I - i

in-cóókì [Purko]   Nom pl: ín-cókî. n.pl. 1 • Turns at herding ?

2 • Many herds. Ɛ́ɨ́mâ dúóó incókî náabá ánàà sínyáí ɛnɛ. Herds of cattle as numerous as the sand passed here. (Pk). See: in-coó Herds; in-kíshú Cattle, cows.

i   Letter representing the Maa high front advanced tongue root vowel /i/.

ɨ   Letter representing the Maa high front non-advanced tongue root vowel /ɪ/.

ɨ-   pn.b. Pronominal prefix indicating second person subject and no object (on intransitive verbs), or third person or plural object (on transitive verbs). Ɨ́dʉ́t kʉnâ saên. You (sg) will choose among these beads. (SN). Ɨ́sʉmá embólúnotó eoŋúán. (You should) Read (Study) chapter four. (W). Ɨ́dʉ́tʉ́dɨ̀t kʉnâ saên. You (pl) will choose among these beads. (SN). Áɨ́dɔ́lɨ́dɔ́lɔ̀ ajá áɨ̀m ɛntɛ́mátá. You (pl) will see that I will pass the exam. [polite] (W). LING: Note that the stem is Class II ɨsʉm 'read'; but addition of the singular imperative does not result in a long initial syllable. ...peê irík obô ...so that you can lead (go along with) one (of us). LING: According to Rasmussen (2002), the second person prefix is, itself, toneless. Though it most frequently surfaces with a High tone, this is due to spreading of High onto it from the verb stem. In certain subjunctive contexts, it surfaces with Low due to the Subjunctive Low. The difference between second person singular and second person plural is indicated by reduplication of the verb stem and/or tone at the end of the verb.

1   num. Third person plural suffix. Késesekúánaɨ. People are just killing each other. (C) [PL suffix after Middle -a]. Kégóli kʉná bólùnòt olêŋ. These chapters are very hard. (W). LING: The plural number suffix and impersonal passive suffix are identical in form, and are historically related (Greenberg 1959). Though not all sentences with third person plural subjects take the final PL suffix, for some intransitive sentences it is preferred. Thus, some W speakers reject *Kégól kʉná bólùnòt olêŋ. 'These chapters are very hard.

2   Variant: -i-. voi. 1 • Impersonal passive suffix. LING: The impersonal passive suffix most likely has an underlying High tone. However, surface tone on the suffix varies by derivational pattern of the word (and possibly by dialect). Compare the following from W: entókì najóí [na-jo-ɨ FREL-say-PASS] 'sth. that will be said'. entókì natejókì [na-tV-jo-ak-ɨ FREL-PF-say-PF-PASS] 'sth. that was said'. entókì najóítoi [na-jo-ɨ́tà-ɨ FREL-say-PROG-PASS] 'sth. that is being said'. ••• Despite one statement to the contrary in TM (1955), we have found no evidence that the Maa Impersonal Passive construction allows expression of an Agent in a tɛ̀ Oblique phrase. Only the Patient may be expressed, in its Accusative case tone. The passive developed from a third-person plural suffix (Greenberg 1959). (Note that infinitives occurring in a passive sentence require the plural form, even if the Patient is singular.) The plural/passive ambiguity is still present today (also note the alternate pronunciations for a single speaker; W dialect): Néjî tááisérè. (i) 'It will be said tomorrow.' (ii) 'They will say it tomorrow.' O Néjì tááisérè. (i) 'It will be said tomorrow.' (ii) 'They will say it tomorrow.'. Ɛgɨ́ráɨ́ áàùn ɛnkají. The house is being erected. (Pk). Ɛnyaálɨ̀ olcúmà mɛtáà íjio ɛnkɨkɛ́. The iron bar is to be chewed to make a brush. Ágɨ́ra aanyʉ́ máayakɨnɨ̂ peê atúm ashɔ́mɔ̀. I am waiting to be given it so that I can go. (Pk). Meyíóloi. It is unknown. (W). Ɛnkányɨ̀t oshî erikíékì ɛnkɔ́p. By respect the world is ruled. (Pk). Nɛ́ararɨ́ mɛshɔ́mɔ̀ He will be forced to go. Néíbukorí, néítèjò osíwùò. They were poured out and the wind took them. LING: In the following, -ɨ́ occurs twice, in the nominal relative clause eneikoní, and in néréwí. The Subject of the first inflected verb is 1SG, but 1SG does not carry over as the formal subject of the subsequent clauses. 'Car' occurs in the Accusative form, as expected in the Impersonal Passive construction. Áɨ́bʉ́ŋà eneikoní tɛ̀ néréwí ɛngárrɨ̀ tɛ̀ siadí. 'I have discovered how a car is driven in reverse.' (e.g. perhaps I have been trying for several days and finally figured it out.) (lit: I have caught that which is done of a car driven of behind.) (W). LING: In the following, ɨ́ co-occurs with the Antipassive suffix ɨshɔ(r): Órè oshî ɛnkátá naáíjo ɛnâ náshâ néunishôî. 'In a season like this of rain, planting is done.' (Pk). See: -ɨshɔ Antipassive suffix.

ɨ́-1   Variant: í-. vblz. Prefix which derives stative verbs from adjectives. In some dialects the resulting stative verbs can only inflect for third person. With some forms and for some speakers, ɨ́- yields a verb meaning "somewhat [concept]". Nɛ́dɔ̀l ajó éísidai. He saw that it was good. Eisíntèt. It is pinkish. (W). LING: Compare: Ɛ́rá sintêt. It is pink. (W). Kéíkúmò kʉlɔ́ ránkaûn. These whistling thorn trees are many. (SN). Ɛɨpádàn ɨlɔ́ mʉrraní ɨ́nâ mótonyî. That warrior will precisely shoot that bird. (W). Usage: See usage note at ra 'be'.. LING: Though the resulting verbs formally look like Class II verb stems carrying an initial i- formative, the two types of verbs are distinct in several ways: (a) Class II verbs inflect for all persons; (b) Class II verbs include both stative and active inherent aspect types; (c) removal of the i- formative from Class II verb stems generally does not yield any synchronic morpheme.

ɨ́-4   pn.b. Second person singular imperative. LING: The 2nd person singular imperative prefix appears to carry lexical High tone, differently from the non-imperative 2nd person form, which gets its High tone by spreading from a High tone to its right (Rasmussen 2000).

-ɨ́   mood. Imperative and subjunctive verb suffix. Tɔ́bɔɨnáɨ́ Take it away from me by redirecting it elsewhere. Tɨ́pɨkakákɨ̀ ɨ́nâ dúóó kurmán ɛnkɨkámpù peê anapíé. [tɪ́pɪ̀kàkákɪ̀ ɪ̀nà dúóó] Put for me the maize flour in the basket so I can carry it (with it). (Pk). Mmɛɨpʉ́táí áɨ́kata inê amʉ̂ eúlulû nɛ́mɛ́ɛ́tà enkítíŋótó. You can never fill there because it is a bottomless pit. (Pk). Nyáakɨ́ shɔ́mɔ̀ íyakɨ́ ɛnkákùìyìà ɛnkʉrmá. Go again and bring maize to your grandmother. (W). Nyáakɨ́ shɔ́mɔ̀ íyakákɨ̀ ɛnkʉrmá. Go again and get me maize. (W).

ol-iaatúà   Nom sg: ol-íaatúà. Acc pl: il-iaatuaní. Nom pl: il-íaatuaní. n. 1 • Inner wall.

2 • Wall. See: ɛ-sʉntâî Outside wall; ɔl-mɛ́kɛ́kɛ̂ Reinforcing wall.

a-ɨbá   In some suffixed forms: a-ɨbár. v v.aux+subjn-infinitive. 1 • To hate, dislike. Kɛ́ɨ́bà. He hates him. (S). Áɨ́bá emisimísi. I hate the darkness. (W). Áíbáyìè. I have hated.

2 • [Chamus] To be harmful. tɛ̀ néíbàyù ɨltʉ́ŋáná ɨná kɔ̀p when that land becomes harmful to people.

a-ibayíé   [North] To hate s.o./sth. See: áà-ɨ̀bàrò To hate each other; a-ɨbayú To come to dislike; ɛn-kɨbá Hatred; ɛ-naɨbá nkasís Sth. disadvantaged or problematic; ɛnaɨbá ɛnkáí Sth. disadvantaged or problematic.

a-ɨbaɨshɔ́   v. To hate others; hate the company of others. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔltʉ́ŋání ɔ́ɨ́báɨ́shɔ̀ akɛparí. The person full of hatred is staying alone. (Pk).

a-ɨbakɨbák   3.PF: ɛ-ɨbaábaa. v.prog. 1 • To move in a sinuous, spiral, or circular course; deviating from a straight course. Káɨ́bákɨ́bákɨ́tà aló Nairobi. I am wandering all over the place on my way to Nairobi. Áɨ́báábaa apaásh ɛnkɨ́má. I wandered to avoid the fire.

2 • To be verbally evasive, beat about the bush, not hit the nail on the head; speak in a manner marked by obliqueness or indirection. Téjò eníyíéú míntókì aɨbakɨbák. Say what you want don't be evasive. See: a-ɨbɔtɨbɔ́t To evade.

a-ɨbalá   [àybàlá] v.mid. 1 • To be conspicuous. Áɨbálà! I am conspicuous! (Pk) [This could be said by a European in a crowd of Blacks.]. Áɨ́bálɛ̀. I became conspicuous. (W). ɔltʉŋánì ɔɨbálà A person who is conspicuous.

2 • [West] To be likely or obvious that sth. will happen. Kɛ́ɨ́bálà ɨlɔmɔ́n. That thing (referred to) will happen. (S). Ɛɨbálà ɛncân tááisérè. It is clear that it will rain tomorrow. (W).

3 • To be unambiguous, obvious, plain, clear, evident. Kɛ́ɨ́bálà enkoitóí nálò sokónì? Is the route that goes to the market clear? (W).

4 • [North] To be an orange color. See: bárláí Orange color.

a-ibalayú   To become apparent; become clear.

a-ibalakinyɛ́   To make it clear for him/her/ it.

a-ɨbalʉnyɛ́   To come to be clear.

a-ɨbalaanyaá   v. 1 • To gradually light up the surface of the earth by the sun; become dawn. Áɨ́nyɔ̀ peê ɛɨbalaanyáà. I woke up when it started dawning.

2 • To gradually increase the frequency of groaning when an animal or person is dying (the groaning itself may decrease in volume).

3 • To gradually increase the frequency of snoring.

a-ibalaanyarí   To lie flat on the ground or bed with hands and legs stretched out. See: a-ɨdalaány To spread out, as of legs; a-ɨdɛlarí To spread oneself out.

a-ɨbalayíé   v. To clear. See: a-ɨtawáŋ To clear.

a-ɨbalɨbál   v. To shine, glitter.

a-ɨbalunyíé   v. 1 • To reveal, make clear. Ɛɨbálúnyíé ɔláígúɛ́nání ɛmbáɛ̀ naisudóro The chief has revealed the issue that was hidden.

2 • To be about to rise. Usage: sun, moon. Eibalúnye ndáma. The sun is about to rise. (S). Eibalúnye séran. The moon is about to rise. (S).

áà-ɨ̀bàrò   v.mid.pl. To hate each other. Kéíbáro. They hate each other. See: a-ɨbá To dislike, hate; a-ɨbayú To come to dislike.

a-ɨbárt   v. To watch over, take care of.

a-ɨbartɨcó [North]   [North] To be on the alert.

a-ɨbartʉ́ [North]   1 • [North] To look for, search for.

2 • [North] To look at sth. as it approaches.

a-ɨbatisá   Variant: a-ɨpatisá. v. To baptise; administer baptism to. Eibatísaɨ ɨltʉ́ŋáná tɛ̀ kánìsà. Peple are babtised at church.

enk-ibatisó [North]   n. [North] Baptism.

a-ɨbayú   To come to dislike. See: a-ɨbá To dislike, hate; áà-ɨ̀bàrò To hate each other.

a-ɨbɛbɛ́k   v. To be watery, dilute. Ɛɨbɛbɛ́k ɛndá sháì amʉ̂ eitú ɛ́pɨ́kɨ́ kʉlɛ́. That tea is light because it has no milk in it. (W). LING: W (kk) prefers this verb form with distal determined subjects, and does not allow it with proximal determined subjects. The latter instead take a-bɛbɛ́k. See: a-bɛbɛ́k To be diluted.

a-ibél   v. 1 • To roll sth. onto another side. aibél osóít To roll the stone. See: a-ibelibél To rock from side to side; a-ɨbɛlɛkɛ́ny To turn over.

2 • To change direction of sth. aibél inkíshú To change the direction the cows are taking.

a-ɨbɛlɛkɛ́ny   v. 1 • To turn sth. over; turn around. a-ɨbɛlɛkɛ́ny emotí To stir sth. in a pot (while cooking).

2 • To alter, change sth. a-ɨbɛlɛkɛ́ny ɨnkɨlánì To change dressing. a-ɨbɛlɛkɛ́ny ilkigerót To alter writings.

a-ɨbɛlɛkɛ́ny inkíshú   To cross-breed cows.

a-ɨbɛlɛkɛnyá   v.mid. 1 • To turn self over while sleeping.

2 • To alter self. Ɛɨbɛlɛ́kɛnya Kenya eríkore olárì lɛ̂ 2002. Kenya has changed its leadership in the year 2002.

3 • To turn around, reverse path of travel.

4 • To go back on one's word.

5 • To reverse behavior; repent. ɨlɔɔ́ɨ́bɛlɛkɛnyátɛ̀ áàìŋùà ɨntɔrrɔ̂k those who have changed to leave evil (C). See: ɔl-áɨ́bɛ́lɛ́kɛ́nyànì Interpreter; changer; a-manaá To turn; a-iwuatiwúát To change.

a-ibeleléŋ   v. 1 • To upset, overturn.

2 • To roll.

a-ibeleleŋokí   To roll into.

a-ibelibél   v. To rock from side to side. Ɛgɨ́rà aibelibél ɛmɨ́sà ashɨ́l. S/he is turning the table side to side to scrutinize it. See: a-ibél To roll.

a-ɨbɛlɨbɛlɛkɛnyá   v.mid. 1 • To keep on changing. Ɛɨbɛlɨbɛlɛ́kɛ́nyá ɨlɔmɔ́n lɛ́nà kɔ́p. The news in this land keeps on changing.

