<>1855fe18:1881mr01; Russian Emperor Alexander II reigned for 26 years, characterized by the following two main features =

  1. THE ERA OF GREAT REFORMS [LOOP] and
  2. RUSSIAN REVOLUTIONARY SITUATIONS (The first and the second)
\\
*--Larissa Zakharova, "THE GOVERNMENT AND THE GREAT REFORMS OF THE 1860s" [TXT]
*--W. Bruce Lincoln, In the Vanguard of Reform: Russia's Enlightened Bureaucrats, 1825-1861
*----------. Nikolai Miliutin: An Enlightened Russian Bureaucrat
*--Daniel T. Orlovsky, The Limits of Reform: The Ministry of Internal Affairs in Imperial Russia, 1802-1881 (1981)
*--S. Frederick Starr, Decentralization and Self-Government in Russia, 1830-1870 (1972)
*--N. G. O. Pereira, Tsar-Liberator: Alexander II of Russia, 1818-1881 (1984)
*--E. M. von Almedingen, The Emperor Alexander II (1962)
*--James Malloy, P. A. Valuev and his career in Nineteenth century Russian state service
*--Werner Eugen Mosse, Alexander II and the Modernization of Russia. London:1958
*--Website of Walter Moss, "Alexander II and His Times"

<>1855sp:Russian conservative Konstantin Aksakov (son of Sergei Aksakov and brother of Ivan Aksakov) wrote a memo to Emperor Alexander II, "On the Internal State of Russia" [TXT | Raeff3:231-51]

<>1855:USA| Walt Whitman, Leaves of Grass [TXT]
\\
*--Wagar on Whitman [TXT]

<>1855ja:Shimoda | After losing all but the ship Diana (1806:1812:GO) to needs of the Crimean War, and after great earthquake and tidal wave leveled Shimoda and shipwrecked Diana [Beasley, MHJ:61], in 1855fe07 Putiatin arranged Treaty of Amity (Nichiro Washin Joyaku). Modelled on Kanagawa treaty, recently signed by USA Commander Matthew Perry [KEJ,4:179. PHandG:782]. Lensen thinks Shimoda "provisions" are "more extensive" than Kanagawa [KEJ,6:270]. "Went beyond" by opening 3 ports [KEJ,6:341]. Opened Shimoda, Hakodate, and Nagasaki to Russia, but only for ship repairs and provisioning. BUT did allow posting of consuls at Hakodate or Shimoda Russia chose Hakodate and established reciprocal extra-territoriality. Kurils divided so that Japan held those islands south of Iturup (Etorofu); Russia, those north of Urup (Uruppu) [KEJ,6:270 Lensen. I think he means "S FROM" and "N FROM". NB!:Kurils divided N of Etorofu (KEJ,2:238 Stephan)]. Sakhalin a "common possession" (Lensen) or "jointly occupied" (Stephan) [Harrison, Japan's N.Frontier]. Lensen feels that "relations between Russian residents, mostly personnel of naval vessels wintering in Japan, and local inhabitants were on the whole amicable. As military men, Japanese officials could identify more readily with monarchist naval officers than with merchants or with missionaries [KEJ,6:341]. Lensen goes too far to put Russia in good light. Says 1st lessons in European shipbuilding from Putiatin's stranded crew, but cf.PH&G:766 re.Adams "Anjin"

<>1855my08:Heda, NW coast of Izu Peninsula | Putiatin and 40 men were moved to Heda, built European-style schooner in partnership with Japanese craftsmen, and departed for Russia from Japan (took 2 wks) [KEJ,6:270]

<>1855je16:San Francisco Journal carried article by the German traveler Julius Frobel which stressed parallel rise of USA and Russia

<>1855oc13:1857my21; French intellectuals Edmund and Jules Goncourt kept diary of everyday life in Paris in which they reflected on the inferiority of women [P20:14]

<>1856:1870; Italian unification under the leadership of Camillo di Cavour and Giuseppe Garibaldi

<>1856:Sergei Aksakov published Chronicles of a Russian Family, a remarkable tale of gentry family life in the time of serfdom on the Orenburg, trans-Volga frontier or Bashkir steppes [excerpts= KRR:352-4]

<>1856mr18 (mr30 NS): Treaty of Paris ended Crimean War [VSB,3:606-7 | DPH:197-9 | DIR2:209-20 | ORW:118 | Hurwitz.Diplomacy,1:153-6]

<>1856mr30:Only 12 days after the signing of the Treaty of Paris [above], Russian Emperor Alexander II advised Moscow aristocrats gathered in their provincial noble assembly, "It is better to abolish serfdom from above than to await the time when it will begin to abolish itself from below" [VSB,3:589 | DPH:282]

<>1856de01:USA WDC | Jefferson Davis, USA Secretary of War (1853-57) and future president of the rebellious Confederacy, addressed new challenge faced by a dispirited and idle US military, scattered across the Great Plains in small, vulnerable forts without a specific mission appropriate to its size and ambition as generated in the Mexican-American War [ID]

<>1857ja26:Russian Emperor Alexander II decree laid out plan for vigorous development of railroads [VSB,3:607]

<>1857my10:1858au02; India | Sepoy Rebellion ushered in brutal year of imperialist war which pitted England against an Indian independence movement

<>1857oc11:Nagasaki | Putiatin was back from China where he was working to create a new generation of treaties more favorable to Russia than the old Nerchinsk Treaty. He found no word from Edo

<>1857:1870; In London political exile, the pundit Alexander Herzen was beyond the grip of Russian censorship and free to publish and circulate back in Russia his influential journal of opinion and political news, Kolokol [The Bell] for 13 years, until his death [KMM:165-90 | RRC2,2:321-31 | Excerpts: Edie,1:328-78 | VSB,2:582-4]

<>1858:London exile, as a result of unsuccessful radical republican political activism in Italy, provided Guiseppe Mazzini the opportunity to publish a theoretical and political journal, Pensiero ed Azione [Thought and Action]

<>1858:Leipzig | Russian priest and advocate of greater independence of the Russian Orthodox Church from state control and for general church reforms, I. S. Belliustin, published Description of the Clergy in Rural Russia: The Memoir of a Nineteenth-Century Parish Priest [Excerpt= KRR:336-9]

<>1858my:Russian pundit Nikolai Dobroliubov (-1861), "The Organic Development of Man...." [Raeff3:263-87 | CF=Selected Philosophical Essays | 1859:Review of Nikolai Goncharov's novel about aristocratic indolence, Oblomov | RRC2,2#28 | DIR3:321-5]

<>1858my28:China and Russia signed Aigun treaty; 1858je13:Tientsin treaty [DIR2:257-70 | DIR3:296-304]

<>1858au19:Japan, Edo | Putiatin signed 1st Russian/Japanese treaty of Friendship and Commerce w/Nagai Naomune (1816:1891) Inoue Kiyonao etc

<>1859:1862; Prussian [north German] Ambassador to St. Petersburg court was future architect of German unity, Otto von Bismarck

<>1859:1863; Russian revolutionary situation (the first, lasting 4 years) arose early in the Era of Great Reforms [KRR:430ff | FFS:101-96 (1860:1864 | various petitions etc)]

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

<>1859:England | A remarkable publication year in London [Map of London]
Four characteristic works appeared =

  1. John Stuart Mill, On Liberty [TXT] [CCC2,2:865-93]
  2. Samuel Smiles, Self Help; With Illustrations of Conduct and Perseverance [TXT]
  3. Karl Marx,"Preface to Contribution to a Critique of Political Economy" [Zur Kritik der Politischen Ökonomie (Vorwort)] (the heart of Zur Kritik = indicated [TXT])
  4. Charles Darwin, Origin of Species [TXT] [CCC2,2:625-46 CCC3,2:813-33]

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

<>1859:1869; Egypt, between Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea | French engineer Ferdinand de Lesseps oversaw the ten-year construction of the 100-mile-long Suez Canal

<>1859:Russian folklorist Aleksandr Afanas’ev published Russian Folk Legends [KRR:391-4]. He searched for essential "Russianness" in the rural folk

<>1859fe19:Russia-France treaty of neutrality and cooperation [DIR2:225-6 | DIR3:294-6]

<>1859ap:Caucasus Mountains | Russia rallied in Chechnya and Daghestan after Crimean War [ID]

<>1859my01:Saint Petersburg | Anton Rubinshtein founded the Russian Musical Society

<>1859fa:1862; Russian noble assemblies became mobilization centers of rural gentry politics

<>1859oc16:oc17; VA Harpers Ferry attacked by a guerilla army with anti-slavery zealot John Brown (1800:1859de) at its head

\\
*--David S. Reynolds, John Brown, Abolitionist: The Man Who Killed Slavery, Sparked the Civil War, and Seeded Civil Rights
*--Merrill D. Peterson, John Brown: The Legend Revisited
*--Peggy A. Russo and Paul Finkelman, Terrible Swift Sword: The Legacy of John Brown

<>1860:Japan | After brief eclipse, Kawaji became Interior Minister (commissioner gaikoku bugyo). In 1867, he committed suicide after Edo Castle, seat of Tokugawa regime, fell to Meiji Restoration forces [noPHandG]

<>1860:Siberia | Vladivostok founded
*1860:Asia (Map of Eurasia showing its Political Divisions and also the various Routes of Travel between London and India, China and Japan), S. A. Mitchell, New General Atlas [UO has 1880 edtion]
*--This decorative map represents an early use of the the term "Eurasia". It  includes the Russian Empire, south to India and east to the Philippine and Japanese Islands

<>1860my31:Russian Imperial State Bank was established. It became the greatest commercial bank in the Empire, but it was slow to come alive in the Russian national economy which was itself slow to come alive since it was not given the sort of close attention other areas of "great reforms" got =

The activities of the State Bank of the Russian Empire may be divided into two periods. During the first period (from 1860 to 1894) the State Bank was largely an auxiliary institution of the Finance Ministry. Most of the State Bank resources were absorbed by direct and indirect financing of the Treasury. It was vested with the functions pertaining to the Finance Ministry apparatus: conducting the [emancipation-related] buy-out transactions and handling all paperwork related to them, propping up the state mortgage banks, and so on. Until 1887 the State Bank settled the accounts of pre-reform banks. All settlement operations were conducted at the State Treasury’s expense, which was debtor to these banks, but since the budget deficit made it impossible for the Treasury to provide the necessary funds, until 1872 the State Bank annually used a large part of its commercial profits for these purposes. [W SOURCE]

