
*--Much as eastern Europe was a place of resistance to the discredited but still persistent Soviet form of imperialistic dominion
*--LOOP on "AfroAsia"

<>1956au:Pakistani troops infiltrated Kashmir to start a rebellion
*--International war between Pakistan and India: Nationalist rebellion WITHIN AND AMONG "Third World" countries
*2015se05:BBC summary of events and their long-term consequences [E-TXT]

<>1956se:Moscow editors of Novyi mir [New World] rejected MS of Boris Pasternak's novel Doctor Zhivago [58de03:CDP#10,43:6-11,32]
*--The novel was first published abroad by a "left-wing" Italian publishing house, but hailed as a hymn to freedom by all political factions, left to right, in "The West"

<>1956oc:Poland | Gomulka became First Secretary [General Secretary] of Polish United Worker's Party

<>1956oc:Hungary | Budapest gripped by general industrial labor strike, the most serious crack in the Warsaw Pact in this season of unrest

<>1956oc29:Israel invaded Egypt in the Sinai Peninsula

<>1956no19:New Leader published Yugoslav political figure and theorist Milovan Djilas [Đilas], "The Storm in Eastern Europe" for which he was imprisoned [RFP3:630-7]

<>1957:1958; USSR proposals called for East-West [i.e., Warsaw Pact and NATO] non-aggression pacts and nuclear-free zone in all of middle Europe
*--West European and US public opinion was waxing strong in this direction, but NATO powers rejected the Soviet proposal

<>1957:French (Algerian-born) existentialist author Albert Camus (1913-1960) [ID] won the Nobel Prize for Literature

<>1957:USSR and The People's Republic of China experienced sharp deterioration in their international relations

<>1957mr25:European Economic Community [EEC or "Common Market"] founded, Treaty of Rome, a direct outgrowth of the vision of Jean Monnet [ID] and a result of the early accomplishments of the ECSC. It reinforced the emerging concept of European Union [EU]
*--LOOP on EU

<>1957my10:Nikita Khrushchev introduced economic reforms [SGv:93-101]

<>1957je29:Moscow | Central Committee backed Nikita Khrushchev vs. "Anti-Party Group" [SGv:182-7]

<>1957fa:USSR | For the first time in human history, two artificial satellites were launched into orbit around the earth

<>1958:Brussels World's Fair (1st world's fair since 1939:NYC)

<>1958:English pundit and author Aldous Huxley returned to earlier themes in Brave New World Revisited
*--A quarter century of political totalitarianism and total war, followed by disturbing nuclear remilitarization, suggested several new perspectives

<>1958:Gustav Wetter published his complex analysis Dialectical Materialism: A Historical and Systematic Survey of Philosophy in the Soviet Union (1963)

<>1958:USA | John Kenneth Galbraith published his influential critique of American society, The Affluent Society

<>1958fe01:Egypt played leading role in formation with Sudan of the United Arab Republic
*1958fe21:Nasser elected head of state by plebiscite
*--In the fourth century Egypt played a role in the original "Easternizaton" (i.e., Christianization) of "The West"
*--Egypt now joined the ranks of modern nation-states
*--Wki account of Egypt's years as independent Republic, 1952 to 2011

<>1958mr27:1964oc15; Nikita Khrushchev replaced Bulganin as president of the USSR Council of Ministers, thus held highest state and Party posts for over 5 1/2 years, a time of sometimes bold but nearly always ineffective reform

<>1958mr:USSR completed heavy-yield, heavy-fallout tests of nuclear weapons and announced unilateral suspension of such tests, pending reciprocal suspension among other nuclear powers

<>1958my:Algerian disorders signaled intensification of five-year anti-imperialist struggle against France
*--Algeria inspired national liberation movements throughout the Arabic world of AfroAsia
*--Algerian rebellion quickly shook down the French government
*--WW2 General Charles de Gaulle led the new French Fifth Republic
*--Algerian disorders continued
*--1958my19:Paris press conference [CWC:544-50]
*--THE BATTLE of ALGIERS [videorecording of 1965 semi-documentary movie]
*--LOOP on "AfroAsia"

<>1958:African (Nigerian) writer Chinua Achebe published Things Fall Apart which explored the shock of modernization on village folk
*--Two years later he published No Longer at Ease [Excerpts from both, SWH:414-23]

<>1958oc:Geneva | USSR, USA, England opened talks on practical sides of enforcing cessation of nuclear testing

<>1958oc:Russian poet and gentle dissident Boris Pasternak, author of the novel Dr. Zhivago, awarded Nobel Prize

<>1959:USA author William Burroughs published Naked Lunch and shocked reading public [Wagar:179]

<>1959:USA sociologist William Kornhauser published The Politics of Mass Society [CCS:532-51]

<>1959ja:Cuban revolution, led by Fidel Castro, successfully entered and took control over the capital city Havana

<>1959ja08:French Fifth Republic proclaimed Charles de Gaulle President, an office he held for ten years
*--For a collection of characteristic political pronouncements, see CWC:540-53
*--Executive-branch centralism of the "Gaullist" type dominated French politics until early 1980s

<>1959my:European Council began deliberations on USA "Dillon proposal" regarding international trade negotiations (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade [GATT] )
*--LOOP on EU

<>1959se:Camp David Summit, outside WDC | Summitry initiated by USA President Dwight David Eisenhower and First Secretary of the Communist Party of the USSR Nikita Khrushchev

<>1959no:German Social Democratic Party, which had been making a comeback over the previous ten years in several European polities, adopted its "Bad Godesberg Program", replacing its doctrinaire 1925 program in favor of a more moderate but still socialist platform [CWC:527-39]