2 • To roll over and continue rolling in one direction. The rolling is not 'back and forth'.

a-ibeloó   v. To make something fall. Kéíbukórì kʉ́lɛ̀ tenímbelóo enkúkúrí. Milk will spill out if you make the calabash fall.

a-ibelorí   v. To fall down; drop. Kɛ́dányà ɛnkɨ́làsì tenéíbelórì A glass will break if it fall down.

a-ɨbɨbɨ́   v. 1 • To suck (fruit etc.). This might be done to get liquid out of a fruit where the flesh is inedible. Kɛ́nyɔ́r imótonyí áaibibíá ɨntapʉ́kà. Birds like to suck the flowers. See: a-nák To suck mother's milk.

2 • To reduce the weight of sth. Ɛɨbɨ́bɨ̀ Bíitíá osésèn lɔ́ ltʉŋánì. AIDS increasingly reduces the weight of a person's body.

a-ɨbíbɨa   v.mid. To increasingly become thin.

a-ibiitiá   v. To have health slowly decline, reduce in size; become very thin due to illness. Ɛgɨ́rà aibiitiá. It is taking him away slowly. Áaibiitíàà bíitíá. AIDS will wear me out slowly.

a-ibiitiarí   [àybììtìàɾí, [tìà] is one mora, though not palatalized [tyà] v.mid. To go down in health, fail to grow, despite food. Kɛ́gɨ́rà ɛná kɛráí aibiitiarí. This child is going down and down in health.

a-ibíl   v. 1 • To come loose.

2 • To fall off. Kébílò. It has fallen off. (e.g. meat falling off a bone after boiling a long time) (S). Kéíbilo mpɛrɛ́. The spear blade came off.

3 • To fade. Ɛnkɨlâ náíbìl emúà A cloth that changes color. See: a-pukú To come off; get out.

a-ibír [North]   1 • [North] To fail to meet the desired goals.

2 • [North] To fail to germinate (of plants).

3 • [North] To fail to rain at an expected time of the year. See: a-ibirú To abort.

a-ɨbɨrɨ́sh [South]   v. 1 • [South] To be without appetite or desire to eat.

2 • [South] To be proud; stay aloof. See: a-bɨrɨ́ To sip.

a-ibirú   [North]: a-ɨbɨrʉ́. v. 1 • To miscarry, abort. Eibíru. She will miscarry.

2 • To give birth prematurely. Kɛ́ɨ́bɨ́rʉ́à She has give birth prematurely. (S). This can be used of any female, human or animal.

a-ibiruníé   To cause an abortion.

a-ɨbɨrrɨbɨ́rr   v. To think about, ponder, consider. See: a-damʉ́ To think.

a-ɨbɨ́s   v. To sob; whimper.

a-ɨbɨsɨbɨ́s   1 • To leak; seep out. Ɛgɨ́rà oltóô aɨbɨsɨbɨ́s. The barrel is leaking.

2 • To keep on sobbing. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɛráí aɨbɨsɨbɨ́s. The child is sobbing.

a-ibisíóŋ [North]   v. [North] To be sick. Ɨmɛdáa ɛnkɨ́tɛŋ náíbisíòŋ. A cow that is sick can not eat grass. (L). Syn: a-múéí To be sick; a-nyaalá To be ill.

a-ibók   PF: a-iboó. PL IMP: ímbooi. v. To hinder, detain, prevent, block sth. Éíbòk. He will hinder it. aibók entorróní peê mépúkú To prevent a wrong from happening. Mbóoó 'Block him!'. Ɛ́mboó lɛ́lɔ́ ashɔ́ mɛ́pùò áànàk. Prevent those calves from going to suckle. (Pk). See: a-iboorí To be blocked.

a-ibón   v.prog. 1 • To exercise the office of ritual expert (ol-oibónì). The ritual expert may divine, foretell, prophesy; make and dispense traditional medicine; or treat s.o. ritually. Éíbòn ɔlárràbàl. He will divine/fortell the war. (W -K). aibón emurúà to treat a site ritually with blessings to make it fit for a ceremonial settlement.

2 • To do witchcraft.

a-ibonú   ́To exercise the office of ritual expert.

a-ibonishó   To divine, exercise office of ritual expert. Eibónisho olóíbònì. The diviner is divining. (W).

a-ibonokí   1 • To prophesy, etc., on behalf of s.o.

a-iboníé   To prophesy, treat ritually, fortell with or at.

a-ibonishoré   To exercise the office of ritual expert with/at.

áà-ɨ̀bɔ̀ŋàkɨ̀   v.pl. To be caught (plural); illicit sexual relationship, commit adultery.

a-iboó   v. Subjunctive or Perfect(ive) form of a-ibók. See: a-ibók To hinder.

a-iboorí   v. To be blocked from somewhere; stopped from moving on. Éíbóórî ɨltʉŋaná tɔ̀ réyìèt peê elotú ɛnkárɛ̀ The people were blocked by the river when the water flowed. See: a-ibók To prevent; block,.

a-ibooyó   v.dir. To prevent, stop, block, keep from. Ɛgɨ́rà olkíboóyo aibooyó inkíshú. The swallow is blocking the cows. (Pk). See: a-ibók To block.

a-ɨbɔrɔrɔ́   v. To rave.

a-ɨbɔ́rr   v.s. 1 • To be white. Ɛ́ɨ́bɔrr. It is white. Ɛɨ́bɔrr. It is white. (W). a-ɨbɔ́rr kʉtʉ́k To have a white face (of animals) (lit: to be white the mouth). Kɛ́ɨ́bɔrr oshî intápʉ̀kà ó ltépésí. [óltèpèsì] The flowers of an acacia tree are white. Kɛ́ɨ́bɔrr kʉná kíshù. These cows are white. Kɛ́ɨ́bɔ́rráà kʉná kíshù. These cows are white. (SN). Eibórrù. It will become white. Kɛ́ɨ́bɔ́rrá. It became white. (S). Kéíborríékì tááisérè. It will be made white tomorrow. náɨ́bɔrr white (lit: that which is white) (W).

2 • To be pale or palid (e.g. from sickness, dry skin, dust); be the color of a mzungu/white person. ɔltʉŋánì ɔ́ɨ́bɔrr a white person (i.e., European). Ɨ́mbɔ́rrà! You've become white! (from sickness). Kéíbórrù oshî olcónì lɔ́ ltʉŋánì omúéí. The skin of a sick person becomes white (i.e. flaky, dry).

3 • To be unfortunate; unlucky. Usage: insult. Ɨ́mbarrá! May you always be found out! "Nákaɨbárra ɨmɨncɔ́ oshî ɨnkɛ́rà ɛndáà!" "You-be-white! You never give the children food!".

4 • To desist. Ɨ́mbɔrrá. Stop! (e.g. said to a child who is goofing off and consistently making others laugh).

5 • To be peaceful. Ɨ́mbɔrrá. Have peace. (e.g. said to s.o. departing on a journey).

a-ɨbɔ́rr ɔnyɛ́k   v.s. To be immoral, promiscuous. ɔltʉŋánì ɔ́ɨ́bɔ́rr ɔnyɛ́k person who is immoral, promiscuous. See: a-ɨbɔ́rr ɔ́ŋʉ̀ To be immoral.

a-ɨbɔ́rr ɔ́ŋʉ̀   v.s. 1 • To be immoral, promiscuous. See: a-ɨbɔ́rr ɔnyɛ́k To be immoral.

2 • To have poor judgment, not choose best of several options. Kɛ́ɨ́bɔrr ɔ́ŋʉ̀. He has poor judgement.

enkitók náɨ́bɔrr ɔnyɛ́k   Prostitute.

a-ɨbɔ́rr ɔ́shɔ́kɛ̀   v.s. To be soft-hearted, compassionate, generous. ɔltʉŋánì ɔ́ɨ́bɔrr ɔ́shɔ́kɛ̀ compassionate person (Pk). Káaɨbɔ̂rr ɔ́shɔ́kɛ̀. I am compassionate. (lit: The stomach whites me/My stomach is white.). Kɛ́ɨ́bɔrr ɔ́shɔ́kɛ̀. He is kind-hearted/generous/emotional. (Pk). Kɛ́ɨ́bɔrr ɔ́shɔ́kɛ̀ ɛldɛ̂ payíán. That man is compassionate. (lit: The stomach [nominative] is white that man [accusative].). LING: This phrase occurs in an "external possessor" construction, with "stomach" as the nominative subject, and the "possessor" of stomach as the accusative object of the sentence. Additionally, in the idiomatic meaning, "stomach" occurs without its usual gender prefix. Ant: a-rɔ́k ɔ́shɔ́kɛ̀ To be hard-hearted.

a-ɨbɔrrá   v.mid. To be(come) bewildered, shocked. Áɨ́bɔ́rrà. I got shocked/bewildered. (lit: I am white.) (Pk).

ɛnk-ɨbɔ́rrà   Nom sg: ɛnk-ɨ́bɔ̀rrà. [North] Acc sg: nk-ɨbárrà. n. Whiteness. Áɨ́sídáí ɛnkɨ́bɔ̀rrà ɛ́ nâ kɨlâ. The whiteness of this cloth is good. (Pk). See: a-ɨbɔ́rr To be white.

ɛnk-ɨbɔ́rrà ɔ́làpà   Nom sg: ɛnk-ɨ́bɔ̀rrà ɔ́làpà. n. The part of the month when there is moonlight. ɛtabáwua ɛnkɨ́bɔ̀rrà amʉ̂ ɛɨshʉnyɛ́ ɛnáɨ́mɨ̂n. The part of the month when the moon is bright has come because the dark period has ended. (Pk). LING: S uses the following verbal construction to express it: Kɛ́ybɔrr lapá. The moon is new. (S).

a-ɨbɔrrɨbɔ́r   v. 1 • To beat gently as not to cause pain but to draw attention. aɨbɔrrɨbɔ́r ɛnkayíónì meinyô To beat the boy gently to make him wake up.

2 • To make the cows wake up from lying down and start grazing or drive them away. Ɛgɨ́rà olcékùt aɨbɔrrɨbɔ́r inkíshú mɛshɔ́mɔ̀ áàdàà The shepherd is waking up the cattle to go and graze.

a-ɨbɔrríé omóm   v.phrase. To cause one to be liked. Kááɨ́bɔ́rrìè omóm. I will cause you to be favored/liked. LING: This is not a simple Color EP construction, as omóm 'face' is in the Accusative rather than Nominative case. The case on omóm, however, may be simply due to the Causative construction.

a-ibót   v. To hack off (esp. meat).

a-ɨbɔtɨbɔ́t [North]   v. 1 • [North] To not go straight to the destination; evade.

2 • [North] To verbally evade or "beat about the bush" See: a-ɨbakɨbák To beat about the bush.

a-ibúk   v. To pour back and forth, (decant??). Néíbukorí. They were poured out. See: a-bukoó To pour out. Ɨ́ntalamáɨ́ ɛnâ kɛ́ráɨ́ dalût amʉ̂ kéíbukóó kʉnâ motorí. Keep off this mischevious child, because he will pour out this soup. (Pk). See: a-ibukoó To pour away.

a-ibukoó   v. To pour away, pour out. Ɛshɔmɔ́ ɛnkɛráí aibukoó ɛnkárɛ́ natíi ɛnkɨkɔ́mpɛ̀. The child has gone to pour away the water that is in the cup. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɛráɨ́ aibukoó kʉlɛ́. The child is pouring out milk. Néíbukorí, nɛ́yà osíwùò. They were poured out, and the wind took them. Ɨ́ntalamáɨ́ ɛnâ kɛ́ráɨ́ dalût amʉ̂ kéíbukóo kʉnâ motorí. Keep away this mischevious child, because he will pour out this soup. (Pk).

a-ibukorí   To spill, scatter out. Egɨ́rà Lɛpáàpà agɛlʉ́ ɨlpáɛ́k oóíbukorí. Lepaapa is trying to pick up the corn that spilled. (W).

a-bukú  

a-bukokí   See: a-isuaayá To splash about.

a-ibulekény   v. To be ill; unwell. Kɛ́gɨ́rà ɛnkɛráí aibulekény. The child is unwell.

a-ɨbʉlʉ́   v. To spread over the whole surface or area. Eibúlua ɛncân ɛnkɔ́p pɔɔkɨ́. The rain has spread over the whole land/area.

a-ɨbʉ́ŋ   v.prog. 1 • To catch (sth. moving). Ɛ́ɨ́bʉ́ŋá ɛnkɛráɨ́ ɛmpɨ́rà natanaŋáka Kónené ɛ́ɨ́tʉ̂ éôsh ɛnkɔ́p. The child (has) caught the ball that Konene has thrown before it hit the ground. Eteléjua inkúény atûâ ají nɛ́ɨ́bʉ̀ŋ. They tricked the birds into the house and then caught them. (W). Ɛ́ɨ́bʉ́ŋá enkúenyî tɔ̀ lmútègò. He has caught the bird with a trap. The Maasai do not traditionally build traps, but might catch certain types of birds by sealing them in holes.

11 • To seize sth. aɨbʉ́ŋ inkíshú naáwakɨ́ To seize cows that were stolen. See: a-úáp To seize; a-ɨkɔ́ny To seize; a-ɨsɨmaá To seize.

3 • To arrest. Ɛ́ɨ́bʉ́ŋâ ɨsɨ́karɨnɨ́ ɔlapúrrònì. The policemen have arrested the thief. (i.e. he has his hands tied up and has been carried off to jail).

4 • To rape. aɨbʉ́ŋ enkitók i) To rape a woman. ii) To arrest a woman.

5 • To hold. Nɛ́ɨ́bʉ̀ŋɨ̀ áàìjùlùl. They hold it (the child) upside down. Ɛ́ɨ́bʉ́ŋá ɛnkɛráɨ́ ɛnkalámù. The child held the pencil.

6 • To touch. Ɨ́mbʉŋá ɔlŋanayíói. Touch the fruitǃ (W). Ɛtʉ́bʉ́lʉ́á ɛnkɛráɨ́ amʉ̂ ɛɨbʉ́ŋá ɔltápʉ̂t. The child is now grown up because she is able to touch the ceiling. (W).

7 • To stick to following a certain path. Ɛɨbʉ́ŋâ inkíshù enkóítóí áàpùò oreyíét. The cows have followed (lit: caught) the path to the river. (W). Ɨ́mbʉŋá ɛnâ óítóí amʉ̂ nɨnyɛ́ nékírík enetíi ilótòròk. Follow this path because it leads you to where the bees are. Usage: A-sʉ́j 'to follow' is used for following sth. from behind, while a-ɨbʉ́ŋ is used for following along the length of something, or going 'through' it..