<>1860no14:Russia and China signed Peking [Beijing] treaty [DIR2:257-70]

<>1860:Russian Slavophile Aleksei Khomiakov died

<>1861:Japan, Hakodate | Russian Orthodox Church founded. The second priest there, Nikolai (1836:1912), was remembered as the founder of Orthodoxy in Japan

<>1861:Ottoman Turkey | Abdul Aziz became Sultan in a time of steep decline of his empire

<>1861ja28:Alexander II addressed State Council urging firm action to bring serf reform to conclusion [VSB,3:599]

<>1861ap01(NS 13):1865; USA Civil War lasted four years

<>1861jy04:Russian great reforms included a new vodka tax-farm system (Polozhenie o piteinom sbore and other financial reforms [RA2:144f and 191f])

<>1861se:Saint Petersburg | Circulation of revolutionary proclamation "To the Young Generation" [VSB,3:639]

<>1861de05:1862fe; Russian gentry in their noble assemblies deliberated on the problem of serf emancipation [FFS:103-113]

<>1862ja25:1863my; Russian peasants submitted petitions [FFS:170-179]1

<>1862fe:Russian novelist Ivan Turgenev published his controversial Otsy i deti [Fathers and Children (or Sons) Translated TXT1 TXT2 TXT3]

<>1862fe05:fe16; Nikolai Chernyshevskii wrote one of his most important political/theoretical pieces, "Unaddressed Letters" [SLM | Q.PSS#10:90-116] [MER 44 246 256 272 277]

<>1862sp:Mysterious fires burned large sections of Petersburg, causing wide-spread panic and providing a pretext for harsh state action against social activists
*--Officials encouraged public outrage by leaking suggestions that the fires were set by "nihilistic" university-student arsonists
*--Whether moderate or radical, whether connected with the fires or not, hundreds were detained, warranted for arrest, and sent into political exile

<>1862my:Revolutionary proclamation "Young Russia" written by the headlong student radical of gentry background, Petr Zaichnevskii [VSB,3:639-41 | Rooney]
*--Another proclamation appeared in these days which was very different from Zaichnevskii's = Chernyshevskii composed "Salute to the Gentry-owned Peasants from their Well-wishers..." [Kimball resumé of contents | Russian TXT]
\\
*--VRR

<>1862my20:USA Homestead Act [TXT] [TXT with commentary] opened vast public lands to emigrants willing to put down roots and make a life for themselves farming

<>1862je06:China suffered further refinement of open ports and open cities policies imposed by imperialist forces -- England, Russia, France, and the Netherlands
*--Two decades later, a new imperialist power, Japan, upset the balance among those that fed on China
*--The old European imperialist powers were in any event themselves growing restless with the status quo in the far east
\\
Beasley,MHJ:80

<>1862su:Russian activist members of fledgling "educated public" were arrested by the hundreds, usually on trumpted up charges (EG= Chernyshevskii and Nikolai Serno-Solov'evich). Leading print-media publications were suppressed (EG= Sovremennik [ID])

<>1862se17:1890mr18(NS); German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck guided Prussia and then German Reich in the 27 years after he served in the Russian capital St.Petersburg [DPH:140-55 | DIR2:289-97]

<>1862se22(NS):USA President Lincoln issued his "Emancipation Proclamation" [TXT#1 | TXT#2] which set a timetable for freeing slaves in specified locales

<>1863:1864; USA National Banking Act [ID]
*--The half century prior to WW1 saw massive expansion in size and scope of international or "globalized" banking

<>1863:1873; French author of pop-art fiction, Jules Verne (1828-1905) glorified the scientific and engineering potential of the industrial era
*1863:Cinq semaines en Ballon
*1864:Voyage au centre de la terre
*1870:Vingt mille lieues sous les mers
*1873:Le Tour du monde en quatre-vingts jours

<>1863:French artists rebelled against the cultural establishment when they opened an exhibit, "Salon des refusés", comprising works refused for official display
*--This marked the beginning of the profoundly influential "impressionist" era in European graphic arts, lasting a quarter of a century [W]
*--Some call the epoch that followed the "post-impressionist" era

<>1863ja23:Polish rebellion reached stage of open armed insurrection against Russian imperialism

<>1863ja:Russian statist journalist and newspaperman Mikhail Katkov wrote patriotic editorials against Revolution in Poland [DIR2:276-83 | DIR3:312-21]

<>1863ap13:Russian Interior Minister Petr Valuev submitted memo on the relationship of state and society, a statist version of "civil society" [Raeff2:122-131

<>1863je18:Russian university reform and other educational reforms [VSB,3:610-11]
*--Russian texts, Obshchii ustav... etc. [RA2:382f, 411f, and 417f]
*--The "great reforms" continued, but notice later official reactionary measures
\\
*--P. Alston, Education and the State in Tsarist Russia
*--Danierl R. Brower, Training the Nihilists: Education and Radicalism in Tsarist Russia
*--Abbott Gleason, Young Russia: The Genesis of Russian Radicalism in the 1860s (1980)
*--Alan Kimball, "Student Interests and Student Politics: Kazan University"

<>1863fa:Russian pundit Chernyshevskii while imprisoned by tsarist authorities published a novel, What Is to Be Done? [1989 translation is better than 1986 | Electronic TXT#1 | TXT#2 | TXT#3]

<>1864:1866; USA | Second railroad act followed first

<>1864:1876; London was the HQ of The International Workingmen's Association [later known as "The First International"]

<>1864:1949au12; Geneva Convention signed as an international treaty, then augmented and perfected over the next nine decades

<>1864wi:Russian novelist Fedor Dostoevsky criticized Chernyshevskii-style materialist philosophy in 1st half of Notes from the Underground [TXT | CF= Edie,2:240-9]
*--Dostoevsky presented one of the first powerful critiques of emerging European "scientistic" trends

<>1864ja01:Russian state made significant concessions to provincial and local public and their need for self administration = The "Zemstvo Reform" [VSB,3:613-4 | DPH:285-7]

<>1864fe19:Polish rebellion allowed Russian officials to pass "progressive" reforms that weakened indigenous Polish resistance to Russian power

<>1864oc29:Russian Foreign Minister Aleksandr Gorchakov distributed to other European powers a memo on Central-Asia [VSB,3:610 | BNE:168-70]

<>1864no:USA CO Ft.Lyon area | In good faith, CO Volunteers Colonel Edward Wynkoop convinced Native American Cheyenne tribe to place selves under protection of the US military [Hutton:56]

<>1864no20:Russian legal reform [VSB,3:614-16] Russian text Uchrezh. sudeb. ustanovlenii [RA2:278f]

<>1864de08(NS):Vatican issued Pope Pius IX's "Syllabus of Errors" [DPH:233-41], including "Errors about civil society, considered both in itself and in its relation to the Church" [237-9]
*--Other Catholic Church/state documents [241-5]

<>1865:1869; Russian novelist at the dawn of world fame, Leo Tolstoy (1828:1910) produced his first great novel War and Peace

<>1865ja11:Moscow noble (gentry) assembly, following the lead of the great landowner V.P. Orlov-Davydov, addressed Alexander II with a request that he complete the zemstvo reforms "by calling together a general assembly of elected representatives from the Russian land" [VSB,3:616 | "Vsepoddaneishii adres moskovskogo dvorianstva" (GRV:201-2)]

<>1865ap06:Russian censorship granted writers, publishers and readers "some degree of relief" in a two-minded reform [VSB,3:616-17]
*--Russian text O darovanii nekotorykh oblegchenii... etc. [RA2:438f and 440f]
*--"Great reforms" continued

<>1865je28:Russian State Council and Interior Ministry reformed laws on Jewish pale, allowing mechanics, distillers, brewers, master craftsmen and artisans in general to live anywhere in the Empire [VSB,3:617-18]

<>1866ja03:Russian financial reform (Vrem. polozh o kontrol [RA2:204f])
*--The deep need for fiscal and military reform was addressed only late in the process
*--Then it had to proceed under the influence of an official reactionary mood that arose following an attempt on the life of the tsar =

<>1866ap04:Russian terrorist Dmitrii Karakozov tried to shoot Alexander II

<>1866:Russian novelist Fedor Dostoevsky published Crime and Punishment [TXT]

<>1866su:USA Assistant Secretary of the Navy Gustavus Fox in Russia [VSB,3:618-20]

<>1866no24:Russian state peasant reform
*--State peasants represented about half the village population of the Empire
*--This reform preserved their advantages over ex-serfs recently emancipated from private gentry ownership [VSB,3:620-1]

<>1867:London | Karl Marx, Das Kapital, volume one, published

<>1867:Paris Universal Exhibition (world's fair)
*--French engineers Léon Droux and Léon Rueff described technological and industrial advancements [BNE:145-6]

<>1867:1876; USA Federal Government imposed Reconstruction Act to administer defeated South for nearly ten years

<>1867mr30:Russia and USA signed treaty selling Alaska to USA [DIR2:284-7]

<>1867ap:Vienna | Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph declared the Empire divided into a "Dual Monarchy", the Austro-Hungarian Empire
*--The newly created dual monarchy went under several names = Wki
*--Franz Joseph maneuvered his complex empire into position for its final half-century flare, an adventure that ended in the catastrophe of WW1

<>1867ap01:India became Crown Colony as rule of the transnational imperialist corporation, The East India Company, was brought to an end

<>1867my:Moscow | Second Slav Congress a critical moment in the shift of Panslavism from cultural doctrine toward Russian imperialist ideology

<>1867jy20:USA WDC | In anticipation of the 67oc21:Great Council treaty gathering in KS Medicine Lodge, Congress created the Indian Peace Commission

<>1867au21(NS):North German Confederation's new Reichstag had delegates August Bebel (1840-1913) and Wilhelm Liebknecht (1826-1900), the first socialists so elected

<>1868:1912; Japan entered into industrial modernization in the 44-year era called "Meiji Restoration"
*--Japanese public figures Fukuzawa Yukichi [ID] and Shibuzawa Eiichi [ID] gave expression to a new entrepreneurial, industrializing and modernizing ethos [SWH:358-63]
*--In another reflection of late 19th-century global trends, Yamagata Arimoto [ID] gave expression to a Japanese variation on militant Chauvinism [ID] [SWH:340-5]
\\
*--Black, Cyril E., et al. The Modernization of Japan and Russia: A Comparative Study