<>1960:USA. Herman Kahn published his "thoughts on the unthinkable", On Thermonuclear War [summarized in CCS:1183-98; more on public debate in USA:1199-1226]
*--Communist Party issued its thoughts on the economic crisis of modern capitalism [Jaworskyj:477-85] Soviet aversion to capitalist cultural crisis (squalid commercial media, permissiveness, ethical relativism, etc.) was also a theme of that era [ibid:526-8, 564-9], not just for Soviet pundits and ideologues, but also for a growing "cultural-values" or "family-values" dissent movements in the USA
*--W. W. Rostow published his influential The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto with its theory of economic development and underdevelopment. Here is his list of  "Some tentative, approximate take-off dates" into self-sustained, modern industrial development (p.38), followed by his "rough symbolic dates for technological maturity" (p.59) =

Great Britain 1783-1802 1850
France 1830-1860 1910
Belgium 1833-1860  ---
United States 1843-1860 1900
Germany 1850-1873 1910
Sweden 1868-1890 1930
Japan 1878-1900 1940
Russia 1890-1914 1950
Canada 1896-1914 1950
Argentina 1935- ---  ---
Turkey 1937- ---  ---
India 1952- ---  ---
China 1952- ---  ---

<>1960:USSR announced policy of "Peaceful Coexistence" [ORW:269-8]

<>1960ap28:German Federal Republic Economics Minister Ludwig Erhard delivered speech to his Christian Democratic Union Party on West Germany's social market economy [P20:391]

<>1960my:Paris Summit ended when USA spy-plane, the U-2, was shot down, followed by strong Khrushchev denunciation [ORW:259-62]

<>1960je30:Belgian Congo was granted independence from colonial rule

<>1960oc28:USSR Russian Republic published comprehensive law "On the Conservation of Nature in the RSFSR" [Philip R. Pryde, Conservation in the Soviet Union (1972) translated extensive excerpts:184ff]
*--Environmental consciousness became a factor in Soviet and US civic activism as the era of vigorous Europe- and USA-wide dissent approached
*--Douglas R. Weiner, A Little Corner of Freedom: Russian Nature Protection from Stalin to Gorbachev

<>1960oc31:Algerian Republic's Provisional Government Prime Minister, Ferhat Abbas, commemorated the seventh anniversary of the Algerian struggle for independence from a more than century-long French imperialist dominion [P20:328]
*1961:Martinique-born psychiatrist Frantz Fanon published Les damnés de la terre [The Wretched of the Earth (1968) E-TXT | UO titles by Fanon]
*--Fanon was trained in his profession in France and was a decorated war hero fighting for the French in WW2. However, he turned against French imperialist authority when he joined the Algerian national liberation movement. He urged African states to seek their own revolutionary future independent of the models imposed by European colonists. "The West" did not share its virtues with the non-European world when it imposed its dominance there. Here is one example of how he contrasted the "Western" with the colonial relationship between the powerful and the weak [SAC editor inserted boldface] =

In capitalist societies, the educational system, whether lay or clerical, the structure of moral reflexes handed down from father to son, the exemplary honesty of workers who are given a medal after fifty years of good and loyal service, and the affection which springs from harmonious relations and good behavior -- all these esthetic expressions of respect for the established order serve to create around the exploited person an atmosphere of submission and of inhibition which lightens the task of policing considerably. In the capitalist countries, a multitude of moral teachers, counselors and "bewilderers" separate the exploited from those in power. In the colonial countries, on the contrary, the policeman and the soldier, by their immediate presence and their frequent and direct action, maintain contact with the native and advise him by means of rifle-butts and napalm not to budge [BNE:324-8 | PWT2:385-7]
*2017fe16: eurotopics.net| Well into the 21st century, imperialism and colonialism remained sensitive political topics =
Progressive-minded political figure and candidate for the French presidency, Emmanuel Macron, condemned colonization of Algeria and became the target of "conservative" or "reactionary" opinion [E-TXT]

<>1960de:Geneva talks on nuclear testing recessed with little accomplishment, especially in USA election year in which John Fitzgerald Kennedy (JFK) attacked Dwight Eisenhower for allowing a "missile gap" to develop, an incorrect assertion that USA had fallen behind USSR in intercontinental military capability
*--Inflation of threats to national security continued to work as an effective political ploy

<>1961:Africa | Ghana President Kwame Nkrumah wrote several books in which he laid out his anti-imperialist ideology

<>1961:German school teacher Hannah Vogt published The Burden of Guilt in order to fill the gap in school histories which had hitherto ignored the Nazi period [P20:311]

<>1961:English radical dissident and dramatist Raymond Williams published The Long Revolution in which he expanded on the standard European concepts of democratic revolution and industrial revolution by adding "cultural revolution" [CWC:592-623]

<>1961ja16:USA President Eisenhower's farewell address [TXT] included a passage that must have been provoked in part by the alarming military-industrial inclinations of the newly elected USA President Kennedy. However, this was not a new theme for Eisenhower [EG]

<>1961mr:Geneva talks renewed but broke down quickly

<>1961ap14:Moscow, Mayakovskii square | First arrest in connection with the illegal reading of poetry. The Soviet dissent movement broke into the open [E-TXT]

<>1961ap17:Cuba repulsed USA CIA sponsored invasion at Bay of Pigs

<>1961ap27:NYC| USA President John Kennedy addressed gathering of US press professionals on the role of the press in the emerging dangerous domestic and international threat from conspiritorial secret societies [Illustrated recording]

<>1961my04:Soviet law vs. "parasites" [SGv:301-3]. The struggle against dissent also broke into the open

<>1961je:Vienna Summit Meeting | President JFK clashed with First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the USSR ("the Soviet ruler") Nikita Khrushchev
*--"Khrushchev and Kennedy: Vienna Summit 1961" [YouTube]

<>1961jy:Berlin | JFK delivered speech announcing US military buildups, adding "Ich bin ein Berliner" ["I am a jelly roll" was a translation popular at the time in some waggish circles. (Berliner was the name of a German jelly roll)]

<>1961au:USSR announced plan for atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons

<>1961au13:Berlin wall under construction
*1971:Soviet political cartoon illustrated the purpose of the wall, implying that it prevented Nazi return to power and encouraged eventual diplomatic ties between USSR and Germany [FLM]