8 • To enter into a new condition; become. Ɛɨbʉ́ŋá olóíriruá ɛnkɛ́ráí. The child has become crazy. (W) (lit: An evil spirit has attacked the child.). Ɛ́ɨ́bʉ́ŋá oltíkaná. He has become sick of malaria. (lit: Malaria has attacked him.). Ɛɨbʉ́ŋá ɛnkányɨ̀t. He has become respectful/obedient. (W) (lit: Respect has caught/attacked him.). Usage: A-ɨbʉ́ŋ is not used for 'attacking' in war, or for being 'attacked' by a swarm of bees, as its central idea is that of 'grabbing' such that one can hold or touch sth..

9 • To keep on doing sth. Ɛ́ɨ́bʉ́ŋá ɛnkányɨ̀t. He has become respectful/obedient. (lit: He has got hold of respect.).

10 • To discover, realize, notice. Áɨ́bʉ́ŋà eneikoní tɛ̀ nérewi ɛngárrɨ̀ tɛ̀ siadí. I have discovered how to drive a car in reverse. Ɛ́ɨ́bʉ́ŋá olmalimúí ɛnkɛ́ráɨ́ épúrrítô ɛntɛ́mátá. The teacher has caught a child cheating in the exam.[èpùrrìtò] with low fallinɡ or stress on final mora] 

11 • To take care of. Ɨ́mbʉŋá taá ŋútúnyí o mínyi. Take care of your father and mother. (W). Ɨ́mbʉŋá ɨnkɛ́rà. Take care of the children. (W).

a-ɨbʉ́ŋ ɨsɨ́nkɨr   To fish. Ɛshɔmɔ́ láyìòk áàɨ̀bʉ̀ŋ sínkirrî. The boys have gone fishing. (SN). See: a-rrésh ɨsɨ́nkír To fish; a-ɨtayú To remove; a-ŋorú To fish.

a-ɨbʉŋakɨ́   1 • To hold sth. on behalf of s.o.

2 • To take a gift to s.o.

3 • To catch a person redhanded, especially in an illicit sexual relationship.

a-ɨbʉŋá   To coagulate. Níwóù ɔsárgɛ́ láí... amʉ̂ kɛ́ɨ́bʉ́ŋà nɛ́akʉ inkírí. You tap my blood ... because it will coagulate and become meat.

a-ɨbʉŋɨshɔ́   To be sticky. Kɛ́ɨ́bʉ́ŋɨshɔ ɛnaishó óò lotóròk. The honey is sticky. Kɛ́ɨ́bʉ́ŋɨshɔ ɛsárŋab olêŋ. The mud is very sticky.

a-ɨbʉŋarɛ́   v. To attach oneself to. See: a-ɨbʉ́ŋ To catch, hold, requisition.

a-ibúrt   v. To afflict great pain and suffering to the body so that an existing wound increasingly becomes enlarged, or more sores develop. aiburtó ɛnkaɨná To get more pain on the hand (more sores, wounds).

a-ibususó   v. To lie down as one who is dead. Míntókì aibususó ánàà olotúá hɔ́ɔ́ nɨ́naʉ́rà. Don't lie like a dead person though you are tired.

a-ɨcamʉ́ [North]   v. [North] To like sth.; like food.

a-ɨcamunóí [North]   v.mid. [North] To taste good. Kɛ́ɨ́camúnoi. It has a good taste. (SN). Mɛɨcamúnoi. It doesn't have a good taste. (SN). See: a-ɨcamú To like (food).

-icie [North]   voi pf. Perfect(ive) Antipassive suffix. Kɛ́tárányície. He/she was a singer. See: -ɨshɔ Antipassive suffix.

a-ɨCɨ́r   v. To cry. See: a-ɨsogɛ́t To cry.

-ɨcɔ [North]   voi. [North] Variant (esp. North Maa) of the Antipassive suffix -ɨshɔ.

a-ɨ́d   v.prog. 1 • To jump up and move horizontally and land on the other side of something; jump over sth., spring over sth. Ɛɨdɨ́tà enkínè ɔlpááshíé. The goat is jumping over the fence. Ɛ́ɨ̀d ɛnkáyíóní ɔlpááshíé ɨ́sááî uní. The boy will jump over the fence for three hours. LING: This necessarily means the jumping will happen multiple times. Ɛ́ɨ̀d ɛnkáyíóní ɔlpááshíé tɔɔ́ ɨ́sááî únì. i) The boy will jump over the fence for three hours (multiple times). ii) The boy will jump over the fence three hours hence. Ɛ́ɨ̀d ɛnkáyíóní ɨ́sááî uní. The boy will jump over three clocks/watches. (*The boy will jump for three hours/*The boy will jump three hours hence.). Ɛɨdákɨ̀ ɔlpááshíé. The fence has been jumped over. Ɛ́ɨ́dɨshɔ ɛná áyíóní. This boy can jump over things. Áàìdìè ɔlpááshíé. He will make me jump over the fence. Áaidíé ɔlpááshíé. He made me jump over the fence. Éípìd ɛtargéetî aɨ́d ɛncaní. The grasshopper will jump over the twig. See: a-ipíd To jump.

2 • To skip a stage. Ɛ́ɨ́dá ɛnkáyíóní inkilasiní uní. The boy has skipped Standard 3. (i.e. He went directly from Standard 2 to Standard 4 in school.).

3 • To be ahead of; overtake; supersede s.o. in terms of sth. Ɛ́ɨ́dá ɛnkáyíóní inkulíe tɛ̀ súkuúl. The boy has overtaken the rest of the boys in school.

4 • To mentally blank out or wander for a time; forget some items in a sequence of items. Ɨ́ŋgɨlá lɛ́lɔ̂ ɔmɔ́n amʉ̂ áaɨdâ. (i) Repeat those words because I missed them (e.g. I was not paying attention while you were talking). (ii) Repeat those words because I skipped them (e.g. I forgot to say them during my speech, but you know what they are and so can say them for me). (lit: Repeat those words because they jumped over me.).

a-ɨdakɨ́(n)   1 • To jump onto or into; spring at sth. Átɔ́dúáà náají oltʉ́làl ɔɨdáka ɛnkají. I have seen a baboon that jumped onto the house. Ɛɨ́dakɨ ɛnkáyíóní ɛnkárɛ́. The boy will jump into the water. Áaɨdakinyíé ɔlpáyìàn ɛnkayíónì ɛnkárɛ́. The man has made the boy jump the water for my sake.

2 • To get on the back of; copulate with, as of animals. Ɛɨdáka ɔlɔ́ɨ́ŋɔ́nɨ́ ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ. The bull has gotten on the back of the cow.

a-ɨdaayá   SUBJN: ndaa. v.mid. To perish; be finished off, be destroyed. Mɛátà ɔltʉŋánì oyíéú nɛ́ɨ́daáyà. There is no one who wants to perish. Ɨ́ndaaɨ́! Die!

a-ɨdaikíé   v. 1 • To eat up; consume; finish food. This is not used for consuming water, petrol, sodas, etc.

2 • To exterminate, destroy, kill. This can be used for destroying people, animals, maize fields, buildings, forests, pests, ants. See: a-daá To eat.

a-ɨdalaány   v. To spread out, as of legs. aɨdalaány embúkù To spread out the pages of a book.

a-ɨdalaanyarí   To lie flat with legs spread out. See: a-ɨdɛlarí To lie flat with legs and hands spread out; a-ɨbalaanyaá To gradually light up; increase.

a-ɨdáŋ   v. 1 • To be disfluent in speech (not necessarily permanently), potentially involving hesitation, stammering, misuse one word for another, mis-statement, etc. Átéjò áɨ́rɔ́ Maâ náɨ́dɑ̀ŋ amʉ̂ mayíólò aɨrɔ́rɔ̀ I tried to speak Maa but I stumbled because I do not know how to speak it. Kɛ́ɨ́dàŋ ɔltʉ́ŋání tenéírùt. A frightened person stammers. See: a-ɨramɨrám To have a permanent speech disorder.

2 • To be confused, dumb-founded.

a-ɨdaŋɨdáŋ   To keep on being awkward in speech; continue talking but not be of any help to anyone. ɔltʉŋánì ɔɨdaŋɨ́dàŋ person who is awkward in speech.

a-ɨdaŋíé   To confuse, cause to loose track of what s.o. is doing or thinking.

a-ɨdáp   v. To make plodding movements (possibly in one position) with the palms of the hands or the soles of the feet.

a-ɨdapɨdáp   1 • To flatten sth. by repeated hitting or beating.

2 • To remove the fat layer of meat from the sides and ribs of a cow (such that just the ribs are left).

3 • To defeat someone in verbal argument or debate.

4 • To go to many different place and not directly to one's destination. See: ɛn-dâp Palm (of hand), sole (of foot).

a-ɨdapásh   v. 1 • To scatter. Míntókì aʉ́m kʉnâ tokitín, ɨ́ndapashá. Do not heap these things together, scatter them. (Pk).

2 • To spread sth. out in a wide flat arrangement. This includes spreading something like a sheet out, or spreading corn on a sheet.

a-idapashá   To spread (self) out, disperse (members of a group). Básì émintókì áàɨ̀shɔ̀ ɛɨdapáshà. So don't let them disperse. Ant: a-sót To gather; heap. See: dápásh Broad, wide.

a-ɨdásh   v. To flatten by stepping on; trample underfoot, squash.

a-idaudáú [North]   v. [North] To rave. See: a-yiaŋiyíáŋ To rave.

a-ɨdɛkɛ́t   v. To be slippery, slick. Ɛɨdɛ́kɛ̀t ɛnkɔ̂p tɛ̀ nɛ́shà. The land is slippery when it rains. Syn: a-ɨshɨrtɨ́t To be slick.

a-ɨdɛkɛtarí   v. To slide; move obliquely or sideways, usually in an uncontrolled manner. Ɛɨdɛkɛtárì ɛŋgárrî tɛ̀ nkɔ̂p náshàl. A vehicle slides on a wet surface. See: a-ɨshɨrtɨ́t To slide.

a-ɨdɛ́l   v. To get a liquid little by little from a reservoir (or udder for milk) until it is enough.

a-ɨdɛlʉ́   To scoop out when there is little liquid. See: a-okú To fetch water.

a-ɨdɛlá   v. To be nursing (of a mother). Ɛ́tɛ́rɛ́wá yieyíô ɛ́ɨ́dɛ́lâ. He has chased our mother away while she was still nursing.

a-ɨdɛlarí   v. To lay oneself down with hands and legs spread out; or, flop oneself back (e.g. in a chair) with hands and legs out. This can be due to exhaustion, sleep or sickness. órè amʉ̂ ánáʉ́rà olêŋ, káyieu náɨ́dɛlárì tɛ̀ ndapásh. Because I am too tired, I want to lie flat on the bed. Usage: a-ɨdɛlarí implies exhaustion, extreme sleepyness, or sickness. a-ɨdalaány (or a-ɨdalaanyarí) focuses specifically on the position of the legs and could not be done in a chair; a-ɨbalaanyarí is quite general and need not imply exhaustion, but could not be done in a chair. All these are subtypes of a-ɨrrág.. See: a-ɨdalaány To spread out, as of legs; a-ɨbalaanyaá To gradually light up; increase.

a-ɨdɛ́ny   v. 1 • To pile up, heap up.

2 • [North] To patiently get milk little by little from a cow that doesn't let milk. See: a-ɨdɛ́l To get a liquid little by little.

a-ɨdɛtɨdɛ́t   [North]: ɨdatɨdát. v.prog. To dream. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɛráí náʉ̀rʉ̀rà aɨdɛtɨdɛ́t. A sleeping child is dreaming. (Pk). Ɛɨdɛtɨdɛtɨ́tà. He is dreaming. Ɛɨdɛ́tɨ́dɛ́tɨ́tà. He is dreaming. (W). See: ɛn-kɨ́dɛ́tɨdɛ́tàtà Dreaming; ɛn-kɨ́dɛ́tɨ́dɛ̀t Dream.

a-idiá   v. To be a mean, worthless person. Ɛ́ɨ́dia ɛldɛ́ payian. That man is a mean worthless person. See: ɔl-dîâ Dog.

ídîâ   [ìdìà] in context]  Nom sg: idîâ, ídîâ. dem. 1 • Feminine singular demonstrative; 3rd degree of distalness; that (far-away but potentially still visable). ídîâ búkù that book (far away but visible). Ídîâ wúâs táatá ínosíé ɨlashɔ́. Today have the calves graze at that plain. A: Kánʉ̀ ɨ́ndɨ́pà atɛshɛ́tà ɛnkají? B: Áɨ́dɨ́pà ídîâ ɔlɔ́ŋ. A: When did you finish building the house? B: I finished it the other day. (Speaker B is not being specific about which day, except that it is in the past.). Emúóítà olóíŋóní; áâ taá ɨ́lɔ̂ láínyáŋúá ídíâ káɨ́ olôŋ. The bull is sick, that is, the one that I had bought the other day. (W). See: lékûâ Those; Pronouns-Demonstratives.

a-ididimán   v. To aggrandize, expressing qualities traditionally associated with men. Usage: Colloquial. Tónyùàà índidimaná tánapʉ́ ɨ́lɔ̂ olá oiróshì. Try to express manly qualities and carry that heavy luggage. See: a-nyɔ́k To work hard.

enk-ídídímàn   n. The expression of masculine qualities.

ídíê   [ìdìè]  Nom sg: ídíê. dem. Distal place demonstrative indicating a place very far away; there. Ɛshɔmɔ́ ɔláyíóní aulúó aló ídíê ó ídìè. The boy has gone all over the place, there and over there. See: Pronouns Þ Demonstrative pronouns.

a-ɨdɨɨdá [North]   In some suffixed forms: a-ɨdɨɨdán. v. [North] To jump up and down (not necessarily over sth). See: a-ŋoró To jump; a-ipíd To jump; a-ɨ́d To jump over; a-dʉmʉ́ To jump (as in a dance); a-itíám To jump, hop; a-ɨpɨrɨ́ To jump.

a-ɨdɨɨdaná   To be restless, moving from place to place; pace. Míntókì aɨdɨɨdaná tɛmbatá ɛ́ nkɨma amʉ̂ ékinyia. Don't be restless near the fire because you can be burnt. ɔltʉŋánì ɔɨdɨɨdánà person who is restless.

a-idík   v. 1 • To join. Éídìk. He will join them.