<>1868:1869; Vologda Guberniia, in far NE Russia | Politically exiled philosopher and social theorist Petr Lavrov (1823-1900) wrote Historical Letters [cf. Edie,2:123-69 | VSB,3:650-1]

<>1868:CUBA rebelled unsuccessfully against Spanish version of European imperialism
*--After the independence revolutions of the 1820s [ID], Cuba and Puerto Rico were now all that remained of the Spanish empire in the New World, and a pitiful remainder they were

<>1868:England, London | Herbert Spencer's Social Statics described a new "social Darwinism" with emphasis on "natural selection" and the beneficial results that came from "the survival of the fittest", not just out there in the animal and vegetable world but also in the social world of humans [CCC2,2:727 | CCC3,2:834]

<>1868:Russian pundit Dmitrii Pisarev drowned
*--Pisarev wrote "Nineteenth-Century Scholasticism" (1861), "Bazarov" [a powerful review of Turgenev's novel "Fathers and Children"] (1862), "Flowers of Innocent Humor" (1864), "The Realists" (1864) [ VSB,3:641-3 ]
*--More Pisarev essays, see Edie,2:66-108, and Pisarev, Selected Philosophical, Social and Political Essays
*--Described USA [Plotkin,Pisarev:35f]

<>1868se01:Switzerland | Russian political émigré, the anarchist activist Mikhail Bakunin wrote "Our Program" for the revolutionary journal Narodnoe delo [People's Cause] [VSB,3:644]

<>1868no26:USA Oklahoma Territories, Washita River | General George Custer launched surprise winter-season attack on large Native American village [W] [MAP]

<>1869:1895; Central-Asia | Over these thirty years, Turkmen territories were absorbed into the Russian Empire
*--West of the Black Sea, Balkan tensions mounted as relations deteriorated between Russians and Turks and nationalism waxed among the Slavic peoples under Ottoman dominion
*--The focus of the Great Game shifted to south-eastern Europe and began to concentrate on vast transnational economic issues involved in the coming of the "petroleum era" of global industrialization throughout AfroAsia

<>1869:French democrat Leon Gambetta ran for election and asked electors to draw up a program for him to follow if elected
*--Gambetta's Belleville Program became a model for French democratic politics for years [DPH:309-10]

<>1869:Russian chemist Dmitrii Mendeleev (1834-1907) stated his "periodic law" of the elements

<>1869su:Russian émigré revolutionist Sergei Nechaev wrote program for his revolutionary journal Narodnaia rasprava [People's Vengeance] [VSB,3:647]

<>1869:English political-economist John Stuart Mill, "The Subjection of Women" [TXT]
*--He carried that liberal tradition a great distance toward emerging European social-democratic views
*--John Stuart Mill was the last representative of the century-long "classical economist" tradition, but macro-political-economic analysis continued its heavy influence =

<>1869au:German Marxists rejected Lassalle's radical reformist approach to labor organization, especially its close association with the Bismarckian state

<>1870:Saint Petersburg Association of Russian Playwrights formed with Aleksandr Ostrovskii as president

<>1870:Japan, Tokyo Kyoto Nagasaki and Hakodate. ??ROchx missions estab in JPN. Archbishop Nikolai(861:GO) est. TOK smnandscl. 1st JPN blt svt and ikon specialists
\\
*--Togawa"Russian and Slavic:6
*--KEJ,6:3-4

<>1870:USA | About 32 nation-wide labor unions were in existence
*--Workers were organizing themselves in the face of forceful resistance of industrialists and financiers, and their political allies
*--Self-organized wage-laborers represented a check and balance on self-organized "capitalists"

<>1870:1899; Mature international grain trade fully operational

<>1870je16:Russian urban reform promoted municipal self administration [VSB,3:621-2]

<>1870jy:1871fe; Franco-Prussian war broke out. France humiliated [DPH:200-205]

<>1870jy18(NS):Rome, Vatican City | The Papal See of the Catholic Church handed down a pronouncement on the infallibility of the Pope [DPH:243]

<>1870se04:French Third Republic declared as Louis Napoleon III fell in disgrace [DPH:310-11]
*--Two dark decades in French political life came to an end; but what followed was not all light =

<>1871fe26(NS):France, in the great French national monument, the Versailles Palace near Paris | Treaty signed ending Franco-Prussian war

<>1871:English biologist Charles Darwin published Descent of Man [excerpts = PWT2:227+]

<>1871:1872; Fedor Dostoevsky caricatured Russian revolutionists and their soft-headed allies in his novel The Possessed [cf. Edie,2:240-66]

<>1871sp:Russian Mennonites (German speaking Protestant farming peoples who had lived in Russia for a century) initiated plans to migrate to USA
\\
*--Saul,2:75-85
*--Saul essay [TXT]

<>1871mr18:my28; Paris Commune declared the French capital independent from Third Republic France

<>1871je:Russian Education Minister Dmitrii Tolstoi introduced counter-reform measures only seven years after progressive reform of higher education [ID]

<>1871oc08:oc10; Chicago burned [W]

<>1871fa:1872wi; Russian Grand Duke Aleksei (son of Alexander II) visited USA and, among other things, hunted Buffalo with General George Custer in Kansas
*--Civil War General William Tecumseh Sherman, more recently commander of prairie Indian Territory, returned the visit
\\
Saul,2:54-75

*1872:Brooklyn-born painter John Gast portrayed US movement west, titled "American Progress" [W]

The action sweeps from right to left, as the bright sky drives dark clouds =
We see crowded east-coast ports (the Brooklyn Bridge is discernable) busy with globalized trade
Railroads, stage coaches, and Conestoga wagons course westward, laden with goods and folks from the bustling east
Telegraph lines run from (or to?) a book in the arms of a provocative angel flying westward, Is it a Bible? No, it's Common School [ID]
Farmers follow miners who follow a trapper, as if to predict and thus confirm the "Turner Thesis" [ID]
In front of this onslaught, buffalo and bear (wildlife) and native savages flee from encroaching brightness
No obvious presence of the US military
Its simply the natural force of "American progress" that pressures Native Americans and their dogs out of the way

<>1872:1874; German state in struggle with Catholic Church, the Kulturkampf [DPH:245-50]

<>1872:1883; German composer Richard Wagner created theatre (Festspielhaus) in Bayreuth, Bavaria, where annual music festivals allowed for the first time proper staging of his massive and revolutionary operas

<>1872:USA Senate rejected USA Presidential plan to build a military base in Samoa Islands

<>1872:Japan, Hakodate | First Russian language schools established
*--Russian psalmist Vissarion L'vovich Sartov and Japanese assistant taught languages, math, geography and history in Russian
\\
*--Togawa"Russian and Slavic:5

<>1872:International Workingmen's Association [First International] collapsed

<>1872de:Zurich | If the venerable rebel Bakunin was revived in this new era of revolutionary opposition [ID], 47-year-old Petr Lavrov, ex-artillery Colonel, ex-professor of mathematics, and an aspiring philosopher of notable promise, was now "reborn" as revolutionary ideologist

<>1873:Tokyo | School of Foreign Languages included Russian. ??NB! TOK.unv excluded Russian, showing stt comparative indifference to Russia. Prior to Meiji, 6 samurai svt gt.Russia to std; 868:rtr.JPN and fade away, while std frm zpd and USA bcm sig Meiji srv. BUT this scl hired Mechnikov, Lev (ppl and Ntx1) and one of Russian samurai Ichikawa Bunkichi
\\
Togawa"Russian and Slavic:6-7

<>1873:USA PA Pittsburgh | Scottish-born immigrant Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919) was now eight years into a brilliant career as industrialist, concentrated on building a colossal steel manufacturing enterprise

<>1874:1875; Russian "Going to the People" movement [RRC2,2:344-57] Russian revolutionary populist movement intensified

<>1874:1896; German historian and "chauvinist" ideologist Heinrich von Treitschke dealt with the contradictions between individual freedoms and national unity [ID] by shifting increasingly in the direction of militaristic and nationalistic "chauvinism"

<>1874:China accepted Japanese control of Ryukyu Isl

<>1874:Russian philosopher Vladimir Solov'ev published The Crisis of Western Philosophy
\\
*--Wagar on Solov'ev [TXT]

<>1874:USA, Kansas, Howard Co., Cedar Vale | Wm. Frey (Geims) headed up a Progressive community, a populist commune = Russkaia obshchina [Hasty:54-82]
*--KS prairie described by Grigorii Machtet [Hasty:16-53]
\\
*--Saul,2:213-25

<>1874:USA | John Fiske, Outlines of Cosmic Philosophy, influenced American religious thinkers on the question of the harmony of the Christian faith with the Darwinian concept of biological evolution and with its social corollary, "Social Darwinism"
\\
*--Wagar on Fiske [TXT]

<>1874ja01:Russian military reforms instituted universal military service [VSB,3:625 | RA2:338f = Russian text Ustav o voinskoi povinnosti]

<>1875:1876; Central-Asian Uzbek territories conquered by Russia
*1876:Kyrgyz people also conquered
*--AfroAsia imperialist competition intensified

<>1875:Japan and Imperial Russia in tense negotiations
*--Japan took northern Kuril Islands in exchange for dropping claims on Sakhalin Island
*--Russia was forced to put the "Far-East" on a back burner in order to concentrate attentions on a looming crisis in AfroAsia
\\
*1962:JGO#10:337-48| G. A. Lensen, "Japan and Tsarist Russia: Changing Relationships, 1875-1917"
*1942:LND| B. H. Sumner, Tsardom and Imperialism in the Far East and Middle East, 1880-1914

<>1875:Russian revolutionist in exile, Petr Tkachev published his revolutionary journal Nabat [Tocsin; the alarm bell] [VSB,3:656 | LDH:286-93 | "Nabat (Programma zhurnala)"| GRV:212-19]

<>1875:Russian censorship officials planned restrictions against Ukrainian publications [DIR3:268-70]

<>1875my:German wage-laborers and socialists united to form the Social Democratic Party [SDP] of Germany and to sign their "Gotha Program" [DPH:263-5]