<>1961se:USA announced underground nuclear testing

<>1961oc:Communist Party congress22; remarkable new political party program announced by Khrushchev [SGv:188-206]
*--The new program projected that the USSR would achieve its strategic goal of "communism" by the year 1984
*--The Party ideologists were exploring the question of dictatorship and the state in the time of transition from Socialism to Communism [Jaworskyj:580-5] Compare with a discussion of this topic nearly forty years earlier

<>1962:USA environmental consciousness raised by Rachel Carson's Silent Spring [ID]

<>1962je01:je03:USSR | Novocherkassk wage-laborers staged a bloody but successful general strike against managerial authorities [Wki | Derluguian,"Contradictions":14]
*1988my:Eye-witness account [E-TXT]

<>1962je20:USA-USSR presidents Kennedy and Khrushchev agreed to create "hotline" telephone connection

<>1962se08:Cuba, Havana harbor | USSR unloaded medium-range ballistic missiles (MRBM). Beginning of "Cuban Missile Crisis" [W]
*--Tensions between USA and Cuba had intensified in the three-plus years since Fidel Castro's successful revolution in Cuba
*--A curious cultural interlude played itself out in the midst of this emerging and most dangerous moment in the Cold-War epoch =

<>1962se12:1962oc09; Moscow & Leningrad | After 48 years in west European and USA emigration (since 1914), Igor Stravinsky made a triumphal visit to his erstwhile homeland, Russia
*--Stravinsky traveled with his wife, Vera, and with his chronicler, the musician Robert Craft [Craft, Stravinsky, Chronicle...:313-42]
*--Stravinsky lived the last decades of his life in Los Angeles = F/Stravinsky/ in KNIGHT LIBRARY HOLDINGS
*--In some ways the Russian visit was the crowning moment in an international career that had opened with a bang a half-century earlier
*--Now back to the unfolding "Cuban Missile Crisis" =

<>1962oc22:USA imposed blockade on Cuba
*--If but one rocket were to be released in W. Hemisphere, USA would attack USSR
*--Squadrons of B-52s, w/ hydrogen weapons flew to tactical positions around USSR
*--USA nuclear submarines trained Polaris missiles on USSR
*1962oc18:WDC| JFK & his advisers and Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko & his advisers met [E-TXT]
*1962oc19:WDC| USA national leaders met [E-TXT]
*--USA army prepared Cuban invasion
*--Twenty-five USSR ships approached Cuba
*--Suddenly all stopped but one, an oiler
*--JFK let it pass *1962oc22:WDC| USA President John Kennedy [hereafter "JFK"] sent letter to USSR Chairman Nikita Khrushchev [hereafter "XrwNS"] [E-TXT]
*1962oc24:WDC| Telegram From the USA Department of State to its Embassy in Turkey [E-TXT]
*1962oc24:Moscow| XrwNS to JFK [E-TXT]
*1962oc27:USSR, Moscow| XrwNS to JFK [E-TXT]
*1962oc28:Moscow| XrwNS to JFK [E-TXT]

<>1962oc28:Khrushchev announced dismantling of its missiles in Cuba
*1962oc30:Moscow| XrwNS to JFK [E-TXT]
*1962no03:WDC| John Scali of the American Broadcasting Co. met with Aleksandr S. Fomin, Counselor at the Soviet Embassy in WDC and reputedly head of Soviet intelligence there [E-TXT]
*1962no03:WDC| JFK to XrwNS [E-TXT]
*1962(ND):Moscow| XrwNS to JFK [E-TXT]
*1962no06:WDC| JFK to XrwNS [E-TXT]
*1962no12:Moscow| XrwNS to JFK [E-TXT]
*1962no12:WDC at Soviet Embassy reception for the visiting Bolshoi Ballet| USA Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy gave USSR Ambassador Anatolyi Dobrynin an oral message [E-TXT]
*1962no14:Moscow| XrwNS to JFK [E-TXT]
*1962no15:WDC| JFK to XrwNS [E-TXT]
*1962no16:WDC| JKF met with his Joint Chiefs of Staff [E-TXT]
*1962no19:WDC| Rbt. Kennedy met with USSR Press Attaché Georgii Bol'shakov (KGB operative close to XrwNS) [E-TXT]
*1962no20:WDC| Scali memo on conversation with Fomin [E-TXT]
*1962??:Moscow| XrwNS to JFK [E-TXT 2016se26:file unavailable]
*1962no21:WDC| JFK to XrwNS [E-TXT]
*1962no22:Moscow| XrwNS to JFK [E-TXT]
*1962de11:Moscow| [E-TXT]
*1962de14:WDC [E-TXT]
*1963ja08:WDC| JFK & staff met with bipartisan Congressional leadership [E-TXT]
*1963ja09:WDC| JFK & staff me with USSR Deputy Foreign Minister Vasilii Kuznetsov, resume of Cuban crisis and summary of issues still ahead [E-TXT]
*1963ja26:WDC| Hurwitz report on meeting with Cuban Prime Minister Castro [E-TXT]

*--USA reciprocated by removing some of its missiles from Turkey
*--USA settled into tense but largely peaceful relationship with revolutionary Cuba

<>1962no:1975;COLD WAR era of dissent
*--USSR and USA "Sixties", a dozen years of domestic social, political and cultural dissent; era of "civil rights" and "human rights" movements
*1962:1975; USA journal of dissent, Ramparts, worked to expose "the dark side" of USA life [E-TXT]
*2015:NYC:NYU:|>Young,Ralph|_Dissent: The History of an American Idea| a{UO}s{Full crn of USA dsn, from "New World" beginnings up to early 21st c| "The Sixties" to now = ch#19 to the end [pp 407-522]}
*1950s:1960s; USA Afro-American civil rights movement, Zinn, ch17 ("Or Does It Explode"):435-59