2 • To lengthen. aidík ɛnkɛɛnɛ́ peê ɛbaɨkɨ́ atɛɛ́nà ɔlɔɨŋɔ́nɨ̀ To lengthen the strap so that it could tie the ox. aidík ɨlɔmɔ́n To lengthen news.

a-idikidík   To keep on joining together.

a-idikokí   To join up with. aidikokí olgosôî ɔlɨkâɨ̂ To join the rope with the other one.

a-idikidikoré   v.mid. To follow up with; get involved in or with. Tè níndikidíkoré ɛná síáàì, nááyá ɛlʉ́kʉ́nyá. If you keep on involving yourself in this issue, I will kill you. (lit: If you keep on joining yourself with this issue, I will take-you the head.).

a-ɨdɨ́k   v. To throb, throb with pain (e.g. from an injury), ache. Ɛ́ɨ́dɨ̀k. It throbs with pain.

a-ɨdɨkɨdɨ́k   To throb with pain repeatedly.

a-ɨdɨ́m   v.aux+Sbjn-Infinitive. 1 • To be able, capable, have the strength to do sth. Áɨ́dɨ̀m ataárà ɔlŋátúny metúá. I can kill a lion. (W). Máɨ́dɨ̀m ataárà ɔlŋátúny metúá. I cannot kill a lion. (W). Káɨ́dɨ̀m ayiéw táísèrè. I will be able to come tomorrow. (S). Átáánɨ́kɨ̀ amʉ̂ káɨ́dɨ̀m aɨbʉ́ŋà. I am near to it because I can touch it. (Pk). Áɨ́dɨ́mà ataárà ɔlŋátúny metúá ŋolé. I was able to kill the lion yesterday. (W). Áɨ́dɨ̂m ataárà ɔlárrɔ̀ metúá tááisérè. Tommorow I will be able to kill a buffalo. (W). Máɨ́dɨ̂m ataárà ɔlárrɔ̀ tááisérè. Tommorow I will not be able to kill a buffalo. (W).

2 • To be competent at sth. Ɔltʉŋánì ɔ́ɨ́dɨ̀m ataásà esíáàì A person who is competent in doing the work.

3 • To indicate that sth. might occur; can, may, perhaps. Ɛɨdɨ́mayʉ. It is possible. (W). Mɛɨdɨ́mayʉ. It is impossible. (W). Káɨ́dɨ̀m ayéù tááisérè. I may come tomorrow. (S).

a-ɨdɨmá   v.mid. To be capable. Kɛ́ɨ́dɨ́ma. They can face each other (their strength is equal; they have the same ability). Kɛ́ɨ́dɨmárò. They can face each other (their strength is equal). [This form focuses more on reciprocal action, of doing sth. to one another, than does kɛ́ɨ́dɨ́ma.].

a-ɨdɨmʉ́   v. 1 • To be able to carry. Maɨdɨ́mʉ̀ ɛlɛ̂ olá. I will not be able to carry this luggage.

2 • To overcome. Káɨ́dɨ́mʉ̀ ɛnâ nyamálì. I will overcome this problem.

3 • To prove capable or fit; meet requirements; measure up to. Ɨ́ncɔ̀ɔ̀ ɛwálátá naɨdɨ́mʉ̀ nɛ́nâ kikilikuanát ɛnyɛ́nà. Give him an answer that will answer those questions of his. (Pk). Ɛɨtʉ́ aɨdɨ́mʉ̀ ataárà ɔlŋátúny metúá ŋolé. I was not able to kill the lion yesterday. (W).

a-ɨdɨŋá   v.mid. To be congested, crowded, filled or occupied to the point of overflowing. Kɛ́ɨ́dɨ́ŋà ɛná ájì. This house is congested/crowded. LING: There is no simple root form *a-ɨdɨ́ŋ. See: ɛn-kɨdɨŋá Congestion; overcrowding.

a-ɨdɨ́p   v v.aux+subjn-infinitive. 1 • v v.aux+subjn-infinitive. To finish, complete (a task). Káɨ́dɨ́pà. I have finished it. (S). Káɨ́dɨ́pà píì ŋolé. [káydɪ́pà] I finished it completely yesterday. (SN). Órè aké peê ɨ́ndɨ̀p ɨ́nâ... When you finish that [early stages of marking a girl for engagement]... Máapé áàɨ̀dɨ̀p entúróré ɛnkɔ́p peê kípúó áŋ. [kípúó ! áŋ] Let us go and finish up the cultivation so that we can go home. (Pk). Óù tádɛkɛnyá amʉ̂ káànyù, kákè mílotú taá dámà amʉ̂ áɨ́dɨ́pà ɨ̀nà kátá ashɔ́mɔ̀. Come in the morning because I will wait for you, but don't come in the afternoon because I would have left by that time. (lit: ... because I would have finished to go by that time.) (Pk). Usage: a-ɨdɨ́p refers to finishing or completing a task. a-ɨshʉ́ refers to finishing or exhausting some object such as food. Thus, the command íncù! is appropriate for tell someone to finish off the food in a bowl, but not Tɨ́ndɨ̀pà..

2 • v v.aux+subjn-infinitive. To be sufficient.

3 • v.aux+subjn-infinitive. After. Kórè peê áɨ́dɨ̀p akúɛ́tà ɛnɛ́ádɔ́ náatirú ɛnkɔ́shɔ́kɛ̀. After running for a long distance, my stomach ached. (W). Áyíéú sháì aɨdɨpá atadáàyù. I want tea after I have eaten. (W). LING: The simple infinitive form cannot occur following a-ɨdɨpá. Thus, akúɛ́t and a-dáà would be ungrammatical in the examples above. See: a-ɨshʉ́ To finish; a-itíŋ To finish; a-baɨkɨ́ To be sufficient; a-ɨmʉ́ To be sufficient.

a-ɨdɨrɨdɨrʉ́   v. To carry a heavy load towards the speaker. LING: There is no form *a-ɨdɨrɨdɨ́r.

a-ɨdɨrɨdɨraá   To carry a heavy load away.

a-ɨdɨrɨdɨrakɨ́   To carry a heavy load to.

a-idís   v. 1 • To drizzle.

2 • To be cloudy, stormy, overcast.

3 • To be in bad moods. See: ɛn-cán Rain; a-ɨtɨpɨtɨ́p To drizzle; a-ilísh To be moody.

a-idisíé enkomóm   v. To wrinkle the face. Éídísíé oltásât enkomóm amʉ̂ ɛtagórè The old man has wrinkled his face because he is angry. See: enk-omóm Face.

a-idiyiadí   v. To be anxious, worried; be stressed about. Kéídiyíádì ɔltʉ́ŋání tenéjokiní, "Ɨ́yɛ.̀ A person will be worried if he is told, "You will die". See: a-ɨŋaɨŋáɨ́ To be worried, anxious.

a-ɨdɔndɔ́rr   v.prog. 1 • To tame or train a young donkey by teaching it to carry a pack. aɨdɔndɔ́rr olkurrarrú mɛtánàpà ololá To train a young donkey to carry the pack.

2 • To make sth. or s.o. move away. Usage: colloquial. Ɨ́ndɔndɔrráí ololá linó ɨ́wà amʉ̂ ɨmayíéú Take up your load and go because I don't want (your stuff). [rude]. Áɨ́dɔ́ndɔ́rrɨ́tà. (i) I am training a young donkey by loading it with a pack. (ii) I am making sth. move. See: a-irót To load with a pack.

a-idóŋ   v. 1 • To beat or pound into small pieces (e.g. with mortar and pestle); fashion with force; grind. aidóŋ enkurmá To grind maize into flour. Eidóŋutûô They have beaten sth. towards this direction. Eidóŋutúà. They have beaten sth.towards this direction. (SN). Kéídóŋoyi alɛ́ áɨ́ŋɔ́nɨ́. This bull can be castrated (i.e. by pounding the testicles with a stick). (SN).

2 • To castrate; demasculinize. This is done by pressing the nerves that connect the testicles of a male animal with the rest of the body to make it non-productive. aidóŋ ɔláshê mɛtáà ɔlkɨ́tɛ́ŋ To castrate a calf to make it an ox.

3 • To forge iron. aidóŋ olcúmà To forge metal.

4 • To beat, cane. Etym: Proto-OngamoMaa *-idoŋ- 'beat, forge (v.)', (Vossen 1989:195) from PEN *-doŋ- 'beat repeatedly, forge, castrate completely' (. Vossen writes, '"the primary meaning is probabaly 'to beat', since it is found in both primary branches of Easten Nilotic. Moreover, 'to beat' is less specific that 'to forge' or 'to castrate' which both presuppose the action of beating" (Vossen 1982:330-31)..

a-idoŋidóŋ   To keep on beating/crushing/grinding/pounding over and over. See: a-ár To beat; a-óC To beat; a-iut'út To grind grain.

a-idoŋidóŋ   v.prog. To drink fast, chug down. Restrict: liguid. Áídoŋídóŋítò kʉlɛ́. I am chugging down milk. See: a-ók To drink.

a-ɨdɔ́p   v. 1 • To make worse; aggravate; finish off. Mɨ́kɨ́ndɔ̀p, ɨncɔɔ́kɨ̀ mataáràrɛ̀ ɛnyamáli áí ɔ́pɛ̀ny Don't aggravate it for me, let me struggle with my own problem.

2 • To ruin.

3 • To finish off, give "coup de grace" to kill an animal that will certainly die anyway. See: a-ɨgɔlaá To kill an animal that will certainly die anyway.

a-idós   v. 1 • To pluck out, pull out sharply; strip.

2 • To take back all possessions.

a-idosú   To pull out.

a-idukudúk   v. 1 • To repeatedly do sth.

2 • [North] To have stomach upsets which throb with pain. See: a-ɨdɨ́k Throb with pain.

a-idúl   v.prog. 1 • To drink excessive amounts of a liquid after short intervals. Usage: colloquial. Ɨ́mʉ́t inkíshú teníndùl ɛnáíshó. You will finish (sell all) cows when you drink alcohol excessively.

2 • To make the sound of liquid in a container. See: a-ilúg To drink excessively.

a-idurúk   v. 1 • To be morally or socially unclean; defiled. Mɛjɨ̂ŋ oshî ɨlɛ́wâ ɛnkají ɛ́ ntɔ́mɔ́nɔ́nɨ̀ amʉ̂ kéídúrùk. Men don't get into the house of a woman that has just given birth because it is unclean. Kéídúrùk ɛnkâŋ ɔ́ ltʉŋánì ɔtaará ɔlɨkâɨ̂ metúá The home of a murderer is unclean.

2 • To be dirty, unclean; untidy. Eidúrùk ɛná ájì amʉ̂ méôr enkítòk. This house is dirty because the woman doesn't sweep it. See: ol-dúrùk Uncleanliness; dirt; defilement.

a-ɨdʉ́rr   v. 1 • To migrate, move house. (K)áídʉ́rrà. I have moved my house. (S). Shɔ́mɔ̀ tátàlà ínê peê tenélèŋ níkipuonú áàdùrrìè inkíshú. Go and survey there, if you find it green enough with pasture then we can take the cows. Képuo ɨltʉŋaná ɔ́ɨdʉ́rr áàɨ̀rràgàrìè inkíshú ɛnyɛ̂ inkáŋítìè. The migrants will sleep away at other people's homes with their cows. (Pk).

2 • To mentally move from one thought to another; mentally wander. Órè aké téípà nɛ́ɨ́dʉ̀rr ɨnkɛ́rà è sukúùl ɨndámùnòt. In the afternoon/evening, school children's minds wander (migrate). Ɛ́ɨ́dʉ́rrâ ɨndámùnòt ɔ́ lɛ̀ Tara. Ole-Tara's thoughts have wandered. Áaɨdʉrrâ ɨndámùnòt. My thoughts have wandered. LING: (External Possession construction).

a-idurríé   To move house, cattle (transitive). See: a-iwúót To migrate.

-íé   In some suffixed forms:: -íék. appl. 1 • Applicative suffix for Class I and Class II verbs with a range of meanings:

1a • Instrument. Ɛshɔmɔ́ enkítòk aokunyíé oltóò ɛnkárɛ́ tɔlkɛ́jʉ̀. The woman went to fetch water with a barrel at the river. Kórè tɛ̀ nɛ́tashá ŋolé ánáátá kinotô ɛnkárɛ́ nikíntukúyìè inkíshú. If it could have rained yesterday, we could have gotten water that we (could) spray/wash cows with. (W). Éípukótì apá olashé ótalakíékì orkíné. The calf that was used to pay for the castrated he-goat was a blend of black and white in color. (Pk). Ápíkìè enkikómpè ɛnkárɛ́ emotí. I will use the cup to put water into the pot. (W).

1b • Accompanyment. Nɛ́kuɛtunyíékì kʉlɛ́ ɛɨtɔkɨ́tɔ̀k. They rushed with the milks when they are still fresh. Káyíéú náítókì aasishoré Mɛɨpɔnyɨ́. I want to work with Meiponyi. (Pk) [a-as-ɨshɔ(r)-íé(k) INF.SG-do-APASS-INST].

1c • Reason. Etííìè ɔlayíóní ɔlpayíán ɛnkají. The boy is in the house with/because of the man. (The boy depends on the man for food or accomodation).

1d • Source. Áapurroríé ɔlmʉrraní imbeníá. The warrior will steal the bags from me. (W).

1e • Location. Nérukúnie aké isírúàì. Elands just came out [from a place which was hit]. Náà ɛncɔ́rrɔ̀-ɛ́-mʉ̀ny apá ɛ́tʉmʉratíèkì. And it is Ngong town where they were circumcised. iloówùònìè ɛnkárɛ́ the ones that stay at the water (C). Néishúnìè ɛnkátiní àì tɛ̀ ínê. My story ends there.

2 • Causative suffix for Class II verbs (i.e. most stems which begin with i-). LING: Tone on suffix varies for aspect: Áàìdìè ɔlpááshíé. He will make me jump over the fence. Áaidíé ɔlpááshíé. He made me jump over the fence. Áàɨ̀ŋàtìè ɔlŋátúny. He will make me flee from the lion. (W). Áaɨŋatíé ɔlŋátúny ŋolé. He made me flee from the lion yesterday. (W). Káídúrrìè inkíshú toldonyíó. I will move the cows away from the mountain. (lit: I will make the cows move from the mountain.). Áíwúáŋìè embúkù. I will move the book. (lit: I will make the book go aside.) (W). LING: TM 142 say íé(k) also has senses of the person with whom, the place at which, or the reason for which, one acts. See: ɨtV- Class I Causative.