<>1876:Japan forced a trade treaty on Korea which opened two Korean ports
*--As Japanese industrial modernization progressed, so did Japanese imperialist ambitions
*--Japan sought to "Westernize" itself fully

<>1876:USA | Last Federal Troops of occupation left the South as "Reconstruction" came to an end
*--Philadelphia World's Fair (Centennial Exposition) on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the American Revolution
\\
Saul,2:138-43

<>1876:1885; USA and Russia | First decade in which great transnational petroleum corporations consolidated their grip on that industry =

<>1877:1879; Russian author Gleb Uspenskii, Village Diary [RRC2,2#30]

<>1877:English pundit Donald Mackenzie Wallace, Russia [excerpts: VSB,3:626-9 | WRH3:291-375]

<>1877:Russian Samara-Orenburg railroad complete, linking Bashkir steppes east of the middle course of the Volga River to the main lines of Russian transport to the west

<>1877ja28:USA poet Walt Whitman delivered speech "In Memory of Thomas Paine" [TXT]

<>1877ap12:1878jy13; Ottoman and Russian empires engaged in a 15-month-long but vastly significant Russo-Turkish War [MAP]

<>1877su:USA experienced 45 days of intense and wide-spread labor unrest when thousands of railroad workers went on strike [ID]

<>1877:1881; Russian second "revolutionary situation" (4 years) intensified in the months of Russo-Turkish War and expanded into a crisis of Russian revolutionary populism and the beginnings of modern political parties in Russia

<>1877se27:London| Karl Marx to F. A. Sorge on the Russian revolutionary movement =

This [Russian] crisis is a new turning point in European history. Russia--and I have studied conditions there from the original Russian sources, unofficial and official (the latter accessible to but few persons, but obtained for me through friends in Petersburg)--has long been standing on the threshold of an upheaval; all the elements of it are prepared. The gallant Turks have hastened the explosion by years with the thrashing they have inflicted [ID] not merely to the Russian army and Russian finances, but to the very persons of the dynasty commanding the army (the Tsar, the heir to the throne, and six other Romanovs). The upheaval will begin secundum artem [according to the rules of the game], with some playing at constitutionalism, et puis il y aura un beau tapage [and then follows the brawl]. If Mother Nature is not particularly unfavorable towards us, we shall yet live to see the fun!

The stupid nonsense the Russian students are perpetrating is merely a symptom, worthless in itself. [Kazan demonstration, involving future Russian Marxist leader George Plekhanov among others] But it is a symptom. All sections of Russian society are in full decomposition economically, morally, and intellectually.

This time the revolution begins in the East, hitherto the unbroken bulwark and reserve army of counter-revolution [M&E, Selected Corr:374 | Itenberg,RS2:4 selective citation]

<>1878:Russian religious philosopher Vladimir Solov'ev,"Lectures on Godmanhood" [Edie,3:62-84 | KMM:214ff]

<>1878ja24:Saint Petersburg | Vera Zasulich with a pistol wounded Petersburg Governor-General Fedor Trepov

<>1878mr31:A jury trial [sud prisiazhnyi] found Zasulich not guilty

<>1878jy13(NS):Berlin Treaty reversed the San Stefano Treaty [ID] [VSB,3:630-1 | DPH:207-09]

<>1878au04:Petersburg | Sergei Kravchinskii (with assistance of A. I. Barannovskii) killed Third-Section police chief N.V. Mezentsov in broad daylight as he was out walking

<>1878oc18:1879ja23; Petersburg | The great "Trial of the 193" followed soon and lasted three months

<>1878oc21(NS):German Empire outlawed political parties organized by socialists or wage-laborers [DPH:265-6]

<>1878oc25:Russian revolutionary political party "Land and Liberty" [Zemlia i volia] ] issued its final program [VSB,3:662-3 | Russian TXT]

<>1878no:Tver Zemstvo presented address to the tsar =

In his concern for the welfare of the Bulgarian people after their liberation from the Turkish yoke [ID], the sovereign emperor has deemed it necessary to grant this people true self-government, the inviolability of the rights of the individual, an independent judiciary, and freedom of the press. The zemstvo of Tver Province dares to hope that the Russian people, who bore the entire burden of the war with such complete readiness and with such self-sacrificing love for their tsar-emancipator, will be allowed to enjoy the same blessings, which alone can lead them, in the words of the sovereign, along the path of gradual, peaceful, and legal development [VSB,3:634]

<>1879:1880; Russian novelist Fedor Dostoevsky [pix] wrote his most widely acclaimed work Brothers Karamazov
*--Petrozavodsk State University Russian-language complete works of Dostoevsky [W]
\\
*--Wagar on Dostoevsky [TXT]

<>1879:Russian Workers, Northern Union of, issued program in defense of wage-laborer interests [Harding:41f]

<>1879:USA reformer and economic theorist Henry George published Progress and Poverty

<>1879ja11:jy04; South Africa| English imperialist war against powerful but non-industrialized indigenous Zulu people
\\
*--BBC
*--South African History Online (carries the story of Zulu destruction as "sovereign" African people up to 1896)
*--Wki

<>1879fe:Russia| Kharkov Governor-General D. N. Kropotkin was assassinated

<>1879my02:Moscow Medical Practitioners' School for Women [BRW:196-7]

<>1880:Russia enforced corporal punishment in military [Page]

<>1880ja01:Russian revolutionary political party "People's Will" [Narodnaia volia] issued program, written mainly by Lev Tikhomirov, Nikolai Morozov, and Aleksandr Mikhailov [SLM:207-212 | VSB,3:664 | Kennan,Siberia,2:495-503 | WRH3:399-402 | DIR2:309-13 | DIR3:335-9 | RN7,2:170-4 | "Programma ispolnitel’nogo komiteta" (GRV:229]

<>1880je08:Moscow | Leading cultural figures pulled together a large Pushkin Commemoration

<>1880de:Geok-Tepe, a Turkmen stronghold in Central-Asia, captured by Russian army

<>1881:Ottoman Turkish sultan Abdul Hamid II agreed to "Decree of Muharrem" which created joint "Council of the Public Debt", further consolidating English fiscal power over the Turks [ID]

<>1881:USA, Pittsburgh | Leaders of National Labor Union, Knights of Industry, and Knights of Labor formed Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions of the United States and Canada

<>1881:Tver activist Fedor Rodichev memo on peasantry [*1934ja:SEER#12,35:361-2]

<>1881ja28:Russian state servitor Count Loris-Melikov, memo to Emperor Alexander II [Raeff2:133-40]

<>1881wi:Nikolai Kibal’chich [ID] wrote an article on political revolution and the economic question [SLM:212-8]

<>1881fe15(NS):German chancellor Bismarck's opening speech to the Reichstag [parliament] [CCC2,2:835f CCC3,2:1005-6]

<>1881mr01:Russian Emperor Alexander II was assassinated [RRC2,2:368-77]

Spas na krovi [The Savior on the Blood]
A cathedral build in Petersburg on the spot
where Emperor Alexander II was assassinated
spas.na.krovi.gif (42565 bytes)

<>1881mr02:1894; Russian Emperor Alexander III reigned in a time of official reactionary policy [ID] following the second revolutionary situation and terrorist assassination of his father, Alexander II, the "tsar liberator"

<>1881mr08(NS):German chancellor Bismarck's justification for the first accident insurance bill, a component of a wider program of social welfare [CCC3,2:1007-10 | DPH:266-8]
*1884mr10:Bismarck speech on the need to promote the welfare of wage-laborers [PWT2:192-4]

<>1881mr10:Russian revolutionary political party Narodnaia volia [People's Will] wrote letter to new Emperor Alexander III [DIR2:313-16 | DIR3:359-63]

Execution of terrorists involved in the assassination of Alexander II,
including Andrei Zheliabov

<>1881sp:Ivan Aksakov repeated Panslav and Slavophile themes in his "Address to...Benevolent Slav Society" [KMM:112-15 | RRC2,2#32]

<>1881ap29:Alexander III's manifesto reaffirmed inviolability of autocracy [VSB,3:680]

<>1881au14:Russian statute sought to strengthen law and order [VSB,3:680-1]
*--The tsarist state sought to reaffirm what it took to be the fundamental truths of Russian politics
*--These truths were increasingly embodied in reactionary policy, but occasionally in certain reform measures

<>1881oc:Russian revolutionary groups Narodnaia volia and Chernyi peredel' joined forces to compose a program [DPH:288-9]
*1881fa:1882wi; Narodnaia volia Military-revolutionary organization composed a Program [SLM:238 | RN7,2:196-200]

<>1882:Switzerland | Friedrich Engels published Socialism: Utopian and Scientific, a summary of Marxism published in the last year of Marx's life [CCC3,2:701-24 | CCS:775-801 | CCS,2:265-291]

<>1882:1890; Russian welfare legislation (child labor [TXT], working hours, factory inspection) [VSB,3:752-4 | cf. RRC2,2#36]

<>1882my02:je09; Russian state sought to give relief to its Jewish subjects [VSB,3:682]

<>1882my18:Russian statute established Peasant Land Bank [TXT] | VSB,3:751]

<>1883:USA and world tours of ex-frontier scout William Frederick Cody ("Buffalo Bill") and his Wild West Show got under way

<>1883:1891; Switzerland | German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) published his most influential work, Also sprach Zarathustra [TXT]

Nietz.totenmask.jpg (16175 bytes)

Nietzsche's Death Mask
Which calls to mind the finest-ever graffito that I personally saw =
*1965su:On the entrance to the NYC subway at the main gate of Columbia University, someone had written =
"God is dead -- Nietzsche"
Just below this, someone else wrote =
"Nietzsche is dead -- God"

<>1883je27:France | Ivan Turgenev letter to Leo Tolstoy (Turgenev's last letter) [GPR:627-8]

<>1884:English theorist Herbert Spencer, The Man Versus the State [PWT2:179-80 | P20:6]
*--Spencer continued to develop his concepts of "Social Darwinism" and aquisitive individualism

<>1884:Geneva | Russian émigré Marxist Georgii Plekhanov, "Our Differences" [TXT | Excerpts = Edie,3:359-89 | VSB,3:705-7 | SPW]

<>1884my:Paris | Sarah Bernhardt (1844-1923) thrilled audiences with her popular portrayal of Lady Macbeth in a stunning French translation of the Shakespeare tragedy