<>1962no:USSR dissenter Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn published One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich [TXT] with official approval
*--On the basis of personal experience and memory of fellow prisoners' personal testimony in post-WW2 Soviet prison camps, Solzhenitsyn described life in the infamous GULag [ID]

<>1962no23:Nikita Khrushchev split Communist Party apparat [bureaucracy]. This was a fateful move [SGv:214]

<>1963:Nikita Khrushchev on literature and the arts [RRC1,3:704-8]

<>1963ja:French President Charles de Gaulle vetoed English application for EEC membership
*--Nationalism blocked evolution of the European Union [EU]

<>1963mr08:Syrian coup brought Ba'ath [Baath] Party [W-ID] to power
*--LOOP on "Syria"

<>1963ap+: USSR hosted 38-day visit by Cuban Prime Minister Fidel Castro [pix]
*--The Cuban revolution was now relatively secure after three years in power

<>1963au06:USA, USSR, and England signed treaty banning nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere, outer space, and underwater

<>1963au28:USA dissent figure and civil rights leader, Dr. Martin Luther King delivered his "I Have a Dream" speech [TXT]

<>1963no22:Dallas TX | USA President JFK assassinated
*2013oc:Smithsonian| "What Does the Zapruder Film Really Tell Us?" [E-TXT]

<>1964:USA NYC | Zbigniew Brzezinski and Samuel P. Huntington, _Political Power: USA/USSR [JK31.B7], compared the two superpowers [TXT excerpts]

<>1964jy03:USA President Lyndon Johnson signed civil rights legislation
*--Civil rights dissent intensified, and Alabama Governor George Wallace reacted [W]

<>1964jy15:Nikita Khrushchev's agriculture reform [SGv:370-5]

<>1964jy23:French President Charles de Gaulle delivered his tenth press conference =

In discussing Europe and in trying to distinguish what it should be, it is always necessary to ascertain what the world is.

At the end of the last World War, the distribution of forces in the world was as simple, as brutal, as possible. It appeared suddenly at Yalta [ID]. Only America and Russia had remained powers, and all the more considerable powers in that all the rest found themselves dislocated, the vanquished engulfed in their unconditional defeat and the European victors destroyed to their foundations.

For the countries of the free world,threatened by the Soviets' ambition, American leadership could then seem inevitable. Of all the countries of the free world, the New World was the great victor of the war.

[... However, the world has changed since 1945. The result is this: ]

The division of the world into two camps led by Washington and Moscow respectively corresponds less and less to the real situation. With respect to the gradually splitting totalitarian world, or the problems posed by China, or the conduct to be adopted toward many countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America, or the remodeling of the United Nations Organization [UNO] that necessarily ensues, or the adjustment of world exchanges of all kinds, etc., it appears that Europe, provided that it wishes it, is henceforth called upon to play a role which is its own. [based on translation in BNE:329-34]

<>1964au05:Tonkin Gulf resolution [TXT] followed from false claims by US military and President Johnson that US warships were under attack from North Vietnam

<>1964se14+; USA CA University of California at Berkeley erupted in huge student protest movement called "The Free Speech Movement" [ID#1 | ID#2]

<>1964oc:China detonated its first nuclear device

<>1964oc15:Moscow | First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Nikita Khrushchev was deposed
*1964oc17:Two days later, Pravda announced Khrushchev's fall from power [ORW:280-3]
*--Leonid Brezhnev became General Secretary [First Secretary renamed] and held that post until his death in 1982
*--This marked the end of the era of Khrushchev "thaw" and the beginning of an eighteen-year period called the "Brezhnev Era"
*--or "Generation of Victors" (remembering World War Two)
*--or "Era of Stagnation [zastoi]"
*--or the Soviet dissent era at its peak

*2016au18: Мария Баронова: «Лучшими правителями России были Брежнев и Александр II [ID]» | The Insider E-TXT
*--Kerblay,Mikhail Gorbachev:12

<>1964no16:Communist Party apparat restored [SGv:214-23]

<>1965wi:Russian dissident poet Joseph Brodsky on trial [Eisen:60-77]
*--Brodsky later emigrated to the USA and served for a while as US poet laureate
*--Compare with Mstislav Rostropovich who became conductor of US National Orchestra in WDC
*--Consider also Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, author and ethicist, who lived for years in USA exile
*--Soviet dissent spilled with benefit into "The West", but not without tension | "Western" dissent had to be "edited" for Soviet consumption

<>1965fe27:USA State Department bulletin "AGGRESSION FROM THE NORTH" [TXT] [TXT] (mr22:published), about Vietnam War

<>1965mr24:Leonid Brezhnev criticized Nikita Khrushchev's agriculture reform [SGv:376-9]
*--The twelve-year Khrushchev era was quickly put aside

<>1965ap27:French President Charles de Gaulle criticized USA dominance over European policies. "In the end, our reappearance as a nation with free hands obviously alters the global context which, since Yalta [ID], seemed henceforth limited to two partners. But since the liberty, equality, and fraternity of peoples decidedly do not profit from this partition of the universe into two hegemonies, and, thus, two camps, a different order and a different equilibrium are necessary for peace."
*--In these days, he criticized USA policy in Vietnam and announced withdrawal from the NATO military alliance [CWC:550-3]

<>1965ap28:Dominican Republic invaded and occupied by USA military [ID#1 | ID#2]

<>1965se:USSR Central Committee accepted economic reform package created by Evsei Liberman and sponsored by newly appointed Soviet Premier Andrei Kosygin
*1966:Planning, Profit and Incentives in the USSR. Vol. I: The Liberman Discussion: A New Phase in Soviet Economic Thought
*1972:Liberman authored Economic methods and the effectiveness of production [Ekonomicheskie metody povysheniia effektivnosti obshchestvennogo proizvodstva]
*1987no02:KIARS, Archie Brown drew parallel between Kosygin's 1960s economic policies and Gorbachev's 1980s Perestroika [ID]