-ie   asp. Form of Perfect(ive) that occurs after Away directional. nɨ́ɨ́máyìè that you have passed through. LING: [n-ɨ-ɨm-a(r)-ie REL.F-2-pass-AWAY-PF]. See: -a(k) Perfect(ive).

a-ɨgaanyá   v. To squat.

a-ɨgány   v. To fill, cause to occupy the whole of. aɨgány emotí ɛnkárɛ́ To fill the pot with water.

a-iganyá   To be filled. See: a-ɨpʉ́t To fill.

a-ɨgará   1 • v.mid. To obstruct from seeing; hide behind. Ɛɨgára ŋolé. He hid himself behind sth. yesterday. Ɛɨgárà táaisérè. He will hide himself behind sth. tomorrow. Meiŋúárɨ ɔltʉŋánì tè néígàrà ɛncaní. A person is not left when he/she goes to hide behind a tree. (KS). Ɨ́ngará ɛnkají! Hide yourself behind the house!

Ɛɨgárà ɛnkájì enkíné. The house will obstruct/hide the goat from view. Ɛɨgára ɛnkájì enkíné. The house obstructed/hid the goat from view. Ɛɨ́garɨ́tà ɛnkájì enkíné. The house is obstructing/hiding the goat from view. Ɨ́ngará peê mélíòyù. Obstruct the sight of him so that he will not be seen. (e.g. stand in front of him). Melíòò Karen amʉ̂ ɛɨgarɨ́tà ɛnkájì. Karen can not be seen because the house is obstructing. LING: The Progressive form is only transitive. The Middle form can be either transitive or intransitive. If the Middle occurs with just a Nominative NP, it will be interpreted as if the Nominative NP is obscured from sight.

a-igaríé   To hide behind sth. aigaríé embúkù ò lórìkà To hide a book behind a chair.

a-ɨgarakɨ́   1 • To shut an opening or passage temporarily. Ɨ́ŋarakɨ́ kʉ́tʉ́k ají Close the door temporarily.

2 • To pass next to. Órè tenílo láâm iŋúáa NEGST náà ɨ́ŋárakɨ HFB. When you go to the road from NEGST you will pass next to HFB.

a-igarakinó   1 • To lean on.

2 • To rely on.

a-igataá   v.dir. To sip a little bit. Restrict: Liquid. Eigatáyìè ɛnkɨ́tɛ̀ŋ ɛnkárɛ́. The cow has sipped little water. LING: Cannot take Progressive or Ventive. See: a-ók To drink.

a-igér   v.prog. 1 • To brand designs. aigér enkomóm to tatoo the face. This may be done with a razor blade on a cow, warrior, or a girl. On a person, the design is generally many short lines around the stomach. It may be done with a needle on a woman's face or breasts. Sap of the ol-ŋéríántús plant is worked into the cuttings to make dark blue tatoo marks.

2 • To write. Áígérítò embúkù tɛ̀ nkálàmù. I am writing a book using a pen. (Pk). Ɨncɔɔ́kɨ̀ ɛnkardásì náígérìè kʉlɔ̂ róreí. Give me a paper to write these words. (Pk). See: a-ɨgɨ́s To mark, carve. Usage: A-ɨgɨ́s or a-igér could be used for making individual block letters. Only a-igér would be used for joined cursive letters..

3 • To employ; register. aigér tɛ̀ síáàì to employ (lit: write in the job). Kéíger Peter John. i) Peter will write the name "John" (e.g. on a piece of paper). ii) Peter will employ John. (K)áígérò. I have employed him. (S). The connection between "write" and "employ" is that to be employed in a job, one will have his/her name written down in a book.

a-igeroó   To keep on writing sth. aigeroó ɨmpálà To keep on writing and sending letters.

a-igerú   To write to me.

a-igerokí   To write to s.o.

áà-ìgèròkìnò   To write to each other. See: a-igerokinó To be inscribed; ol-kígérótó Writing; registration.

a-igerokinó   v.mid. be.inscribed.

1 • To be inscribed.

2 • To write to each other. See: a-igér To brand designs, write.

a-ɨgɨ́l   v.prog v.aux+simple-infinitive. To do again, repeat. Ɨ́ngɨlá lɛ́lɔ̂ ɔmɔ́n amʉ̂ áaɨdâ. Repeat those words/news because I missed them. (e.g. I was not paying attention). Áɨ́gɨ́lɨ́tà ɛndarásà ɛ̀ Kinkɛrɛ́sà amʉ̂ átárríè ɔlárɨ̀ ɔshɔmɔ́. I am repeating the English class because I failed last year. (W). Káɨ́gɨ̀l aló nkárɛ́. I will go for water again. (S). LING: Tucker and Mpaayei (1955) and Hamaya (1993) discuss auxiliary-like verbs that take the Simple Infinitive Serial Construction. Hamaya (1993) shows that hundreds of lexical verbs may occur in this construction, as long as the combination is semantically plausible. In this construction, the first verb is fully inflected while the second and any subsequent verbs occur with the infinitive prefix and do not inflect for aspect. There are no syntactic restrictions on which verb may occur first versus second, though the semantic auxiliary is most frequently first. Cf: Ɨ́táŋásà aɨnyaŋʉ́ ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ. ~ Ɨ́nyáŋʉa ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ aŋás. You bought a cow first. LING: See a-ány 'to refuse' for auxiliary-like verbs that take the Subjunctive Infinitive Serial construction. See: a-nyaaká To have repeated; a-itokí To repeat.

a-ɨgɨrrɨgɨ́rr   v. 1 • To sharpen with a typically metal file. Restrict: Metal. Áɨ́gɨ́rrɨ́gɨ́rrɨ́tà ɔlálɛ́m mɛtɨ́pɨ̀jà I am filing/sharpening a sword so that it becomes sharp.

2 • To cut by repeatedly rasping with metal. Ɛɨgɨrrɨ́gɨrra esekenkêî é lusíé adúŋ peê épûrr ɛnkají. He cut the metal of the window in order to rob the house.

a-ɨgɨrrɨgɨrrɨshɔ́   To begin to establish one's self in life with reference to the accumulation of cattle, household items, goods. See: ɔl-gɨ́rrɨ́gɨ́rrɛ́t File; a-iutu'út To grind.

a-igís   v.prog. To jump up with legs off the ground at the same time and quickly back onto the same surface (as in men dancing), or to another lower surface. Restrict: human. Káígísítò. I am jumping. Éígísô ŋolé ɨlmʉ́rrân tɛ̀ bɔ́ɔ̀. Yesterday warriors jumped inside the kraal. Áagisíé osinkólio. The song has made me jump (to its rythm). Áígísóko atûâ ɛnkárɛ́. I jumped into the water. See: a-ŋoró To jump; a-ipíd To jump; a-ɨ́d To jump over; a-dʉmʉ́ To jump (as in a dance); a-itíám To jump; a-ɨpɨrɨ́ To jump.

a-ɨgɨ́s   v.prog. To produce semi-permanent marks that are not continuous with one another (e.g. block letters, cuts on the skin to facilitate healing, tread on tyres or bottom of shoes, carving in wood or metal); mark, carve. Káɨ́gɨ́sɨ́tà. I am carving, marking. Usage: a-ɨgɨ́s would not be used for writing a book (cf. a-igér)..

a-ɨgɨ́s ɛnkɔ́shɔ́kɛ̀   To cut the stomach with short cuts, perhaps around the belly area, e.g. for treating a disease. See: a-igér To mark, write.

a-ɨgɔlaá   n. 1 • To kill an animal that will certainly die anyway. Eigoláítìè inkíshù oláshê. The cows have killed a calf that was already weak. This could be done for compassionate reasons. For example, when migrating if a weak cow is just unable to move further, it might be killed so that it would not be taken by hyenas.

2 • To ruin sth. that is already seriously damaged, so it is unusable.

a-igolarí   To die (of an already weak animal). Eigolárì ayɛ́. It has died (an already weak animal).

a-igór   v. 1 • To moan, groan.

2 • To make a sound from fear or pain (e.g. because of an attack or severe sickness). This is distinguished from mooing, and from cries made by humans. See: a-ɨshɨ́r cry.

a-igúán   v. To advise. See: a-igúɛ́n To advise.

ɛnk-igúánà [Purko]   n. [Purko] Meeting. See: enk-igúɛ́nà Meeting.

a-igúɛ́n   [North]: a-igwán. v. To advise, give counsel with wisdom. Éígùɛ̀n ɔlpáyìàn ɨlayîôk lɛnyɛ́na imbáà ɛ́ páyíánìshò. The man will counsel his sons on issues concerning manhood. This can take the form of a knowledgeable person advising s.o. with less experience or wit; or it can take the form of each person in a meeting contributing their viewpoint for all to hear. Syn: a-ikók To advise, counsel.

a-iguɛnakɨ́   To give counsel; preside over.

a-iguɛnarɛ́   To reflect deeply on sth.; ponder. See: ɔl-aigúɛ́nànì Chief, judge; enk-igúɛ́nà Meeting; a-ikumú To judge; a-rɨ́sh To judge.

a-iguɛná   Variant: a-iguaná. v.mid. 1 • To discuss, consider. Máapé áàìgùɛ̀nàrɛ̀. Let's go and discuss. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔláígúɛ́nání ashukú ɨ́nâ báɛ̀ peê èpùò emúrúá áàìgùànàrɛ̀. The chief has referred (returned) that issue so that it can be dealt with by the people of the area. (Pk).

2 • To decide.

enk-igúɛ́nà   Nom sg: enk-ígùɛ̀na. Acc pl: ink-iguɛnát. Nom pl: ink-ígùɛ̀nàt. [Purko] Acc sg: ɛnk-igúánà. [North] Acc sg: nk-igwánà. n. Meeting. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlpáyìàn aitiŋíé ɛnkigúánà. The man is bringing the meeting to an end. (Pk). See: a-igúɛ́n To judge, counsel, advise; ɔl-aigúɛ́nànì Advisor.

a-igúɛ́r   v. To cause to be calm or still. This is usually done to animals by scratching a little bit on their bodies. It is rarely done to humans, but when used it could be done by gentle urging or flattering. Ínguɛrá ɔlámʉ̀yɛ̀ peê itúm airótò. Make the male donkey calm so that you can load it. Syn: a-ɨtɔbɔ́r To cause to be calm or still.

a-igunyagúny   v. To start moving (of a child). Eitérua ɛnkɛráí aigunyagúny. The child has started to move.

a-igunyagunyíé   To harass playfully or maliciously (especially by ridicule); provoke with persistent annoyances; frustrate.

a-igurán   [North]: a-ɨgʉrán. v.prog. 1 • To play. (K)ɛ́ɨ́gʉranɨ́tà. He is playing. (S). This playing could be racing, drama, dancing (though not ceremonially), or anything else a child would play at; the word is associated with happiness and fun. For reference to an adult, see sense 3. Ɛgɨ́rà náají inkáyìòk áàsòtù intótò naíguránìè. The boys are collecting pebbles for playing with. Ɛgɨ́rà ɨnkɛrâ kʉ́tɨtɨ́ áàìrrùgò ɛgɨrá áàìgùràn. The small children are bending down as they play.

2 • To dance, jump, sing. Eigúràn ɨlmʉ́rrân ó ntóyìè tɛ̀ bɔ́ɔ̀. Warriors and girls dance in the centre of the kraal.

3 • To be playful; joking; act in a funny or teasing way.

4 • To be irresponsible. This could be said of a person who had been a 'good' person, but now seemed to be 'playing' with life.

a-iguraníé   To play with, joke with. Mɨ́ngʉ́ráníé áɨ́kátá ɨlasúriaa! Never play with snakes! (W).

ɔl-tʉŋánì o-igúràn   A playful person. See: en-kigúràn Play; a-rány To dance; a-cá To dance.

a-iguraníé   v. play.with.

1 • To play with.

2 • To joke with. See: a-igurán To play.

a-ɨgʉ́s   v.prog itr. To be shakable, unsteady. Ɛ́ɨ́gʉ̀s ɛná bokíshì. This house pole is not steady. (Pk). See: a-ɨgʉsʉgʉ́s To shake.

é-ígusat [North]   v. [North] Emaciated; thin. Éígúsát kʉná kìshù These cows are thin. Syn: sâs thin.

a-igusigusíé   Variant: a-igus!ugús!ie. v. To shake sth. See: a-ipirripírr To shake; a-ɨŋʉnʉŋún To shake; a-ɨpɔ́sh To shake; a-iseiseiye To shake; a-inyenyé To shake; a-ɨkíj To shake.

a-ɨgʉsʉgʉ́s   v itr. To move back and forth in an unstable manner; shake. Káɨ́gʉsʉ́gʉ̀s. I'm shaking. (S).

a-igusugusíé   To shake sth. See: a-ɨgʉ́s To shake.

a-ɨgʉ́t   v.prog. To change one's position by a short displacement (e.g. from one chair to another); move a bit from one point to another. (K)áɨ́gʉ́tɨ́tà. I am moving a short amount.

a-igutunyé   To bring sth. closer.

a-igutíé   To move sth. further away.

a-ɨgʉtʉmá   v.mid. To squat, sit. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔltʉ́ŋání aɨgʉtʉmá tɛ̀ ɛnkaló olcaní. Somebody is squatting next to the tree. Ɛɨgʉ́tʉ́ma táatá. He will squat today / He is squatting now. (W). Ɛgɨ́rà taá atɔ́n aɨgʉtʉmá. He was just sitting. Ɛɨgʉ́tʉ́mɛ̀ ŋolé. He squatted yesterday. (W). Íngutumayú peê ilutóò esekenkêî. Squat so that you can go through the fence. (W).

a-ɨgʉtʉmakinó   To squat against sth. See: a-saganyá; a-ɨsaganyá To squat.

a-ɨgʉyʉgʉyaá [North]   [North] To take away slowly. See: a-ɨkʉyʉkʉyaá To take away slowly.

a-ɨgʉyʉgʉyarí   v. To move slowly. See: l-ɔɨgʉyʉgʉyárì Tortoise.

a-ií   v.prog. To sharpen by rubbing, as on a whetting stone or a file. Káíì ɔlálɛ́m peê epijú. I will sharpen the sword so that it becomes sharp. Káíie ɛlɛ́ tʉŋánì ɔlálɛ́m. I will make this man sharpen the sword. Káíítò ɔlpánkà. I am sharpening the panga. See: en-kií Sharpening stone.