<>1884au23:Russian University statute [VSB,3:682-4] reversed reformist gains in the 1863 University statute [ID]
*--By placing new restrictions on university life, the tsarist state pursued a recognizable reactionary policy goal to reserve "careers open to talent" only for presumed old regime elites rather than for an increasingly dynamic Russian population at large

<>1884fa:Korean court struggles roused Japanese and Chinese appetites and caused tensions [Beasley,MHJ:161]
*--Paul George von Molendorff, a high-ranking German administrator or "adviser" within the Korean government, tried to draw Russia into conflict [KEJ,6:341]
\\
*--George Alexander Lensen, Balance of intrigue: international rivalry in Korea and Manchuria, 1884-1899 (1982)

<>1885:USA Congregationalist minister Josiah Strong wrote Our Country (purchased by 185,000 readers [Zimmerman:46])

<>1885:1901; Asian kerosene market the scene of a 15-year competition among emerging transnational petroleum corporations

<>1885fe26(NS):Berlin Conference agreed on General Act whereby European imperialist powers settled on a division of Africa among them

<>1885ap21:je03; Russian government established Nobles' Land Bank [VSB,3:751-2]

<>1886:French journalist, racist (particularly anti-Jewish) and rabid conservative Édouard Drumont published La France Juive [Jewish France, excerpt in P20:32]

<>1886:Russian musician Vasilii Andreev began to appear in public with his popular balalaika orchestra [ID]
*--Pop-arts were often linked with nostalgia for the pre-industrial or "folk" world
*--Also with an awakening of a broad public interest in art that treated simple every-day life ubiquities

<>1886my04:USA Chicago, Haymarket Square the site of violent labor disorder

<>1886je06:Russian Finance Minister Nikolai Bunge [ID] took leading role in creation of the first Russian labor code [TXT]

<>1886se12:USA NYC | The World#27:13. Anonymous article, "Theosophy in New York: Facts about Mme. Blavatsky, Her Powers and Her Religion" [TXT]

<>1887:German theorist of peasant origins, Ferdinand Tönnies, wrote powerful and influential critique of modernizing/industrializing society, Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft [Community and Society] [CCS:227-51 | CCS,1:543-67]

<>1887:USA reading public was captivated by Leo Tolstoy or, more accurately, "Tolstoyanism", which exploded into a virtual "Tolstoy craze"

<>1887:Russian religious thinker Konstantin Leont'ev became a monk [cf. Edie,2:271-80]
\\
*--Stephen Lukashevich, Konstantin Leontiev (1831-1891):A Study in Russian "Heroic Vitalism" (NYC:1967) SUMMIT

<>1887mr01: Here on the sixth anniversary of Alexander II's assassination, Aleksandr Ulianov (Lenin's older brother) was arrested with others who were planning the assassination of the dead tsar's son and heir, Alexander III
*--Terrorism had slackened, but had not disappeared from Russian political culture
\\
*--Philip Pomper, Lenin's Brother

<>1888:Russian publicist Lev Tikhomirov [ID], an ex-leader of revolutionary terrorist party [ID] now on his way toward a new loyalty to his tsar, published a revealing interpretation Russia, Political and Social [v1 E-TXT | v2 E-TXT | Bad translation of 1886:PRS|_La Russie, politique et sociale
\\
*--Two remarkable website entries feature Tikhomirov and his holy transition from terror to regious reactionary support of the Russian Imperial throne, but they do not mention his big book above = Wki and "The Mad Monarchist"

<>1889:Russian philosopher Vladimir Solov'ev on Slavophilism, and "On Sins and Ailments" [VSB,3:731-3]
*1885:Ivan Kramskoi portrait of Solov'ev in Olga's Gallery

<>1889:1905; Russian statesman Sergei Witte came to St.Petersburg from Odessa as head of the railroad department of the Finance Ministry

Russian Imperial Industrial Revolution
[Russian language website with primary and secondary documents]
[TXT on general European industrialization]

Some images of Russian industrialization =
Moscow Peasant women factory workers [pix]
Moscow Factory dormitory [pix]
Petersburg on banks of the Neva River | Cotton Mill [pix]
Petersburg, same factory, peasant workers [pix]
Moscow Morozov Factory hiring hall [pix]
Baku Oil field [pix]
Siberian gold mine [pix]
Central-Asian petroleum pipelines [pix]

<>1889:English stevedores, longshoremen and other unskilled dockers organized massive and finally successful strike, marking the beginning of modern wage-labor union movement in England

<>1889:USA Theodore Roosevelt published The Winning of the West

<>1889ja01:USA NV Paiute native, Wovoka, fell into a trance and had visions that became the basis of a new mystery religion called the "Ghost Dance"
*--Within a year, the Native American reservations on the Great Plains were alive with Ghost Dancers

<>1889je:USA journal North American Review published article "The Gospel of Wealth" [TXT | Excerpts = CCC2,2:803f CCC3,2:885-99], written by industrialist Andrew Carnegie

<>1889jy12:Russian counter-reform measures established "firm governmental authority" in the villages, in the form of Zemskie nachal'niki [Land Captains] [VSB,3:687-8]

<>1889:Paris World's Exposition on the centennial of the Great French Revolution was less focused on "liberty, equality and fraternity" than on the muscular accomplishments of economic progress
*--This world's fair followed in the emerging tradition by featured the newly built steely symbol of French industrial modernization, the Eiffel Tower

<>1889jy14:jy20; Paris | In the year of the Paris Exposition, an equally global or universal-minded organization, the Second International, held its founding congress

<>1889se:USA, Chicago | From an 1892 speech by founder Jane Addams, Hull House was described in the following way=

It represented no association, but was opened by two women, backed by many friends, in the belief that the mere foothold of a house, easily accessible, ample in space, hospitable and tolerant in spirit, situated in the midst of the large foreign colonies which so easily isolate themselves in American cities, would be in itself a serviceable thing for Chicago. Hull House endeavors to make social intercourse express the growing sense of the economic unity of society. It is an effort to add the social function to democracy [boldface added to highlight sense of "civil society" embedding in Addams' comments]. It was opened on the theory that the dependence of classes on each other is reciprocal; and that as "the social relation is essentially a reciprocal relation, it gave a form of expression that has peculiar value" ["The Subjective Necessity for Social Settlements" (TXT)]

<>1890:African Cape Colony under the control of English imperialist adventurer and free-wheeling colonial entrepreneur Cecil Rhodes
*1888:1889; Documents describe Rhodes administration [CCC3,2:1138-49 | CCC2,2:841f]

<>1890:English public activist William Booth, founder of the Salvation Army, published In Darkest England and the Way Out
*--William Booth compared the degradation and suffering of English wage-laborers with those of the peoples of Africa under imperial/colonial subjugation [PWT2:173-6]

<>1890:Finland brought more tightly under Russian imperialist control

<>1890:French imperialist legislator and occasional Prime Minister Jules Ferry stated sacred claim to Vietnam in Le Tonkin et la Mère-Patrie [E-TXT] =

Colonial policy is the child of the industrial revolution. For wealthy countries where capital abounds and accumulates fast, where industry is expanding steadily, where even agriculture must become mechanized in order to survive, exports are essential for public prosperity. Both demand for labor and scope for capital investment depend on the foreign market ... All over the world, beyond the Vosges, and across the Atlantic, the raising of high tariffs has resulted in an increasing volume of manufactured goods, the disappearance of traditional markets, and the appearance of fierce competition. Countries react by raising their own tariff barriers, but that is not enough [...] The protectionist system, unless accompanied by a serious colonial policy, is like a steam engine without a safety valve [...] The European consumer market is saturated; unless we declare modern society bankrupt and prepare, at the dawn of the twentieth century, for its liquidation by revolution (the consequences of which we can scarcely foresee), new consumer markets will have to be created in other parts of the world. [...] Colonial policy is an international manifestation of the eternal laws of competition [Heineman, Readings in European History:184]
*1870s:Ferry held liberal views on democratic education [CCC2,2:512-21 | CCC3,2:1030-]
*1884mr28:French Chamber of Deputies heard Ferry speech on the need for French imperial expansion [E-TXT]
*1885jy28:The Chamber heard Ferry on the question of French interests in Madagascar [BNE:174-9]

<>1890:Russian mathematician Sonia Kovalevskaia described her everyday life in A Russian Childhood, a significant account of women's education

<>1890:USA naval strategist Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan published The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783 [TXT]

<>1890:USA Harvard University Professor William James (1842-1910) marked the beginning of an epoch in American intellectual history with the publication of Principles of Psychology

<>1890mr18:German Emperor dismissed Chancellor Otto von Bismarck [DPH:271-4]
*--This dismayed many contemporaries [pix]
*--Bismarck's public career of 30 years, one of the most decisive and brilliant in the European 19th century, was at its end
\\
*--George Frost Kennan, The Decline of Bismarck's European Order: Franco-Russian Relations, 1875-1890

<>1890je12:Russian Zemstvo electoral and voting laws were altered

<>1890jy02:USA passed Sherman Anti-Trust Act [Wki]
*--The Act was originally intended for use against large corporations and other business conglomerates [ID] engaged in the unchecked pursuit of their own perceived interests
*--But the Act was more frequently and effectively employed against wage-laborers who sought to organize themselves in the pursuit of their own perceived interests
*--NB! these words on the question of "trust" in market-economic transactions [*2009:W-TXT]

<>1890de15:SD Standing Rock Reservation, not far from his family cabin, Sitting Bull was killed by US Government Agency forces in connection with the policy of forceful suppression of native religious practice

<>1891:English artist, craftsman and writer William Morris published his novel in the "utopian" tradition, News from Nowhere, or , An Epoch of Rest [TXT]

<>1891:Russian scholar Maksim Kovalevskii published Modern Customs and Ancient Laws in Russia [TXT]

<>1891:1892; Russian famine
*--Not long before, Finance Minister Ivan Vyshnegradskii foolishly stated, "We may starve, but we WILL export". Who did he mean by "we"?
*--Also not long before, the reactionary state took steps to confine Zemstvo operations [EG], severely limiting the ability of Russia to deal with famine
*--Nizhnii-Novgorod region| Pioneer Russian news-photographer Maksim Petrovich Dmitriev recorded village and urban life in this difficult time [pix#1 (opening pix is of a mirskoi skhod [village assembly) | pix#2]. News photos presented the suffering of the peasantry as only quality photographic realism can, immediate and horribly beautiful =