<>1965se:1966fe:USSR | Arrest and then trial of Andrei Siniavskii [ID] and Yulii Daniel for slandering the USSR in their writings; Soviet dissent deepened
*--In the 1990s the by-now world-famous Siniavskii accepted a one-term visiting professorship in the Russian Department of the University of Oregon

<>1965oc01:Indonesian Revolution got under way with a failed coup d'état

*--W-ID#1 | W-ID#2
*2016je02:BBC | "Looking into the massacres of Indonesia's past" [E-TXT]
*2015de10:Al Jazeera| "A people's tribunal puts Indonesia on trial" [E-TXT]
*2015no02:NYR| Margaret Scott, "The Indonesian Massacre: What Did the US Know? [E-TXT] ((Excerpt = "The Indonesian massacre was a critical moment in the cold war. In the early morning of October 1,1965, six Indonesian generals were killed by a group of junior officers who claimed they were forestalling a takeover by a CIA-backed “Council of Generals.” The putsch was poorly planned and collapsed in twenty-four hours. At the time, Indonesia was led by the leftist, romantic revolutionary-turned-autocrat Sukarno, and also had the third largest Communist Party in the world, the PKI, with some 3 million members. The Indonesian Army and the US government quickly blamed the botched coup on the PKI. (There is still much we don’t know about these events, but the head of the PKI, D. N. Aidit, was at least aware of the coup attempt; he was killed shortly thereafter by the army.) Seizing on an opportunity to unseat Sukarno and roll back communism, the army unleashed a campaign of violence in which perhaps five hundred thousand or perhaps one million suspected Communists were killed—no one knows for sure"))

<>1966:USSR Decree on the Structure and Staffing of the Central Apparatus of the Council for Religious Affairs of the Council of Ministers [PS&C:305]

<>1966fe21:23; Syrian coup d'etat
*--LOOP on "Syria"

<>1967:1972; USSR dissent movement into high gear, with accent on overweening statist policies and "Human Rights" violations in the Soviet Union

<>1966:1976; Chinese Peoples' Republic fell into more than a decade of extreme expansion and revivification of the near-20-year-old revolution that earlier brought the Chinese Communist Party and its People's Liberation Army [PLA] to power [ID]

<>1967:France | Jean-Jacques Servan-Schreiber warned of the US threat to Europe in Défi américain [translated in 1969 as The American Challenge]. "Fifteen years from now it is quite possible that the world's third greatest industrial power, just after the United States and Russia, will not be Europe, but American industry in Europe"
*--Dissent from American hegemony gained a new international dimension, and it was being felt at home as well

<>1967:USA | Canadian literary scholar and wildly insightful and shameless pop-arts media critic, Marshall McLuhan (1911-1980) [ID] published The Medium is the Massage. He reached the peak of his fame and influence in this year, a fame characteristic of the era known as "The Sixties". Major works =
*1951:The Mechanical Bride: Folklore of industrial Man
*1962:The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man [W]
*1964:Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man
*1967:A balanced critical study reflected a wide range of contemporary opinion, positive and negative, with McLuhan responses: McLuhan: Hot and Cool (with a bibliography of his many and diverse writings up to 1967)
*1968:Harold Rosenthal, McLuhan: Pro and Con
*1969:London | Rebecca West delivered a cranky address on the implications of McLuhan [TXT] and other "cool", "hip" ("hippy") or "counter-culture" figures, for example, Oregon's Ken Kesey [TXT]
*--Here are some McLuhan aphorisms =

<>1967ap04:USA | Preacher and civil rights leader Martin Luther King delivered speech, "Beyond Vietnam" [TXT]
*--The speech not only specifically addressed the relevance of his Christian religion to US politics, it also linked international military aggression with domestic injustice
*--Thus opened the final year of Martin Luther King's life

<>1967my:Yuri Andropov replaced Semichastnyi as head of KGB [Komitet gosudarstvennoi bezopasnosti or Committee of State Security]
*--Andropov brought a new toughness to the job, but also a new understanding and political practicality
*--In dealing with dissent, the fist was still in evidence, but it was now lightly gloved
*--Andropov had the reputation of being an intellectual [intelligent]

<>1967je08:International waters of the Eastern Mediterrainian Sea, north of Egypt, during the Arab-Israeli "Six-Day War", deliberate Israeli attack on USS Liberty, an electronic "spy-ship" monitoring the conflict
*2014oc30:Al Jazeera journalistic summary of the event [E-TXT]
*--USS Liberty Dead in the Water - Top Documentary Films

<>1967au16:USA GA Atlanta | Martin Luther King delivered the Annual Report at the 11th Convention of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, "Where Do We Go From Here?" [E-TXT]
*--Dissent was becoming more than a domestic problem for the USA and the Soviet Union. Dissent took on international dimensions

<>1968ja:Czechoslovak Communist Party elevated Alexander Dubcek to the post of First Secretary [General Secretary] and introduced changes that came to be called "Socialism with a human face"
*--Twenty years after falling within the Soviet sphere of influence, Czech and Slovak independence began to assert itself
*--The fragrance of internal reform rising out of Soviet-dominated border states refreshed all varieties of dissent
*1968ap:Czechoslovak Communist Party "Action Program" [P20:362]
*--The Prague spring 1968 : A national security archive documents reader
*--PRAGUE SPRING [videorecording (29 min.)]. Dubcek's attempt to liberalize Communist rule in Czechoslovakia resulted in Soviet tanks in the streets of Prague. This program presents both the political "detente" behind Brezhnev's position and the dissent that was silenced within the Warsaw Pact alliance. In addition to extensive archival footage, contemporary interviews with leading Dubcek supporters and opponents provide insights into the dissent that arose in the USSR's Eastern Bloc in the 1960s

<>1968mr31:USA WDC National Cathedral | Martin Luther King delivered a sermon, "Remaining Awake Through a Great Revolution", which gave unmistakable sign that he was beginning to see the domestic civil rights movement in a much broader context of economic justice. The middle sections of the sermon focused on the plight of the poor, whatever their race or color [F/poor/ on the following webpage