íîp   num. Nom sg: íîp. Hundred. ììp nabô

a-íj   v.prog. To warm one's self, by fire or sun. Á́íjítò nkimâ. I'm warming myself by the fire. (S). Á́íjítò ldáma. I'm basking in the sun. (S). Ɛ́́ɨ́nɔsáká ŋolé iyíóók kókóô ɛnkatiní kííjìtò ɛnkɨ́má. Grandmother narrated to us a story yesterday as we warmed ourselves at the fireplace. (Pk). LING: Conjugates as a Class I verb.

a-ɨjɨlɨlɨ́   v. To drain to the last drop, completely finish a liquid. This can be said of a person finishing off a cup, or of animals finishing off the last of the water in a dam.

íjio   like.

n.r. Like. Nɛ́jɨŋ ɛnkɨ́tɨ̀ kɛ́ɛ̀yà naíjio emorroóji. They were affected by a disease that looks like "rushes". LING: Appears to be based on a verb, as it takes relative clause morphology. See: íjo Like.

a-ɨjɨpaá   Variant: a-ɨjʉpaá. v.prog. To follow, move after. Káɨ́jɨ́pɨ́tà. I am following. (S). "Kéísúpàt aná ájì": "anâ" náɨ́jɨ̀pɨ̀tà "kéísúpàt". (In the sentence) "Kéísúpàt aná ájì", "(The word) "anâ" comes after "kéísúpàt". (SN). See: a-sʉ́j To follow; a-irukurukoré To follow; a-tubaké To follow.

a-ɨjɨrrɨjɨ́rr   v.prog. To fall in drops; trickle. Restrict: Liquid. Ɛɨjɨrrɨ́jɨrrʉ ɛnkárɛ̀ tɛ̀ ncɔ́rrɔ̂. The water trickles from the spring. LING: The non-reduplicated form does not occur. See: a-rukó To flow.

íjo   n. Similar, like. Átódúàà eŋúès naáíjio ɔlŋátúny. I saw an animal like a lion. Átóníŋò oltóíló laíjo ɛsɨ́ŋátá tiaúlùò. I have heard a sound like a sneeze outside. Ɔlcʉ́mà taá ɛnyaálɨ̀ mɛtáà íjio ɛnkɨkɛ́. It is the iron bar to be chewed to make like a brush. A: Kóreê Leríóŋkà? B: Áíjó kéwùò Lérìòŋkà ɛnkají inó. A: Where is Lerioŋka? B: It's like Lerioŋka has come to your house! [polite] (W). Context: Speaker B is somewhat suprised that speaker A has asked where Lerioŋka is, because B thought Lerioŋka was with A. LING: The root appears to be an old verb, as it takes the same prefixes as relativized verbs, and the Polite prefix.

ne-íjo  

na-íjo [South]  

n-íjo [North]   Like (feminine).

a-ijoó   v.dir. To swallow. Etiíjóyìè nkiriŋó. He swallowed the meat. (S). Tíijóí! Swallow it! (S). LING: This occurs only in the Away form.

a-ijórr   v.prog. To jump; hop. Éíjórró ɔltʉ́ŋání aiŋataá ɔlásʉ́ráí. The person has jumped away from the snake.

a-ijorrokí   To jump to. Syn: a-itíám To jump; hop.

a-ɨjʉjʉmá   v. 1 • To sit hunched up.

2 • [North] To pretend to be able to do a lot, but not be able to.

a-ɨjʉ́k   v. To pretend.

a-ɨjʉkʉjʉ́k   v. 1 • To release smoke. Ɛɨjʉkʉ́jʉ̀k ɛnkɨ́mà. The fire releases smoke. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkájì aɨjʉkʉjʉ́k olêŋ. The house is releasing smoke.

2 • To bluff; frighten s.o. by pretending to be stronger than one really is. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlpáyìàn aɨjʉkʉjʉ́k arɛ́p kɛwán The man is bluffing praising himself. See: a-wuasá To bluff.

a-ijúl   v. 1 • To pour a liquid back and forth (e.g. to cool it). Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɛráí aijúl oloshoró. The child is pouring the porridge back and forth. (Pk).

3 • To rotate sth. Loípi ɔíjùlò lénkìshòn. Shadows of life rotate. (S).

a-ijulujúl   To decant.

a-ijuló [North]   To move back and forth.

a-ijuló   v. To move back and forth.

a-ijulujúl   v. To pour back and forth. Ínjulujuló sháì mɛ́ɨ́rɔpɨjá. Pour tea back and forth so that it becomes cold. See: a-ɨjɨlɨlɨ́ To drain to the last drop.

a-ɨjʉlʉjʉ́l   v. To turn sth. upside down from its normal position, either vertically or sloping.

a-ɨjʉlʉjʉlá   v.mid. 1 • To be overturned. Órè adé peê ɛɨjʉlʉ́jʉla ɛnkɔ́lɔ̀ŋ náalotu adɔ́l. When the sun goes to the west, I will come to see you (i.e. in the evening). (lit: When the sun is upside-down, I will come to see you.). Ɛɨjʉlʉjʉ́lɛ̀ emótì néíbukórì ɛndáâ nátií. The pot turned upside down and the food in it poured out. LING: The Perfective Middle has an inceptive sense.

2 • To change from previous situation. Ɛɨjʉlʉjʉ́làtɛ̀ ɨlɔmɔ́n moókire áâ ɨlaŋolé The news have changed they are no longer the ones of yesterday.

a-ijulúl   v. 1 • To hold upside down. Néíbùŋì áàìjùlùl They hold it (the child) upside down.

2 • To carry the spear such that its blade is downwards and the shaft is upward. (Normally the spear is carried with the blade upward, and the shaft downward.). In S, this indicates walking with spear pointing back so that it is ready to face the enemy when it is raised over the head.

a-ijululó   v.mid. To bend one's back forward from the waist on down so that the buttocks are sticking out or upward. aijululó aokú ɛnkárɛ́ To bend to fetch water. See: a-irrúg To bend forward.

a-ijuluús   v. To be in sad moods; not happy. ɔltʉŋánì oijulúùs person who is in sad moods. See: a-nʉkʉ́ To be foggy; be in sad moods.

a-ɨjʉtʉtarí   v. To clear away. Ɛɨjʉ́tʉ́tárí ɨnkátàmpò. The clouds have cleared off. (W). See: a-jút To erase, rub (off).

a-ɨ́k1   v itr. To become overcooked, scorched, or burned due to excessive heat so as to affect color or taste. Restrict: food. Kɛ́ɨ̀k amʉ̂ metíi ɛnkárɛ̀ náɨ́dɨ̀p. It will become burned because there is not enough water. Ɨ́ŋʉrá peê mɛ́ɨ̀k ɛndáâ. Watch so that food will not burn. Ɛ́ɨ́ká ɛndáâ náyiara. The food that is cooking is burned. LING: This verb cannot take the Progressive, Inceptive, nor Perfective-Middle affixes.

a-ikíé   To make food burn. See: a-ishurá To get burned (of food).

a-ɨ́k2   v.prog. To brush teeth. Restrict: Teeth. Ɨ́ɨká ɨlálá. Brush your teeth. Kɛ́ɨ́kà ɨlalá. The teeth have been brushed.

a-ikíé   To use to brush teeth with.

a-ɨ́k3   v.prog. To put on top of; hang, suspend. Ɛ́ɨ́k olówùàrù kérì inkírí tɔ̀ lcánì. A leopard hangs meat on top of a tree. Kɛ́ɨ́kà. It is put away. (S). Tɨ́ɨ̀kà tɛ̀ mɨ́sâ. Put it on top of the table! (S).

a-ikíé   To use to hang sth. See: a-ililí To suspend; a-rríny put away.

a-ɨká   v.mid. 1 • To be suspended, hanging. Ɛɨkɨ́ inkikompení tɔ lkɨ́tàrà. Cups are shelved on the shelf. (lit: Cups are suspended on the shelf.). See: a-ɨ́k To suspend, hang.

2 • To be aloof; haughty, arrogantly superior, puffed up, proud; disdainful; flirtatious. Kɛ́ɨ́kà ɔlmʉrraní tɛnɛ́ɨ́shɔ̀rɨ̀ ɛndáà tenétií inkítùààk. A warrior will appear flirtatious when he is given food in the presence of women. (lit: A warrior is suspended when he is given food in the presence of women.). ɔltʉŋánì ɔɨ́kà person who is aloof, haughty. See: a-dɛɛnyá To be proud; a-ɨtɔkɔɔ́s To show off; flirt; a-ŋɨdá To be proud; a-ɨpɛɛjá To be suspended; puffed up; a-ɨtaakunó To pretend.

a-ɨkaabakɨ́   v. To temporarily and loosely put a cover on top of sth. aɨkaabakɨ́ esíòòtè oltúpà To close the bottle loosely. Ɛgɨ́rà aɨkaabakɨ́ ɛnkɨlâ osésèn. He is loosely covering himself with a cloth. See: a-iteleikí To put on top of.

a-ikaakinó   v.mid. To fail to take care of a responsibility out of mutual belief that another member of the group would take care of it. Néíkaakíno ɨnkɛ́rà. The children each expected the other to do the job and so altogether the job was not done. (W). Even if a sentence with this verb has a singular subject, it is still understood that there was another party who likewise expected the singular referent to do the job and so that party did not carry it out either.

a-ɨkabakɨ́   v. To go up to a slightly raised surface. Káyìèù náɨ́kábakɨ ɛncʉ́mátá ɛ́ mɨ́sà peê márɔ́rɔ̀ oltírén. I want to go up to the top of the table so that I will not step on the floor. See: a-kéd To climb.

a-ɨkadɨkád   v. To walk slowly and carefully; walk ostentatiously. This is done by raising up one leg at a time and waiting for a few seconds before steping on the ground. This manner of walking is done by a bride, a boastful person, or a person walking in water. See: a-ɨpɛɛjarí To walk ostentatiously; a-ló To go.

a-ɨkanyɨkány   v. To break into pieces; smash. Ɛɨkanyɨ́kanya ɛnkáyíóní oltupá té síarɛ̂. The boy has smashed the bottle with a club.

a-ɨkaŋá   v.mid. 1 • To have a nap, sleep for a short period; take a siesta, doze. Ɛɨkáŋɛ̀ Tom dámà. Tom took a nap during the day.

2 • To be stiff, not moving or operating freely. Ɛɨkáŋɛ̀ ɛnkaɨná ɔ́ ltásàt The hand of the old man has become stiff (not moving freely).

a-ɨkaól   v. To make stiff, resistant to bending or moving. This could be done in multiple ways - whithering, drying, freezing, etc. Parts of the body can become stiff because of cold or blood restriction. Ágɨ́rà aɨkaól ɔlcɔní aitoósh ɛnkɔlɔ́ŋ. I am making the hide stiff by exposing it to the sun.

a-ɨkaoló   v.mid. To become stiff, rigid. Áaɨkaolótè ilkímòjìk tɛ̀ nkárakɨ́ enkijápɛ̀. My fingers became stiff because of cold.

a-ɨkár   v. 1 • To fence in. ɨ́yaʉ́ ɨnkɨ́kárrɛ̀tà máɨ́kará ɔlpááshíé. Bring the fencing branches so that we can fence (the kraal). (Pk). Kɛ́ɨ́kárà wuatá. The fences are strong. (S).

2 • To pretend. Kéíkàr. He is pretending. (S). See: ɛn-kɨ́kárrɛ́t Fence.

a-ɨkaráŋ [North]   v. [North] To fry.

a-ɨkarurúm   v. To reduce into small pieces in the mouth with a crunching noise; crunch. Ɛɨkarúrùmò oldîâ ilóìk The dog has crunched the bones inside the mouth. See: a-ikururúm To crunch; a-kakány To grind.

a-ikasíé   v. To be proud of. Káíkásìè ilmóŋí láainéí. I am proud of my oxen. Syn: a-ŋɨdarɛ́ To be proud of.

a-ɨkásh   v.s. To be comparable but better. náà kɛ́ɨ́kàsh apá nɨ́ncɛ̀, ɛɨtʉ́ ɛyɛ́ lɛlɔ̂ ...were better themselves, those ones did not di.e... Áaɨkásh engárrî. My car is better (but about the same as yours). Kɛ́ɨ́kàsh nkɨ́tɛ́ŋ láshê. The cow's calf is better (than sth. else). Kɛ́ɨ́kàsh nkɨ́tɛ́ŋ aláŋ lashê. The cow is better than the calf. (S).

a-ɨkáʉ́   v. To give birth for the first time. Ɛ́́ɨkàwùà ɛntawúó. My heifer has calved for the first time. (Pk). Ɛɨkáwua ŋolé esíánkìkì aíú ɔlkɨkáʉ́ lɛnyɛ́. The young bride gave birth yesterday to her first born boy. (Pk). Usage: For some speakers, this verb is most appropriate for animals.. See: ɛn-kɨkáʉ́ First-born daughter; ɔl-kɨkáʉ́ First-born son.

a-ikén   v. 1 • To close, shut. a-iken is extremely general in meaning, and can be applied to closing a door, suitcase, one's mouth, eyes, a window, a book, a bottle, etc. However, it is not used for closing a gourd with a lid or cap.

2 • To bring to a conclusion.

a-ɨkɛ́n   v. To enumerate; count. Ɛɨkɛnákɨ̀ apá ɨltʉ́ŋánákárêî tɛldɛ́ árî. The populace was counted (i.e. a census was taken) last year. Ɨ́́nkɛ̀nɨ̀shɔ̀ siî íyie téjò "nabô, aré, uní" ɔɔ́ntabáí îp. Do the counting saying "one, two, three" up to one hundred. aɨkɛ́n ɨntarɛ́ tɛnáà kɛ́lʉlʉ́ŋà to count the sheep (to determine) if they are all there. Sheep and cows are not counted as 1, 2, 3 and so on within Maasai culture. It is considered to bring bad fortune. A person will just look at them and approximate their numbers or know the ones that are missing. See: ɛn-kɨ́kɛ́nàrɛ̀ Counting, accounting.

ɛnk-ɨkɛná   n. Counting, mathematics. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlaɨtɛŋɛ́nànì aɨtɛŋɛ́n ɨnkɛ́rà ɛnkɨkɛná. The teacher is teaching children mathematics. (Pk). See: ɛn-kɨ́kɛ́nátá Counting.

ɛnk-ɨ́kɛ́nátá   n. Counting. See: a-ɨkɛ́n To count.

a-ɨkɛnʉ́   v. 1 • To multiply.

2 • To take account of, consider to be of important to oneself, care about. See: a-ɨkɛ́n To count.

a-ɨkɛrɛɛ́k   v. 1 • To be dirty.