Dmitriev photo of dying peasant woman

\\
*--Saul,2:335-64
*--R. G. Robbins, Famine in Russia, 1891-1892: The Imperial Government Responds to a Crisis

<>1891:1903; Russia | Trans-Siberia railroad, after a half-century delay, nearly completed in nine years

<>1891:USA traveler and lecturer George Kennan published Siberia and the Exile System with its powerful condemnation of Russian tsarist state's oppression by means of removal and frontier development in Siberia [Excerpts: VSB,3:684-7 | WRH3:387-404]
*--As that great symbol of progressive modernization -- the Trans-Siberian Railroad -- reached for Pacific shores, Siberian exile expressed but another facet of reactionary state policy

<>1891my01:Russian industrial workers delivered and listened to speeches on May Day [Harding:84-91]
*1891fe04:French Labor Party and the National Federation of Trade Unions urged French workers to join the international labor day of protest (May Day) against miserable conditions of wage-laborers [BNE:146-7] GO my15

<>1891my11:Japan, Otsu | Terrorist Tsuda Sanzo, an escort policeman, slightly wounded future Russian Emperor Nicholas II during state visit
*--Kojima Iken, Supreme court, ruled against the death penalty, showing unusual independence of the law and its courts, but also diplomatic slight to Russia
\\
*--KEJ

<>1891my15:Vatican issued Pope Leo XIII's radical encyclical Rerum novarum [TXT]

<>1891oc:German Social-Democratic Party adopted its Erfurt Program [DPH:274-7]
*--German miner Nikolaus Osterroth wrote later memoirs about his first confrontation with the Social Democratic Party [PWT2:170-3]

<>1892:1894; Russian religious philosopher Vladimir Solov'ev published The Meaning of Love [Excerpts = Edie,3:85-98]

<>1892:Geneva | Russian Marxist Georgii Plekhanov published On the Tasks of the Socialists in the Campaign against Famine in Russia [VSB,3:708-9]

<>1892je11:Tsarist state revised the 1870 city-duma reform statute

<>1892jy04:USA | Platform of the Progressive or Populist Party addressed central issue of economic inequality and criticized the growing role of government in fostering and protecting that inequality

<>1892jy06:USA Homestead Strike (near Pittsburgh) [W#1 | W#2]

<>1894ja04(NS):France and Russia signed secret military treaty, based on an earlier (1892au17[NS]) military convention [Fay, Origins,1:118-9 | DIR2:358-9 | DIR3:405-7]

<>1893:1934; Russian cultural phenomenon, lasting nearly a half-century, called "The Silver Age"

<>1893:English theorist Thomas Huxley published Evolution and Ethics [excerpts = CCC3,2:855-66] which encouraged application of Darwinian biology to the analysis of human morality and behavior

<>1893:French philosopher and social critic Elie Halévy (1870-1937) and associates (largely from the elitist Ecole Normale) founded Revue de métaphysique et de morale

<>1893:French sociologist Émile Durkheim published The Division of Labor in Society [Excerpts = CCS,1:483-515]

<>1893:Hawaiian Islands under control of USA sugar plantation owner

<>1893:Russian government focused on industrial companies when it launched a review of national manufacturing industry and trade [CCC2,2:603-10]

<>1893my01:Chicago World's Fair (Columbian Exposition)

<>1893de14:Russian law restricted peasant ability to buy or sell land independently from village community [VSB,3:756]
*--Reactionary policy resisted evolution of independent peasant farmers just as the Siberian frontier opened for them
*1893:English traveler F. J. Wishaw, Out of Doors in Tsarland described peasant village life [WRH3:426-34]
*1894:Konstantin Korovin painting of wintry scene, a sleigh in front of peasant hut, in Olga's Gallery

<>1894:USA NYC | William Dean Howells published a utopian novel, A Traveler from Altruria

<>1894:NYC,Harper| USA Progressive Era muckraking journalist and critic, Henry Demarest Lloyd, published Wealth against the Commonwealth, a general warning about how newly arisen giant corporations ("wealth"), especially Standard Oil, threatened democratic civil society ("the commonwealth")
*--He warned against US/Russian collusion to control the world's oil supply [ID]

<>1894:English journalist William Thomas Stead [ID] published Chicago Today: The Labour War in America [TXT]

<>1894:1895; Manchuria. China and Japan at war

<>1894ja04:France and Russia signed secret military treaty [Fay, Origins,1:118-9 | DIR2:358-9]

<>1894ja22;1897mr31; English Parliamentarian Joseph Chamberlain delivered three rousing imperialist and racist speeches, The British Empire: Colonial Commerce ... [P20:23 | PWT2:213-15] English version of European imperialism

<>1894je:Korea revolted against imperialist Japan and asked China for help. Japan sent troops

<>1894su:USA Pullman Strike (south of Chicago) became a national crisis

<>1894oc20:1917mr; Russian Emperor Nicholas II, the last tsar and emperor, reigned for a quarter century that can be summarized in the following fashion =

<>1895ja17:ja19; Tver liberals addressed new tsar Nicholas II about need for representative government, and Nicholas replied with rebuke of their "senseless dreams" about a constitution in Russia  [*1934ja:SEER#12,35:349-50 & 352-4]
*--To the dismay a a large segment of the Russian educated population, Nicholas seemed to be saying that reactionary policy would continue as before

<>1895fe12:Petersburg New Port strike leaflet

<>1895:1908; English pundit, historian and sociologist, H.G. Wells (Herbert George, 1866-1946) wrote fantastic science-fiction, often projecting a future in a prophetic tone, sometimes utopian, sometimes dystopian

<>1895:USA efficiency expert Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915) delivered a technical paper to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, "A Piece-Rate System: A Step toward Partial Solution of the Labor Problem"

<>1895mr061895mr06:German Reichstag heard racist (particularly anti-Semitic [ID]) speech by Hermann Ahlwardt, The Semitic Versus the Teutonic Race [P20:30]

<>1895ap13:Kansas, Salina | Eighth-grade final exam [W]
*--Universal and compulsory public education, at least through the eighth grade, was a central component of the Progressive Era

<>1895ap23:Japan and China brought their war to a close

<>1895my19:Cuban revolution against Spain led by Jose Marti from USA

<>1895je02:Russian women trained to become doctors at the Petersburg Women's Medical Institute [BRW:197-9]

<>1896:1916; Central-Asian expansion over two decades brought Russian power into Kazakhstan
\\
*--G. J. Demko, The Russian Colonization of Kazakhstan, 1896-1916

<>1896:Austria | Hungarian-born Jewish leader Theodor Herzl (1860-1904), Der Judenstaat [The Jewish State, (TXT)]
*--Soon a Zionist movement arose in favor of the creation of a Jewish nation-state, preferably in Palestine

<>1896:French philosopher Alfred Fouillée criticized dominant positivist traditions of European thought in Le mouvement idéaliste et la réaction contre la science positive [BMC4:618-23]
*--Science, or shouldn't we say "scientism", was coming under increasing critical scrutiny

<>1896:Russian Procurator of the Holy Synod [ID] Konstantin Pobedonostsev, Reflections of a Russian Statesman [TXT] gave expression to the most extreme official reactionary views on modernization of Russian life [CF= VSB,3:736-9 | WRH3:434-46 | RRC2,2:390-401]

<>1896mr01:Ethiopia defeated aggressive and reckless imperialist Italy
*--A shocking moment in which a non-European peoples defeated a "Western" aggressor
*--Ethiopia was the only African nation to defeat an invading European colonial power in the age of imperialism [W]

<>1896ap19:Saint Petersburg League for the Struggle to Emancipate the Working Class, secretly organized by Russian Marxists in the previous year, issued a proclamation [VSB,3:709]
*--The Russian Social Democratic Workers Party [SDs] was coming into existence, and in these months, future SDs were active in labor strikes [Harding:121-208]

<>1896my22:Moscow | Russia-China treaty was hostile to interests of Japan and Manchuria [DIR2:360-2 | DIR3:407-9]

<>1896je:Saint Petersburg labor strikes [MR&C2:350]

<>1896je09:Japan and Russia signed Yamagata-Lobanov Agreement, apparently guaranteeing Korean independence
*--Russian-Japanese relations seemed deceptively harmonious as they jockeyed with one another to cash in on China's weakness and for advantage in Manchuria, Korea, Sakhalin and the southern Kuril Islands

<>1896jy09:Chicago, at the Democratic Party's National Convention | William Jennings Bryan delivered his stirring oration against what he thought was an urban elitist assault on rural America, "Cross of Gold" [TXT]
*1896:USA Chicago | Russian visitor Vladimir Korolenko recorded his impressions of wage-labor conditions in a US "Factory of Death" [Hasty:83-94]
*--Vladimir Korolenko, History of My Contemporary (memoirs of his upbringing and youthful populist radicalism up to 1885, concentrating on the years of Siberian exile)
\\
*1918:In the last year of her life, the Polish-born German Social Democrat Rosa Luxemburg wrote an appreciative review article devoted to the German translation of Korolenko's autobiography [W-TXT]

<>1896jy31:London | French and German ambassadors to England met for long and serious (though informal) conversation about how their two nations might be marginalized by recent global developments

<>1896au26:Ottoman Bank in Istanbul seized by squad of Armenian separatists, a remarkable act of urban guerilla warfare [W]
*--NB! The Ottoman Empire's central bank was run by an English diplomat (an auxiliary feature of the financial imperialism, the "capitulations" that served English interests so well, especially right there holding the keys to the vaults of "The Sick Man of Europe")

<>1896au26:Philippine Islands rebelled against Spain

<>1896au31:Leo Tolstoy wrote open letter [TXT] with political advice to Russian liberals who were upset because of Russian reactionary state actions to shut down volunteer societies devoted to cultural life

<>1897:1899; Russian philosopher Vladimir Solov'ev, Foundations of Theoretical Philosophy [Edie,3:99-134 | VSB,3:732]
*--"The Enemy from the East" and "The Russian National Ideal" in RRS:41-60
*--Excerpts [VSB,3:731-3]

<>1897:French sociologist Émile Durkheim published Suicide: A Study in Sociology [CCS,1:383-420]