<>1968ap03:USA TN Memphis | Civil rights leader, now increasingly a leading social-political critic and voice of national dissent, Martin Luther King, delivered his last sermon, "I've Been to the Mountain" [W]. Then on the next day =

<>1968ap:USSR | Chronicle of Current Events #1 appeared; Samizdat [underground, uncensored dissident publishing] under way
*--The Chronicle specialized in publishing official governmental documents that embarrassed officials, exposed in the public realm
*--Are there grounds for a comparison of Samizdat with Wikileaks? [ID]
*--LOOP on Censorship

<>1968ap20:English conservative Enoch Powell addressed the problem of Bringing the Immigration Issue to the Center of Politics [P20:414]

<>1968my20:French youth leader and dissident Daniel Cohn-Bendit was interviewed for Le Nouvel Observateur by Jean-Paul Sartre about the French Student Revolt [P20:378]

<>1968jy15:Warsaw Meeting of Five Communist and Worker Parties urged Czechoslovak Central Committee to bring an end to liberal reforms, "To the Czechoslovak Communist Party Central Committee" [P20:364]

<>1968au:USSR invaded Czechoslovakia to put down Dubcek liberalization, which was called the "Prague Spring" or "Socialism with a Human Face"
*--Warsaw Pact still restless

<>1968au:USA, Chicago National Nominating Convention of the Democratic Party
*--Days of rioting in the streets gave concentrated expression to broadening atmosphere of USA dissent and provided opportunity for significant deployment of paramilitary police units against protesters
*--In addition to everything else, this was a major media event. USA could not ignore mounting disorder in social/political life [EG#1 | EG#2 | EG#3 | EG#4]

<>1969:Soviet dissident intellectual Len Karpinskii wrote Words are Also Deeds [CVG:297]

<>1969fe07:Decree on Tightening Control over the Implementation of Legislation on Religious Cults (esp. Islamic organizations in Uzbekistan) [PS&C:306-11]
*--Certain Islamic practices were offences against Soviet legality (blood feuds and various courtship and marriage customs) [PS&C:312-14]

<>1969:1972; US lawyer William Kunstler [ID] successfully defended the "Chicago Seven" [ID]
*--They were accused then acquitted of crimes in connection with anti-Vietnam-War demonstrations during massive street protests at the 1968au:Chicago National Democratic Convention
*--Kunstler was a resolute and articulate defender of those being abused within the legal system
*--He was a significant USA dissident. See his presentation "Disturbing the Universe" [TXT1 | TXT2 | FLM]
*--1969no:Asian Survey#9,22:862-867| Howard Zinn, "Vacating the Premises in Vietnam"

<>1969se01:Libyan army officers formed the Revolutionary Command Council and overthrew King Idris
*--They proclaimed a Libyan Arab Republic, elevated Revolutionary Command Council Chairman Lt. Col. Muammar Qadhafi to the head of the independent Libyan government, and began to process of creating an independent Arab nation
*2011:Forty-two years later, The Qadhafi government was overthrown. Qadhafi was captured and killed [W-ID]
*1796no04:2008au14; Significant Events in USA-Libyan Relations

<>1969no27:USSR kolkhoz (collective farm) law [SGv:383-404]

<>1970fe23:Leonid Brezhnev law vs. "parasites" was almost like a full-scale assault on youth culture [SGv:312-6]

<>1970mr05:USSR/USA Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons went into effect [TXT]

<>1970oc08:Canada, Quebec | Front de Libération du Quebec (Quebec Liberation Front; FLQ) broadcast over CBC/Radio-Canada a manifesto declaring federal independence of their province from Canada
*--This can be thought of as a North America variety of national minority independence movement and dissent
*--Primary and secondary sources on FLQ [W]

<>1970de:Polish industrial wage-labor disturbances brought workers into the ferment of intellectual dissent
*--Gierek replaced Gomulka as First Secretary
*--In the following decade of Soviet "stagnancy" [zastoi], the nations of the Warsaw Pact grew relatively quiet, regrouping, making adjustment toward a time of national assertiveness

<>1971:USA political philosopher John Rawls (1921-2002) published A Theory of Justice
*--Some think Rawls was the most important liberal political theorist of the 20th century, a renewal of the Mills tradition [ID]
Here is a SAC page summary of the main ideas of John Rawls

<>1971ap23:Vietnam War vet John Kerry testified before the US Senate
*--Army veterans took stand against war [Eye:677-9]
*--USA dissent against Vietnam War intense

<>1971je13:NYT began publication of what came to be known as "The Pentagon Papers" [W-ID]. The era of dissent was electrified
In 1969, [Daniel Ellsberg] photocopied the 7,000 page study [top secret McNamara study of U.S. Decision-making in Vietnam, 1945-68] and gave it to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee; in 1971 he gave it to the New York Times, the Washington Post and 17 other newspapers. His trial, on twelve felony counts posing a possible sentence of 115 years, was dismissed in 1973 on grounds of governmental misconduct against him, which led to the convictions of several White House aides and figured in the impeachment proceedings against President Nixon [Citation from pgf#5 of Ellsberg's brief E=TXT biography]
*2002: Daniel Ellsberg, Secrets? A Memoir of Vietnam and the Pentagon Papers [ E-TXT of preface and ch#1]

<>1971au23:USA corporate lawyer and board member at 11 large enterprises, Lewis F. Powell, published a memo [ TXT] written for his friend Eugene Sydnor, Jr., the Director of the US Chamber of Commerce
*--Never widely publicized in this era of "The Pentagon Paapers", this memo nonetheless became something like a manifesto of the embattled and dissent-minded right-wing of US politics
*--Two months after publication and in part as a result of this influential manifesto, President Nixon nominated Powell to the Supreme Court

<>1972:USSR| As if a prelude to Gorbachev's perestroika [ID], Soviet voluntary societies and other social organizations grew in number
*1976:Aron Shchiglik, Dobrovol'nye obshchestva (1990:English translation, "Voluntary Societies", in UO library)
*--Also see Ts. A. Yampol'skaia