2 • To do what is considered socially unacceptable. See: kɛ́rɛ́rɛ̂ Dirty, unclean.

a-ɨkɛ́s   v.prog. To harvest. Áɨ́kɛ́sɨ́tà ɛ́mʉ́kʉ́ntâ. I am harvesting the garden. (Pk). Áɨ́kɛ́sɨ́tà ɨlpáɛ̂k. I am harvesting the corn. (Pk).

a-ikí   In some suffixed forms: ikin. v. 1 • To copulate, mate, perform the act of sexual procreation between a male and a female, whether human or non-human. In this sense, the receipient is the female so the male is doing for/to. peê iló ayiolóú ɔlmʉ́rránì eneikínyè enkitók ɛnyɛ́ so that you may understand, where the warrior mates with his wife.

2 • To produce offspring for/ unto. Áatoikitîô inkíshù áainéí ɨlashɔ́ kúmòk. My cows produced many calves for me.

3 • To give birth at. aikí sipitálì To give birth at hospital.

a-ikinó   To be born in (a place). Káíkíno Kenya, kákè márà ɛ́nɛ̂ Kenya. I was born in Kenya, but I am not Kenyan.

2 • To have the identity associated with (a place); "come from" Káíkíno ɛná kɔ̂p. I am a son/daughter of this land; I have the identity and rights associated with this land. (lit: I am born unto this land.). See: a-íú To give birth; a-ishó To bear; a-iní To be born.

ɨkɨ-   pn.b. 1 • Bound pronominal prefix on verb: first person plural subject and third person object. Ɨ́́kɨ́ndipâ áàtàràmàt sîôm. We have finished taking care of the animals. (SN).

2 • Bound proniminal prefix on relative clause: first person plural subject and third person object. Éítùànì taá dúóó táatá imbáâ ámaâ kinotô pɔɔkɨ́ tókì nikíyíéú. Things are beautiful today since we have gotten all that we wanted. (Pk). Néjò: "órè taá enikinkô..." They said: "What we are going to do...". LING: The first ɨ- has a predictable vowel quality, because of the following ɨ vowel. Thus, it is linguistically epenthetic.

-ɨkɨ(n)   appl. Dative applicative form, lexically restricted to certain roots. Nɛ́yɛnɨkɨ́ ɔlcaní. He tied it to the tree. See: -akɨ(n) Dative applicative.

a-ɨkɨ́j [Chamus]   v. [Chamus] To shake. See: a-ipirripír To shake; a-ɨŋʉnʉŋʉ́n To shake; a-igusugusíé To shake; a-iseyiseyíé To shake; a-inyenyíé To shake; a-ɨpɔ́sh To shake.

a-ikilésh   v. To pray. See: a-omón To pray.

a-ikilikúán   [Chamus]: a-ikilikwán. v. To ask. Ɔltáʉ́ láí doí oshî ɨlɔ̂ tʉ́ŋání; maátà entókì náás ɛ́ɨ́tʉ̂ aikilíkùàn anáà alɨ́kɨ̀. That person is very important to me; I don't do anything without consulting or informing him. Eikilikúánua náají ɔlpáyìàn lɛ́ndà ají ɛntɔ́mɔ́nɔ́nɨ̀ ɛ́ ínâ ají. [éínà] The man of that house has asked for the woman of that house.

a-ikilikuanishó   To make inquiries. See: a-ɨpárr To ask.

a-ikinyé [South]   v. [South] To have sex ? peê iló ayiolóú ɔlmʉ́rránì eneikínyè enkitók ɛnyɛ́ so that you may understand, where the warrior mates with his wife.

ɛ-ɨ́kɨ̀ŋà   n. Of s.o. else; foreignness, strangeness, alienness; other. Usage: pejorative. Tórrìnyò ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ ɛɨ́kɨ̀ŋà. Take back the cow that belongs to s.o. else. (W). Tórrìnyò oloiŋónì lɛɨ́kɨ̀ŋà. Take back the bull that belongs to s.o. else. (W). Ɛ́tʉ́sʉ́lákínè enkínè ɛ́ɨkɨ́ŋá oreyíét. S.o.' else's goat has fallen into the river. (W). Mol (1996:70) notes that this is not as strongly pejorative as ol-méékí. See: a-ɨkɨŋaá To scorn; ol-méékí Foreigner.

a-ɨkɨŋaá   v. To scorn, frown upon, have contempt for. See: ɛ-ɨ́kɨ̀ŋà Foreignness.

a-ɨkɨrɨkɨrá   v. To shake, shiver; tremble. Nɛ́ɨ́kɨrɨ́kɨ́rá ɛnkɔ̂p olêŋ o mɛtáà kéjó enkájì áúrórì. The earth shook very much until the house is about to fall. A human can do this either from sickness or by a warrior to look impressive before women or enemies.

a-ikirnyanyá   v. To pull against an opposing force; resist; struggle. aikirnyanyá aány entorrónì to struggle to refuse evil. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔltásât aikirnyanyá akéd oldóínyó. The old man is struggling to climb up the hill/mountain. See: ɛn-kírnyanyî Tendon.

a-ɨkɨrɔtɛ́t   v. To favour; bestow a privilege upon. Áɨ́kɨ́rɔ́tɛta aɨshɔ́ pɔɔkɨ́ tókî nayíéú. I favoured him by giving him whatever he needs. See: kɨrɔtɛ́t Favourite.

a-ikishiaán   v. To be in proper physical condition; beautiful; pretty. Kéíkishíààn ɛná gárrî. This car is good (i.e in good condition). Kéíkishíààn ɛlɛ́ tʉ́ŋání. This person is pretty. Syn: a-rá sídáí To be good; pretty.

a-ɨkɨtagát   v. To be a sheltered place protected from the rain, wind, sun. Kɛ́ɨ́kɨtágàt ené. This place is a good sheltered place. LING: Cannot take Progressive form. See: ɛn-kɨ́tágàtà Shelter.

a-ɨkɨtalán   v.prog. To secretly survey, observe keenly, inquire. See: ɔl-áɨ́kɨ́tálànì Surveyor; spy; a-leén To survey.

a-ikitikít   v. To tickle. See: a-kít To scrape; en-kítíkití Armpit.

a-ikó   In some suffixed forms: a-ɨkʉ́n, a-ikón. v.prog. v.prog. To do sth. or behave towards sth. in a certain way. LING: With very high frequency, aikó co-occurs with a demonstrative pronoun such as kájì 'what', inji 'how', or néíjìà '(like) that', where néjìà refers to some information already shared between speaker and hearer. Thus, it is ungrammatical to say *eikó ɛrányátá 'she will do the singing.' Rathe Eikó néíjìà ɛrányátá. She will do the singing like that. Kɛ́rany eikó néíjìà. She will sing like that. Káaikó olŋatúny néíjìà. The lion will do that to me (e.g. attack me). Néíjìà áaikó olŋatúny ɛárátá. That is how the lion will kill me. Eikoní injí. This is how it is (usually) done. Míkinko (néíjìà)! Don't do it (that) to me! Kájì áíkó ɛnâ alámù. What am I going to do with this pen? Maitókì áɨ́kátá aikó injí mɛtáa tɔ́nyɔrra kʉná kíshú ánaa ɛnáányɔ́r. I will never do that to you again, so love these cows like how I love you. LING: fast speech [àìkónj̤í]. Néjò, órè taá enikinkô amʉ̂ kɛ́ar doí iyíóók ɛlɛ́ tʉ́ŋání, máɨ́sɨká. They said, "What we are going to do, because this man is going to kill us, let's run away. Káíkó injí atɔ́n enkiní peyíê alotú. I am going to sit down/stay for a little bit, and then I'll come. Ɛ́ɨ́kʉ́ná néjìà. He did like that. Kárá oláàsànì linó kákè kɨ́nkʉnɨ́tà ánàà ɔrrɨ́ndɨ̀k. I am your worker, but you treat me like a slave. aɨkʉnaá néíjìà (i) to do (give, spread, etc.) away like that (ii) to keep on doing like that (to someone). aɨkʉnakɨ́ néíjìà to give to him/her like that; do for, do to like that. áàɨ̀kʉ̀nàkìnò néíjìà to give it to each other like that; do to each other. aɨkʉnʉ́ʉ́ néíjìà to do like that (while) moving towards the point of reference; come like that. aɨkʉnarí néíjìà to do like that while moving away from the point of reference; go like that. Ínkùnìè néíjìà! Use it to do like that! Ínkunuunyíé! Do like that with it while moving this way! LING: In very slow speech, native speaker intuition is that the preceding word changes from -ATR to +ATR after the root, as in [(r)nkʉnuunyíé]. Kájì eikó ɔltʉ́ŋání peê ɛaparɛ́ ɛnkáí? How can a man wrestle with God? (W). Ɔláŋéní aké óyíóló ɛnaikoní tɛnɛ́ɨ́tɔbɨrɨ́ ɛnkáŋ natasakutókì. It is only the wiseman who knows how to undo a curse lodged at a certain home. Áɨ́bʉ́ŋà eneikoní tɛ̀ néréwí ɛngárrɨ̀ tɛ̀ siadí. I have discovered how to drive a car in reverse. Ɛ́nkʉ̀nà néíjìà. Do it like that! (to multiple addressees) (Pk).

2 • v.prog. To cause; make s.o. do sth. Káɨ́kʉ́nɨ́tà mɛtɔ́lɔ̀pɨ̀shɔ̀ táatá. I am causing him to vomit (directly or indirectly). LING: Any suffixed form of this root takes the allomorph ɨkʉ(n). When further suffixed with the Middle, which is always +ATR -o after the Ventive, the stem surfaces as ikuno. LING: Outside of an over-riding context, choice of suffix affects the sense of the predicate, given the relatively neutral semantics of aikó/aɨkʉ́. Eg. aikó + DAT = 'give'; aikó + VENT or AWAY = 'go, come'.

a-ikó ajá   To do what.

a-ikununó   v.mid. To be like. Órè ɛlɛ̂ kérr ojî olkípókét náà injí eikunúno eyiaŋatá. And this is what the slaughter of this castrated ram called the cleanser will be like. See: ɨ́nkʉ̀nà!; ɛ́nkùna! (pl) Do like!; inkó! Take it! (Imperative); a-ás To do; a-ɨtɔbɨ́r To do.

íkó   greeting. Greeting response from a woman. See: takúɛ́nyà Greeting to a woman; ɛ́pà Greeting response from a man.

a-ikób   v.prog. 1 • To block, bar from proceeding. Áaikobó ɛsʉ́ntàì amitikí aló. The wall blocked me from proceeding.

2 • To hit lightly. Áaikobó osoít ɛnkɛjʉ́ alóítò The stone has hit my foot while I was walking.

a-ikobikób   To walk fast and sometimes run slowly; jog.

a-ikobíé   To hit with.

a-ikód   v. 1 • To adorn. Éíkòd. She will adorn (sth). Keikódò nkérà. The children are being decorated. (S).

2 • [North] To smack s.o. a little bit.

3 • [North] To praise s.o. based on false information.

a-ikodóny   v. To hit by head. See: a-ikól To hit slightly.

a-ikók   v. 1 • To advise, counsel about how to live the right way or do things in a wise way, by s.o. who has more knowledge or experience, with the intention that the addressee will act or change behavior; exhort. Éíkòk. He will advise. Syn: a-igúɛ́n To advise, counsel. See: a-ɨtɛŋɛ́n To instruct, educate; a-ɨtaarriyíán To instruct.

2 • To be injured or touched in a place where one is already injured. Ikinkókò. You have disturbed the place I am injured. (S).

a-ikól   v. To hit slightly with no intention of injuring. aikól ɛnkɛ́ráí naitarrúóyìè To hit slightly a child that has erred. See: a-ósh To hit (with an intention to cause pain or injury); a-ilúg To hit with force to injure.

a-ikolikól   To hit repeatedly.

a-ikolikolorí   To roll over and over away, tumble away.

a-ɨkɔ́ny   v. 1 • To seize without permission; take by force; rob. See: a-úáp To seize; a-ɨbʉ́ŋ To seize; a-simaá To seize.

2 • To rape. Usage: vulgar. See: a-rɛ́k To rape; a-batát To rape.

a-ɨkɔnyaá   v. To seize, take by use of strength.

a-ɨkɔ́p   v. 1 • To touch.

2 • To hit.

3 • To hurt. See: ɔl-ɔ́ɨ́kɔ́paní Murderer.

a-ikordód   v. To mock, make fun of, jeer at.

a-ɨkɔrmɔ́j   v. To gather together in large numbers; crowd; congest. Mɨ́nkɔ́rmɔ̀j ilkuóó tè wúéjî nébò amʉ̂ kégórò Don't gather lambs together in one place in large numbers because they will strangle each other.

a-ɨkɔrmɔjá   To squeeze oneself into an already crowded place. Syn: a-idiŋíé To crowd; gather together in large numbers.

a-ɨkɔrɔ́j   v. To harass someone playfully or maliciously (especially by pretending not to know what you already know); tease. Ágɨ́rà aɨkɔrɔ́j ɨnkayîôk I am teasing boys by asking them what I already know. See: a-ɨtamaáɨ́ To ask what you already know.

a-ikorríé   v. To touch slightly. Mínkórrìè embúkù amʉ̂ kɛ́sʉlárì. Don't touch the book [even] slightly because it will fall down. Syn: a-iseyíé To touch slightly.

a-ikorrikorroó   v.away. To roll away. Ágɨ́rà aikorrikorroó osóít amʉ̂ máɨ́dɨ̀m atanápà. I am rolling away the stone because I can not carry it.

a-ikorrikorrú   To roll towards the point of reference. Syn: a-ibeleleŋoó To roll away.

a-ɨkʉ́   In some suffixed forms: ɨkʉn. v. Allomorph of a-iko(n) 'to do' which occurs with -ATR suffixes. When not suffixed or when with a +ATR suffix, a-ikó(n) or a-ikú(n) occur. Nɛ́akʉ néíjìà ɛɨkʉnárɨ siî ɔltʉ́ŋání lɛ́nkìpɨ̀rtà lémegól. So that is what is done to a person who ***. Pápâ ɔɨkʉná injí iyíóók. It is our father who has done this to us. Injí taá ɛ́nkùnàrì amʉ̂ ɨ́náŋárɛ́rɛ̀. Go this way because you will meet them coming. (lit: Do this/do like this.) (Pk). See: a-ikó To do; ɛ-nɛɨkʉnárì Instructions.

a-ikububó   v. 1 • [North] To sleep for a short time; nap.