<>1897:Italian nationalist and imperialist political figure Ferdinando Martini reacted to Italian defeat on the borders of Ethiopia [CCC2,2:571f]

<>1897ja28:Russia conducted first modern census, Obshchii svod po Imperii rezul’tatov razrabotok dannykh pervoi vseobshchei perepisi naseleniia, proizvedennoi 28 ianvaria 1897 goda
*--The Perepis' counted 129 million (13 million in cities) [CF= RRC2,2#38] Translated title page [W]
*--Eastview Press reprinted the census on CD and described "the first and last census of the Russian Empire". Its initiator was the famous Russian geographer and public figure Petr Semenov-Tian-Shanskii. He lobbied three decades to make this census happen. To test and improve the census questionnaire, he conducted an experimental census on his family country estate, Gremiachka. The final version of the questionnaire was designed for a household and included 14 questions. The announced goal of the census was "to learn more about the population and to study it … to understand precisely the various conditions of popular life". It was also promised that the census would not "generate new taxes or other burden". The 1897 Census continues to be the most authentic source on the number of Russia’s population and its ethnic composition at the end of the 19th century
*--Red Book of the Peoples of the Russian Empire provides population statistics for almost 90 "minority" peoples of Russia

<>1897je02:Russian factory law [TXT] expanded on previous welfare legislation [VSB,3:719]
*--Reactionary policy mixed with "progressive" reform

<>1898:France rocked by "Dreyfus Affair" (with its origins in 1894 and final resolution not until 1906)

<>1898:German Social Democrat Eduard Bernstein, Evolutionary Socialism [TXT~ | Excerpt = CCC2,2:934-8 | CCC3,2:971-5]
*--Bernstein was a moderate influence in the Second International
*1899:He published a reply to his critics, The Preconditions of Socialism
\\
*1994my06:TLS:27 | A summary of the main "revisions" that Bernstein is thought to have made in Marxist socialist ideology and tactics [TXT]

<>1898:Russian Foreign Affairs Minister Murav'ev [Muraviev] to Cassini, with Cassini reply to Murav'ev and Lamsdorf [Zabriskie]

<>1898:USA Chicago | Theodore Roosevelt delivered speech "The Strenuous Life" [CCC3,2:1127-37]

<>1898:1902; Russian Riazan Provincial peasant village the subject of intensive ethnographic study designed by Olga Tian-Shanskaia and K.V. Nikolaevskii
*--Results were published as Village Life in Late Tsarist Russia
*--In the half-century preceding the 1905 Revolution, Russian ethnography made tremendous strides toward full and accurate ethnographic description of Russian village life and culture. See Reeder (2nd ed.):85-104 (agriculture-ritual songs) and 109-136 (love, marriage, family)
\\
*--Mironov,1:123-196 subjects the history of imperial Russian family life, rural and urban, to close scrutiny

<>1898ja01:Spain launched a reform of Cuban administration, designed to introduce self-rule to the island
*1898fe:Puerto Rico granted independence
*--No one much liked these seemingly progressive measures = It was too little too late for stumbling Spanish imperialism

<>1898fe15:Spanish imperial colonial territory, Cuba, Havana Harbor | USA Battleship Maine exploded and sank

<>1898mr:1898ap; USA pursued a dual policy in the Cuban situation =

<>1898mr:China leased Port Arthur to Russia, Kiaochow to Germany and Kowloon to England

<>1898mr01:Russian Social-Democratic Workers' Party [SDs] opened first congress in Minsk
*--The SDs issued a proclamation, written from a Marxist perspective [VSB,3:709-10]

<>1898ap10:Egypt | Eyewitness accounts of the English attack southward against the Sudanese at the Atbara River

<>1898ap25:Japan displeased with Russian/Chinese agreement in Liaotung Peninsula region (Port Arthur)

<>1898ap25:USA declared war on Spain
*--Tensions with Russia mounted as the Spanish-American war got under way
\\
*--Library of Congress narrative, a part of a multi-page website devoted to the Spanish-American War
*--Saul,2:421-51
*1998sp:WWQ#22,2:42-65 | Warren Zimmerman (Z was 1989:1992; US ambassador to Yugoslavia)

<>1898my01:Philippine Islands, Manila Bay | USA Admiral George Dewey destroyed Spanish Pacific fleet

<>1898jy01:Cuba | Rough Riders with Teddy Roosevelt fought the Battle of El Caney
*--James Creelman described the battle and the USA author Steven Crane described the aftermath [Eye:407-9]
*--Roosevelt had recently resigned as Assistant Secretary of the Navy (in part responsible for the vigorous expansion of US naval readiness for war, and for the way the Maine was loaded with fuel and powder [ID])
*--He now decked himself out in a new Brooks Brothers uniform and charged onto the pages of history

<>1898jy03:Cuba, Santiago Bay | USA fleet captured entire Spanish Caribbean fleet.

<>1898jy07:Hawaiian Islands annexed to USA as territory

<>1898jy08:Puerto Rico Islands come under US imperialist administration

<>1898se:USA journal North American Review | Charles A. Conant published "The Economic Basis of 'Imperialism' " [TXT]

<>1898se16:USA Senator from Indiana Albert Beveridge delivered campaign speech "The March of the Flag" [TXT]

<>1898oc14:Moscow Art Theatre founded by Konstantin Stanislavskii [real name=Alekseev] and Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko
*--Russian homepage
*--VIDEOTAPE history of the Moscow Art Theatre
*--Russian playwright Anton Chekhov, with his sparse language and quotidian themes, seemed at odds with contemporary avant-garde trends in the fine arts
*1899:1900; Maksim Gorky (1868:1936; real name "Aleksei Maksimovich Peshkov"; "Gor'kii" means "bitter") had been a struggling provincial writer (born in Nizhnii Novgorod). He now made the acquaintance of Chekhov and the great novelist Leo Tolstoy and, with his distinctly radical social and political ideas, he broke into the capital-city big-time. A few years later, Gorky wrote brilliant memoirs of his early acquaintance with Chekhov [TXT#1 | TXT#2]], Leo Tolstoy [TXT], Aleksandr Blok and Leonid Andreev. [Webpage devoted to Gorky]
*1902:Moscow Art Theatre production of Gorky's play, THE LOWER DEPTHS [Na dne] won international fame. At some odds with the prevailing sensibilities of the Russian "Silver Age", Maksim Gorky dealt with the Russian lower classes, the laboring poor of the neglected Russian backwaters, and did so in an increasingly "realistic" or descriptive style
\\
*--W. H. Bruford, Chekhov and His Russia: A Sociological Study (1947)

<>1898oc18:USA, Chicago Peace Jubilee | AFL President Samuel Gompers delivered speech which expressed labor union dissent, "Imperialism--Its Dangers and Wrongs"

<>1898de10:Paris Treaty. Spain ceded Philippine Islands, Guam Islands and Puerto Rico to USA. Spain renounced sovereignty over CUBA and USA established military governance there

<>1899:USA PA Pittsburgh | Andrew Carnegie consolidated his vast steel holdings and created Carnegie Steel Company

<>1899:USA sociologist, born of émigré Norwegian farmers in Minnesota, Thorstein Veblen defined and criticized The Theory of the Leisure Class [CCS:699-725 | CCS,2:126-52]
*--Nostalgia for life "down on the farm" had become a persistent feature the world around within modernizing political-economic systems

<>1899:1902; Philippine-USA War
*--Charles A. Conant published his analysis of the new USA imperialism, The United States in the Orient: The Nature of the Economic Problem (1900)

<>1899:1908; China market now felt new USA presence. US imperialism had its distinct economic side
*--Compare 10-year change in Russian and USA kerosene export (in millions of gallons) [Laserson:324]:

 Russia

 from 25 to

3.0

88% decrease

 USA  from 42 to

122.0

195%  increase

<>1899:Atlantic crossing to New World. Russian anthropologist Vladimir Bogoraz [ID] visited USA [Hasty:95-110]
*--Bograz crossed USA from coast to coast by rail. Wrote on "Black student" [Hasty:111-27]

<>1899:England | Russian émigré anarchist philosopher Petr Kropotkin [ID] Memoirs of a Revolutionist
*--USA anarchist (Russian émigré in NYC since teenage years, factory worker) Emma Goldman (1869-1940) into the first decade of her 50-year activist career [W]
\\
*--Vivian Gornick, Emma Goldman: revolution as a Way of Life

<>1899:German (English-born) dilettante cultural figure Houston Stewart Chamberlain (1855-1926) championed "Pan-Teutonism", a political and cultural association based on crude racist presumptions, as expressed in Foundations of the Nineteenth Century [BMC1:554-7 | BMC4:606-10]

<>1899:Hague Conferences [W] (International Peace Conference) proposed by Russia [DPH:215-20]
*--Conferences sought to reduce armaments and monitor peace treaties
*--Conferences created Permanent Court of Arbitration (Hague Tribunal) to mediate international discord
*--USA opposed because international arbitration or enforceable international law seemed a threat to nation-state sovereignty and to US imperialist ambitions
*--Second Hague Conference

<>1899:Russian Finance Minister Sergei Witte memo to Emperor Nicholas II, "Autocracy and Zemstvo" [TXT]
*--The profound ambiguities embedded in Witte's memo can be taken as a signal of impending political crisis in the highest ranks of the state bureaucracy. Over the previous two decades of largely reactionary policy, frequent contradictory and arguably "progressive" state actions had been taken. The time had now arisen in which the contradictions (as that between centralized autocracy and flourishing institutions of local and provincial self-administration) could no longer be brushed over
*--Witte's remarkable pamphlet aroused the political exile Vladimir Lenin to new polemical/theoretical heights as he was completing his massive study of the Russian economy
*--Zemstvos came under attack from all sides, left and right, as the tsarist state wavered

<>1899fe:English writer Rudyard Kipling celebrated manly virtues and touted Anglo-Saxon imperialism with his poem "The White Man's Burden", published in McClure's Magazine [E-TXT#1 | E-TXT#2]

<>1899fe08:Saint Petersburg University hit by student demonstrations
*--Over the next three years, the student movement spread to other institutions of higher learning and intensified [VSB,3:739-41]
*--University student unrest was a harbinger of the 1905 Revolution, and the tsarist state perceived it as such