<>1972ja30:Ireland,Derry | Bloody Sunday: UK paratroopers murdered 13 Irish civilians as part of a military suppression of anti-English demonstration, officially excused as action against "terrorism"
*2013no22:RT News on the suppression of the demonstration [E-TXT]
*2016mr01:RT News on continuing legal proceedings against paratroopers [E-TXT]
*2016je09:Guardian| "Loyalist informers smuggled weapons used in dozens of Troubles murders" [E-TXT]

<>1972mr:China | US President Richard Nixon, who built his political career through excoriation of opponents "soft on communism", paid friendly visit to "Communist China"
*--BBC documentary "The Reputation of Richard Nixon" [FLM]

<>1972my26:Moscow summit meeting, after two and a half years of negotiation, the first round of SALT was brought to a conclusion when USA President Nixon and Soviet General Secretary Brezhnev signed the ABM Treaty and the Interim Agreement on strategic offensive arms

<>1972su:USA-USSR agreed to a massive export of wheat to the USSR. Grain merchants made millions, farmers continued to suffer

<>1972se:Georgia [Gruziia in Russian] | Eduard Shevardnadze became First Secretary [General Secretary] of the Georgia Central Committee

<>1973:Germany brought end to decade-old policy of allowing "temporary" immigration of foreign "Gastarbeiters" ("guest workers", largely Turk, but also Spanish, Italian, Greek and Yugoslav)
*--By the 21st century, 10% of the united German population were such guest workers
*--Zehra Onder described Muslim-Turkish Children in Germany: Sociocultural Problems [P20:418]
*1993oc:German journalist Joachim Krautz tried to explain "The Grapes of Neglect--Violence and Xenophobia in Germany" [P20:422]

<>1973se11:CHILE | General Augusto Pinochet with support of USA executive branch, via its CIA, seized power, murdering elected President Salvador Allende
*--An economic boom followed this coup d'etat [Documents]
*--THE PINOCHET CASE | Videotape with Chilean judge Patricio Guzmán who, against all odds, fought to bring Pinochet to justice
*2017oc26: Reuters| "New exhibit reveals declassified documents on U.S. role behind Chile coup" [VIDEO]

<>1973no07:WDC| War Powers Resolution passed by US Congress
*2012ap22:Richard Grimmett, for the Congressional Research Service, The War Powers Resolution: After Thirty-six Years

 <>1974fe:USSR deported Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn. He became émigré and soon settled in USA

<>1974au28:USSR passed new passport rules [PS&C:167-75]

<>1974au:WDC, White House | US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger warned appointed President Gerald Ford that he and his influential White House advisers -- including later Bush-era Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld -- were making a grave mistake to put pressure on the unstable Iranian Shah to lower oil prices
*--Kissinger feared the collapse of the Shah and the rise of yet another "radical regime" in Iran. "We can't tackle him without breaking him", said Kissinger
*--The warning was not heeded. Emerging neo-conservatives in the Ford administration greased the skids for the fall of the Iranian Shah and destabilization of the whole of AfroAsia
*--Andrew Cooper publications
*--LOOP on "AfroAsia"

<>1975:French philosopher and social historian Michel Foucault (1926-1984), Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison
*1982:Progress report on study of "power" [CWC:583-92]
*--Noam Chomsky and others in debate with Foucault
*--A "home-page" website with links to etexts

<>1975ap30:Saigon fell to North Vietnamese military forces, marking end of Vietnam War
*--YouTube "Fall of Saigon"
*--Vietnam came under unified governance with its capital in the North, in Hanoi. Saigon was soon renamed "Ho Chi Minh City"
*--Vietnam now on the road to recovery, having finally slipped the yoke of imperialist dominion over the previous 85 years
*--Thus developments in Vietnam can be understood as an episode in the rise and fall of European mercantilist imperialism over the previous 300+ years, though it could be said that, under new circumstances, European imperialist traditions lived on
*--A USA-oriented and angry website account of "Black April", with many photos [W]

<>1975jy:New York City airports greeted travelers with pamphlets headlined “Welcome to Fear City" and subtitled “A Survival Guide for Visitors to the City of New York”
*--The pamphlet featured a hooded death’s head on the cover and warned “Until things change, stay away from New York City if you possibly can” [W]

<>1975oc:Soviet nuclear physicist and prominent dissent activist Andrei Sakharov awarded Nobel Peace Prize one year after Sakharov Speaks was published [DSC:17-25]
*--The Soviet KGB kept a detailed dossier on Sakharov, The KGB File of Andrei Sakharov [2005oc20:NYR:18-20 review article]
*--As the Vietnam war came to a close for the USA, and as the USSR sank further into the Brezhnev era of "stagnancy", the dozen years of most intense dissent waned [You could consult the Kimball essay on dissent [TXT] or return to it if you hopped onto the dissent LOOP from there]
*--Into the 1980s, dissent continued to play a role in global events

<>1975no:France, the United States, Britain, Germany, Japan and Italy met to discuss economic policies of the "economically most advanced countries"
*1976:Puerto Rico, San Juan Summit| Canada joined these "advanced" countries
*1977:London Summit invited the European Community into the advanced circle
*--Soon they called themselves "G7" [W]
*--GO 1998my15:my17

<>1976:USA =

Two hundred years after declaring its independence from the Old World in order to "be a standing monument and example for the aim and [194/196] imitation of like peoples of other countries", the United States had left the protective shell of its exceptionality, adapting itself to the anarchic and competitive global community of which it now was an integral part. [Theodore Von Laue, The World Revolution of Westernization...]
*--USA, "at a price to itself", was now a leader in the "world revolution of Westernization" [Von Laue:195]
*--"It had also become more like its archrival, the Soviet Union...." [Von Laue:196]
*--Soviet contributions to 20th c. world revolution [Von Laue:232-5]

<>1976:USA CIA Director (and future President), George H. Bush created what came to be known as "Team B", staffed by private "experts" picked by the Nitze group and vetted by US President Gerald Ford's Chief of Staff, Dick Cheney, and the Secretary of Defense, Donald Rumsfeld

<>1976:1983; Argentine military coup brought dictator General Jorge Videla to power. At first supported by USA, Videla oversaw the forced disappearance of up to 30,000 opponents
*2016au05: USA offers Argentina declassified docs on own role in military dictatorship in 1970s-80s — RT News [E-TXT]
*2016au09:USA former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger hindered President Jimmy Carter's effort to end mass killings in Argentina, according to files | The Guardian [E-TXT]

<>1977:USA signed treaty vowing eventually to relinquish Panama Canal
*--Won praise for President Jimmy Carter in Latin America, but yet further serious enmity at home within the military-industrial community

<>1977:USSR adopted new constitution [E-TXT]

<>1978:French sociologist and pundit Jacques Ellul published a defense of "Western" moral values, The Betrayal of the West
*--Ellul did not reject other civilizations or extol Western Civilization =

In fact, I think it absurd to lay claim to superiority of any kind in these matters. What criterion would you apply? What scale of values would you use? I would add that the greatest fault of the West since the seventeenth century has been precisely its belief in its own unqualified superiority in all areas.

The thing, then, that I am protesting against is the silly attitude of western intellectuals [NB! reluctance to capitalize "Western" in this case] in hating their own world and then illogically exalting all other civilizations [excerpts = PWT2:387-91]

<>1978ap:Afghanistan coup d'état led by two pro-Soviet factions of People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan: Khalq ["the masses", rural based] and Parcham ["banner", urban based]. Afghanistan had for fifteen years moved closer to the USSR. The USSR was its biggest trading partner by a wide margin. Now political disorder and rivalry threatened that favorable position
*--"For many educated people in pre-modern societies, communism offered a way of both catching up with and resisting The West; and the ideology had a powerful, and often generous, sponsor in the Soviet Union. But the hasty, ill-adapted borrowings from Soviet communism -- the simplistic notion, for instance, of Afghans as feudal people who had to be turned into proletarians -- more often than not imposed new kinds of pain and trauma...." [2001no15:NYR:19, Pankaj Mishra, "The Making of Afghanistan"]

<>1978ap12:USSR Extraordinary All-Union meeting approved new constitution

<>1979ap01:Iran declared itself an Islamic Republic after the USA creature [ID], Shah Reza Pahlavi, was overthrown and went into exile

<>1979jy:USA President Carter and his National Security Adviser, Zbigniew Brzezinski, took covert steps to involve America in Afghanistan disorder

<>1979de:USSR intervened in Afghanistan, hoping to sustain its influence there and stifle expanding chaos

<>1979de03:Iran, under the leadership of the Shiah Islamic Grand Ayatollah Khomeini, put a new constitution into effect

<>1980s:USA Republican Party campaign manager Lee Atwater pioneered some of the most effective devices whereby the media and the broader public sphere could be manipulated in the promotion of factional political power [W#1 | W#2]. Did Atwater say something like "if it isn't on TV, it didn't happen"?

<>1980au31:Poland | Gdansk industrial labor disturbance; an authentic labor union and movement called Solidarność [Solidarity], under leadership of shipbuilder Lech Walesa [Wałęsa, pronounced "vawENsa"] [W], forced government to sign agreement = (1) wage increases, (2) price rollbacks, (3) right to strike, (4) right to form labor unions, independent of the Polish Communist Party, (5) radio broadcasts of Catholic Mass
*--Inter-Factory Strike Committee of Gdansk Shipyard, The Twenty-One Demands [P20:369 | PWT2:410-13]
*--As in the longer history of European "civil society", labor organization played a leading role in the Warsaw Pact countries in the 1970s-80s
*--"Western" leaders who worked to undermine labor unions in their own countries applauded labor leaders in the Soviet sphere
*2016 Archival discoveries implicate Walesa in collaboration with Polish state police [E-TXT]

<>1981de:Polish President Wojciech Jaruzelski declared martial law, briefly suppressing Polish wage-labor social mobilization, and the Solidarity movement
*--"Western" political leaders, many strongly opposed to wage-labor movements in their own countries, adopted Solidarity and applauded its organized resistance as the sign of the people's righteous resistance to Communist exploitation
*--Through the 1980s in USA, wage laborers witnessed a "sharp rise in the firing of pro-union activists during union organizing campaigns" [2007ja14:Report released by the Center for Economic and Policy Research, based on data from the National Labor Relations Board]
*1980s:English Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher [ID] remembered her victory over the great steel industry strikes [ID]  [P20:393]
*--Wage-labor interests world-wide experienced serious ups and downs in the decades after WW2
*--These trends continued into the following decades

<>1982+: UNO took up question of "fourth world", the situation of indigenous minorities within nation-states dominated by majoritarian ethnic groups [W]

<>1982se14:USA President Reagan ordered overhaul of Secret Emergency Plans and creation of the National Program Office (NPO) which came under the jurisdiction of Vice President (ex-CIA Head) George Bush
*1987:USA House of Representatives Armed Services Committee and the Army began investigations into NPO contract irregularities as the budget for the project approached $8B
*1991no17:CNN broadcast an investigative report which revealed four federal investigations which targeted Tom Golden simply in retaliation for his cooperation with earlier investigations of fraudulent contract and procurement schemes. At this time, NPO still was not operational

<>1982no:USSR | Yuri Andropov became First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party upon the death of Leonid Brezhnev
*--"Stagnancy" [zastoi] obvious to all; need for reform pressing [Example of stagnancy in Eisen:54-9]
*--Nikolai Ryzhkov became a Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party
*--Summary of whole period, 1982-1991 in Miller:38-52; use of KGB (which Yurii Andropov had recently headed) for reformist purposes against organized crime [mafiia], in Walker:139-53]


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