<>1899mr:Russian political exile Vladimir Lenin published The Development of Capitalism in Russia [W TXT], based on careful analysis of Zemstvo statistics on the village-level and region-level agricultural economy

<>1899mr20:Canada, Ottawa | Down and out D.H. Davies described how he had a foot severed while trying to jump a train [Eye:409-11]

<>1899mr22:Russian Finance Minister Sergei Witte submitted another significant report to Emperor Nicholas II

<>1899jy:USA President McKinley appointed Elihu Root, a prominent member of the USA imperialist party, to the War Department for the purposes of administering the islands taken from Spain [W]

<>1899se06:USA proposed "Open Door" policy [TXT] to Germany, Russia, England, Japan, Italy and France, one of the first US foreign policy initiatives to gain immediate international attention, if not assent

<>1899fa:1902my31; South Africa| English/Dutch [Afrikaaner] imperialist/colonial Boer War

<>1900:Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud published Interpretation of Dreams [TXT]
*--Freud was at the beginning of a public career that transformed modern ideas about how the mind works [CCC2,2:1061 | CWC:155 | CCS:73,623]
*--JANUS COLLECTION
*--While "Western" power shot outward, "Western" consciousness ducked inward

<>1900:English mathematician Karl Pearson delivered lecture "National Life from the Standpoint of Science" [ID], in which he explained the meaning of social Darwinism and expounded the cause of eugenics [ID], with emphasis on selective breeding of the very best "stock" [PWT2:215-17]
*--In voguish contemporary scientistic terminology, Pearson justified the re-imposition of medieval concepts of inherent status by birth, as well as European racism and imperialism
*--Pearson was proud of his "free-thinker" reputation and his association with the English socialist movement
*--Eugenics was at the beginning of a sorrowful career through the first half of the 20th century
*--Hop ahead a half century

<>1900:USA census counted 76 million (17 million immigrants). EG= Mennonites, Jews
*--Michael Kraus, The North Atlantic Civilization:151-80 presents documents and commentary on the immigrant experience
*1845:1846; Scottish minister described emigration from his point of view. Also German emigration explained [BNE:155-8]
\\
*--Charles A. Ward, et al., eds., Studies in Ethnicity: The East European Experience in America

<>1900je:China | Boxer Rebellion [W] occupied capital city Peking [then called Peiping; now Beijing]
\\
*--Robert Bickers, The Scramble for China (2011)
*--Joseph Esherick, The Origins of the Boxer Uprising (1987)

<>1900je:German Imperial Naval Act (#2) passed with goal of building vast, modern oceanic navy to rival English dominance of the high seas
*--Satirical journal Simplicissmus satarized Admiral von Tirpitz and Kaiser Wilhelm II [pix]

<>1900je:Russian state continued its campaign against Zemstvos

<>1900jy04:USA, KS City Democratic Party National Convention. William Jennings Bryan delivered speech [TXT] against US imperialism
*--The American "two-party" system was under great strain to accommodate the several varieties of political interest and opinion growing within the old political party system in the Progressive Era

<>1900se19:Russian Chief Gendarme, Count Viacheslav Plehve, received and eventually approved a secret report by Sergei Zubatov, Chief of the Moscow bureau of the Okhrana [secret anti-revolutionary police]

<>1900oc:1905fa;; Saint Petersburg | Russian Assembly [Russkoe sobranie] as the first large "nationalistic" public reactionary political party

<>1901fe:Moscow the site of a secret conference of Zemstvo activists

<>1901:1906; Spanish-born painter Pablo Picasso: blue and rose period

<>1901:Polish-born English-language novelist Joseph Conrad published his provocative fiction Heart of Darkness [TXT] set in the Belgian Congo

<>1901:Panama Canal project was transferred by treaty from England to USA

<>1901je:Japan | Ito Hirobumi [PH&G:217-8] replaced by Katsura Taro, protege of Yamagata Aritoma [PH&G:741]
*1901:1904; Russian/Japanese diplomatic exchanges [White, The Diplomacy of the Russo-Japanese War:349ff]

<>1901je:Russian émigré theorist in Switzerland, fresh from Siberian exile, Lenin published analysis "THE PERSECUTORS OF THE ZEMSTVO AND THE HANNIBALS OF LIBERALISM" [TXT]

<>1901no:1901de; Japanese negotiator Ito and Russian negotiator Lamsdorf tried to rebalance Russia-Manchuria Japan-Korea exchange, but failed, propelling Japan diplomatically into arms of England [Beasley,MHJ:169-70]

<>1901de12:Canada, Newfoundland | Marconi described waiting for the first trans-Atlantic radio signal [Eye:414]

<>1902:French "decadent" literary figure and nationalist ideologue Maurice Barrès [ID] published Scènes et doctrines du nationalisme [CCC2,2:522f | CCC3,2:1040-4]

<>1902:Geneva | Vladimir Il'ich Lenin published "What's to be Done?" [TXT | Excerpts = CCC3,2:976-86 | DIR2:363-78 | VSB,3:710-11 | BBMC1:620-2]

<>1902:London | Russian émigré anarchist Peter Kropotkin, Mutual Aid, a Factor of Evolution, refuted Spencerian notion of "social Darwinism"

<>1902:Russian political thinker Maksim Kovalevskii published Russian political institutions; the growth and development of these institutions from the beginnings of Russian history to the present time (1902) [EXCERPTS]

<>1902:USA | Great coal strike forced into arbitration by President Theodore Roosevelt
*--National Association of Manufacturers [NAM], etc., resisted
*--Courts used 1890:Sherman Anti-Trust Act [ID] against labor unions and the organizational efforts of wage-laborers
*--Coal was still, after nearly two centuries the central energy component of national industrial modernization
*--However, the petroleum products were increasingly sought as replacement for coal energy [Brief 3-hop sub-LOOP on "coal"]

<>1902se:USA journal National Review published a piece by Alfred Thayer Mahan which put into wide circulation the artificial "compass-point" geographical term "Middle East" [AfroAsia in SAC (ID)]

<>1902ja:je; USA citizens were jolted by emerging details of imperialist atrocities committed by US forces in the Philippines during the Spanish American War [ID]

<>1902ja30:Anglo-Japanese Alliance
\\
One historian of Japan wrote that this Anglo-Japanese Alliance, plus Russo-Japanese War, made Japan very "Western" and, at the same time, very "anti-Western". Pressure from Europe and US,

brought revenge, self-confidence and a sense of mission. Japan was set on the road that was to make her in the following forty years an exemplar of Western civilization, transplanted; a champion of Asia against "The West"; and the megalomaniac builder of an empire overseas [Beasley,MHJ:173]

<>1902mr26 (NS=ap08):Chinese/Russian agreement said Russian troops would leave Manchuria after 18 months, but they stayed on the Manchurian frontier, now a bone of contention between Russia, China and Japan (with increasing USA economic presence and constant English and German diplomatic entanglement)

<>1902ap:Russian Interior Minister D. S. Sipiagin was assassinated
*--Sipiagin's assassin was a member of the newly organized mass Party of Socialists-Revolutionaries [SRs], which from the beginning served as home for a group dedicated to violent struggle by means of terror
*--The group was called "The Battle Organization" [Boevaia organizatsiia | Two-paragraph ID]
*--The specter of political terror again raised its head twenty years after the assassination of Alexander II
*--Notorious statist reactionary Police Chief Viacheslav Plehve replaced Sipiagin and was the last gasp of official reactionary policy
\\
*--Jonathan Daly [ID] helps explain how harsh and arbitrary bureaucratic (rather than judicial) incarceration and punishment can provoke "terrorism" [Begin TXT w/first full pgf]
*--Amy Knight, "Female Terrorists in the Russian Socialist Revolutionary Party" [TXT]

<>1902my:Russia/Ukraine, Poltava and Kharkov provinces | Peasant disturbances provoked new Interior Minister Plehve to take reprisals [MR&C2:369]

<>1902je08:1905; Germany, Stuttgart | Russian émigré publication "Liberation" [Osvobozhdenie] was for three years edited by Petr Struve and expressed Russian strenuously oppositional liberal political viewpoint of the Union of Liberation [VSB,3:721-4]

<>1902je25:Russian Social Revolutionary Party [SRs] political proclamation [VSB,3:719]

<>1902jy02:jy03; Russian Zemstvo activist Dmitrii Shipov met with Plehve and Witte to discuss possible truce and cooperation [GFF:691-703]

<>1902au:Russian commander Kuropatkin report on political "propaganda" within the Russian military [MR&C2:373-4]

<>1902de30:Russian State Council met to discuss economic problems [MR&C2:373-4,325-6]

<>1903:1904; TIBET the object of Russian and English competition as Chinese authority waned

<>1903:English mathematician, philosopher, pacifist and anti-dogmatist Bertrand Russell published his essay, "A Free Man's Worship" [CCC3,2:1213-20]

<>1903mr:Dmitrii Shipov met a second time with Plehve and Witte

<>1903mr20:Finnish autonomy further limited by Russian imperialist decree, reacting to mounting nationalist independence sentiment in Finland [VSB,3:701]

<>1903ap06:ap07; The Kishinev Pogrom [TXT]. Jews suffered one of the most severe of several pogroms [maltreatment and even murder at the hands of irregular gangs who invaded and terrorized Jewish settlements] [VSB,3:698-701 | PWT2:205-8]

<>1903my:Siberian city Ufa's Governor-General Bogdanovich was assassinated by political terrorist

<>1903su:Manchuria "Russian Lumber Company" sent "workers" (actually soldiers in disguise) down the Trans-Siberian Railroad to enforce Russian business interests in the far east

<>1903jy17:Brussels and London | Russian SDs Congress #2 issued program [McC1:25-8 | H05:263-8 | VSB,3:711-13]

<>1903au31:Plehve wrote revealing letter to retired General Aleksandr Kireev, in response to Kireev's Slavophile critique of Plehve's official reactionary policies [VSB,3:701-2]

<>1903no:Russia | Union of Zemstvo Constitutionalists [Soiuz Zemtsev-Konstitutsionalistov] founded
*--The liberal movement continued organize itself within Zemstvo institutions
*--It appeared now as a political party, not abroad but in Russia itself

<>1903no18:USA treaty authorized seizure of Panama Canal Zone [TXT]
*--South American nation Columbia had the Zone cut out of its hide by a USA sponsored separatist revolution

 

Return to top
Next SAC

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|