2 • To crouch down, squat. See: a-ikurrurró To be half-asleep ??.

a-ikuldú   v. To question thoroughly with the intention of learning what is hidden; probe; inquire more. In most cases the probing person has prior knowledge or a clue of what is hidden from him/her and will try to ask more. Ínkuldú míkítólíkini ɛnɛɨkʉnárì empurrórrè Probe further to be told how the theft was conducted.

a-ɨkʉlʉjá   v.mid. To sit with the limbs close to the body. This happens when it's cold to keep the body warm. Kágɨ́rà aɨkʉlʉjá amʉ̂ áaɨnɔsá enkíjàpɛ̀. I am sitting with the limbs close to the body because I am cold.

a-ikúm   v. 1 • To ram into sth. Tápààshàrè ɨ́nâ kɨ́tɛ́ŋ oó leleoní míkìnkùm. Avoid that circularly-spotted cow so it doesn't ram you.

2 • [North] To incite, goad, provoke s.o. to do sth. together.

3 • [North] To judge, decide between people.

a-ikumoó   To incite s.o. to do sth. (on their own). See: a-óC To hit; a-náŋ To hit; a-ɨpɔ́ny To hit; a-ilúg To hit.

a-ikumú   v. To judge. See: a-igúén To judge; a-rɨ́sh To judge; ɔl-áíkúmúnònì Judge.

a-ɨkʉnaá   v.dir. To do sth. or behave towards sth. in a certain way going away from the point of reference.

a-ɨkʉnarí   To go in a certain way. Kájì kɨ́nkʉnárì? How do we go?

a-ikununó (ánàà)   v.mid. To resemble, be like; be in the form of. Kájì eikunúnò? How is it like? Eríkúnotó ɔ́ lpayíán é nkitók, kájì eikunúno? the marriage of a man to a woman, what is it like? See: a-ikó To do like.

a-ɨkʉrjʉkʉ́rj   v.prog. 1 • To try to do sth. but lack the skills to do so. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɛráí aɨkʉrjʉkʉ́rj oróréí. The child is trying to talk but cannot communicate.

2 • To destroy while trying to build. See: a-dɛdɛ́ To disassemble.

a-ikurtumorí   v. To limp; walk impeded by some physical injury or limitation. Káíkúrtúmórì aló áŋ hóo dúóó nɛ́máɨ́dɨ́mari olêŋ. I will limp to home although I am not able to walk properly.

a-ikurtút   v. To make s.o live with difficulty for a long time. This is mostly done by sickness or any kind of disability.

a-ikurtutó   To be sick for a long period without healing; manage to live with difficulty. This could last for years, and the person will probably remain this way until death.

a-ɨkʉrtʉ́t   v. 1 • To scrape; cut the surface of; wear away the surface of. Átábátátɛ̀ náɨkʉrtʉ́t ɛnkɔ̂p ɛnkáɨ́ná. I fell down and the earth scraped my hand.

2 • To drag. Ɛgɨ́rà osíkírìà aɨkʉrtʉtaá inkɨkʉ́. The donkey is dragging tree branches for fencing. (Pk). See: a-kúrt To stir, scoop.

a-ɨkʉrtʉtaá   To drag or pull sth. hard across a surface.

a-ɨkʉrtʉtá   v.mid. To be scraped.

a-ɨkʉrtʉtarí   To creep, crawl.

a-ikurtutíé   To drag with. See: a-yíét To pull.

a-ɨkʉrtʉtarí   v. To crawl, creep.

a-ikururúm   Variant: a-ikarurúm. v.prog. To crunch with mouth.

a-ikururumoó   v.away. To roll away. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔltɔmɛ́ aikururumoó osóít The elephant is rolling the stone away. Syn: a-ikorrikorroó To roll away. See: a-ikururumú To roll this direction.

a-ikururumorí   v. To roll down. Eikururumórì ɛnkɨ́tɛ̀ŋ tɔ̀ ldoinyó The cow has rolled away from the hill (i.e the cow fell down and then rolled down the hill). See: a-ikururumoó To roll away.

a-ikururumú   v. To roll this direction. Ínkururumú osóít Roll the stone this direction. Syn: a-ɨpɛrɨpɛrʉ́ To roll this direction. See: a-ikururumoó To roll away.

a-ikurrukúrr2   v. 1 • To growl, rumble, roar. Ɛgɨ́rà olówùàrù aikurrukúrr. The lion is roaring.

2 • To thunder. Kéíkurrukurrútò. It is thundering. (S). This can be done by a storm, a lion, or a machine (like one that grinds maize), but not by a person.

a-ikurrurró   v. 1 • To be half-asleep. ɔltʉŋánì oikurrúrrò person who is half-asleep.

2 • To be still, without change or interruption.

3 • To bend with legs and hands folded. See: a-ikububó To sleep for a short time; nap.

a-ikuuishó   v. To blow a horn alerting people of danger or calling other men to help in time of danger. See: a-ipotishó To call people.

a-ɨkʉyʉkʉyaá   [North]: a-ɨgʉyʉgʉyaá. v.dir. To take sth. away slowly. Ɛɨkʉyʉkʉyáyìè ɛnkɛráí emotí ayá atúà ají. The child has taken the pot away slowly into the house.

a-ɨkʉyʉkʉyʉ́   To bring slowly.

a-ɨkʉyʉkʉyarí   v.dir v.mid. To go slowly because of a weakness of some kind. Syn: a-looló To go slowly. See: a-ɨgʉyʉgʉyaá To take slowly; a-ló To go; a-yá To take; l-ɔɨgʉyʉgʉyárì Tortoise.

a-ikuyishó [North]   v. [North] To call for help; call people who have gone looking for lost cows after the cows are found. See: a-ipót To call.

ɨl-   Variant: ɨr-. gen. Masculine plural gender prefix occurring on nouns. ɨlkɨdɔŋɔ́ lɔɔ́ isirkôn donkies' tails. Tɔrrɔ́k ɨlmáárènkè. Lies are bad. irpaáshèn fences. LING: The /l/ is deleted before sonorant consonants. The vowel of the prefix agrees in ATR with following vowels.

a-ɨláb   v.prog. 1 • To take up food with the tongue: lap. Éílàb empúus ɛnkárɛ́ A cat drinks water (by taking it with the tongue).

2 • To eat with the tongue which is considered indecent. Restrict: human. aɨláb ɛndââ To eat food indecently.

a-ɨlabɨláb   To eat or drink with the tongue repeatedly.

a-ɨlál   v. To show off. See: a-itoduayá show off.

a-ilalankúsh   [North]: a-ilankúsh. v. To bluff. See: a-purú To bluff.

a-ɨlány   v. To flee; run away from, with the implication that s.o. else is in chase. Nɛ́ŋàs ɛnkáŋ aɨlanyaá. The home took off (went running away) first. Nékùɛ̀t aké ɛnkájì, nɛ́ɨ́lanyáa. The house just ran and outdistanced him. Áailanyáyìè ɛngárrî. The car outdistanced me. See usage note at a-kúɛ́t. See: a-ɨŋát To run away from; a-ɨsɨ́k To escape from.

a-ɨláŋ   v. 1 • To scorch.

2 • To shine; flash light (of a torch, lamp, etc.).

a-ɨlaŋɨláŋ   1 • To flash light to sth.

2 • To warm or heat sth.

a-ɨláp   v. To bear a grudge against. See: a-ɨbá To hate.

a-ɨlasɨlás   v.prog. 1 • To talk a lot.

2 • To flow freely, in a stream or river bed. Restrict: water. See: a-rukó To flow.

a-ɨlasɨlasíé   To drink water hurriedly.

a-ɨlásh   v. To show pride, be arrogant. Ítópóŋórì olêŋ ayám nkitók naɨ́làsh. You have gone wrong by marrying a proud wife. (SN). See: ɛn-kɨlashá Pride; a-rɨ́ny To talk proudly; a-ŋɨdá To be proud.

a-ɨlashɨlásh   To speak harshly and cruelly.

ɛ-ɨ́látá   Nom sg: ɛ-ɨlatá. Acc pl: ɨ-ɨlá. Nom pl: ɨ-ɨlá. [North] Acc sg: látá. [South] Acc sg: ɨlátá. n. Fat, drippings, oil. Kɛ́átà inkirí náàpìr ɛɨ́látá. Fat-meat has got fat in it. Ɛgɨ́ráɨ́ áàyìèrù ɛɨ́látá. Fat is being made from meat (by cooking the meat). ɛɨ́látá ɔ́ ltáà paraffin.

látá narúkò   Fat from the skin of a cow. This is the lighter fat used for drinking, as opposed to serét, which is heavier and is used for cooking. See: serét Stomach fat.

ɨlɛ́   pn.psr. Masculine plural gender prefix plus feminine singular possessor particle: those of (a feminine singular entity). Kɛ́ɨ́tɛ́rʉ̀ apá áàkʉ̀ ɨlɛ̂ kampuaní ɔ ɔ́lmòrùàk. They begin to become those of the company of the elders. See: ɨl- Masculine plural gender prefix; ɛ́ Feminine singular possessor particle.

ɨ́lɛ̂   num. Six.

a-ɨlɛjɨlɛ́j   v. 1 • To comfort, console (by words or touch); soothe. One would do this to s.o. who is bereaved and mourning; a mother would do this to a crying child. a-ɨlɛjɨlɛ́j ɛnkɛ́ráí mɛtɨ́gɨrayú To comfort a child so that she stops crying.

2 • To appease. aɨlɛjɨlɛ́j ɔlpayíán mɨ́kɨ́tápálɨkɨ To appease the man to forgive you.

a-ɨlɛlɛ́m   v.prog. To talk insincerely with a lot of good words, but with hidden motives. Áɨ́lɛ́lɛ́mɨ́tà. I'm talking good to this person, but inside I'm insincere.

a-ɨlɛ́m   v. To demand.

a-ɨlɛmɨlɛ́m [North]   v.prog. [North] To talk a lot, talk loudly, shout a lot, make noise. Káɨ́lɛ́mɨ́lɛ́mɨ́tà. I'm making noise. (S). See: a-ɨlɛmlɛ́m To make noise by talking; a-ɨlɛpɨlɛ́p To talk a lot; a-búák To shout.

a-ɨlɛmlɛ́m   v. To make noise by talking. See: a-ɨlɛmɨlɛ́m [North] To make noise by talking; a-búák To shout, bark.

a-ɨlɛ́ny   v. To bend, crush, bruise, break.

a-ɨlɛnyá   To be bent.

a-ɨlɛ́p   v.prog. 1 • To climb, ascend, rise. Ɛ́ɨ́lɛ̀p. He will ascend. Ɛɨlɛpɨ́tà. He is going up. Ɛɨlɛ́pɨ́tà. He is going up.

2 • To advance, move to a level of higher rank within a system. Éírúkó ɔláɨ́tɛ́ŋɛ́nání peê ɛɨlɛ́p ɛnkɛráí. The teacher has permitted the child to go to the next class. (Pk).

3 • To turn in a horizontal direction which is metaphorically conceptualized as "up" Órè aké peê ɨbáɨ́kɨ̀ ɛndâ jɔ́ɔ́làtà nɨ́lɛ̀p. When you reach that turning point, go up. (Pk). In K this could be used for going to Ethiopia from Kenya.

4 • To become more popular, influential (e.g. become an influential eloquent orator). Ɛɨlɛpɨ́tà ɔlpáyìàn. The man is becoming a big man. (i.e. becoming more important, not necessarily more wealthy).

a-ɨlɛpʉ́   1 • To move up, rise. Eilépua ewúásô. The river has risen. Eilépua ɛnkɔ́lɔ̀ŋ. The sun has come up. Eitérua awaŋú amʉ̂ eilépua ɛnkɔ́lɔ̀ŋ. It is getting light because the sun has risen. (Pk). Kɛ́ɨ́lɛpʉlɛ́pʉ̀. It will come up over and over.

2 • Increase, grow, get larger. Ɨ́ntɛ̀r taá aké adɔ́l nɛ́ɨ́lɛ̀pʉ̀ ɛndâp ɛ́ nkáɨ́ná. You begin to see the palm of the hand (observably) increase (in size). LING: Though the Ventive is possible with this root, the "away" directional is not: *a-ɨlɛpaá.

a-ilepíé   1 • To hoist, lift.

2 • To exalt.

a-ilepúnyè   To lift. Ant: a-dóú To descend. See: a-rrapʉ́ To lift; a-dʉmʉ́ To lift; a-doyíó To go down, east.

a-ɨlɛpɨlɛ́p   v.prog. 1 • To talk a lot, make noise, shout. This need not be a long-term property.

2 • To go up little by little. See: RELIABILITY.

a-ileshileshíé   v. To say things that the addressee is anticipated to like, with the ulterior motive that he/she will be more favorably inclined towards you. This may include verbally "buttering him/her up", praise, flattery, jokes, expressing political opinions that the addressee agrees with, etc. Syn: a-ɨtɨshɨ́p To make s.o happy.

a-ilét   v. 1 • To show wonder or surprise.

2 • To discuss, deliberate.

a-ilíáŋ   v.prog. 1 • To dangle; hang freely. Kéílíáŋà inkíyiaá ánàà inóldìà. The ears are dangling like those of a dog.

2 • To criss-cross; move along a trajectory or pattern of crossing lines.

a-iliaŋilíáŋ   1 • To keep on dangling.

2 • To keep on criss-crossing.

a-ilíár   v. To make sth. lose freshness, vigor, or vitality. Eiliarɨ́tà ɛnkɔ́lɔ̀ŋ ɨntapʉ́kà. The sun is wilting flowers.

a-iliará   v.mid. To be wilted.

a-ɨlɨbɨlɨ́b   v. To be wet. Ɨ́ncɔ̀ɔ̀ ɛlɛ̂ tásháláí ɔtasháíkia nɛ́ákʉ́ kɛ́ɨ́lɨ́bɨ́lɨ̀b ɛnɛɛ́yɨ̀m. Let this lazy one who was rained on and became wet pass. (litː Let this wet one who was rained on earlier and became wet pass.) (Pk). Kɛ́ɨ́lɨbɨ́lɨ̀b nkɨ́lâ. [kéylɪ̀bɪ́lɪ̀b] The cloth is wet. (S). See: a-shál To be wet; a-irebúk To be wet.

a-ɨlɨɨ́l   v. To be bright, shine.

a-ɨlɨɨlaá   1 • To become dim or less bright. Ɛɨlɨɨláà ɛnkɔ́lɔ̀ŋ Sunlight will diminish (i.e. the sun will set down). Ɛgɨ́rà ɔltɔ́ɔ̂sh aɨlɨɨlaá The torch's light is diminishing.

2 • To loose the ability to see clearly. Restrict: eyes. Ɛɨlɨɨláà ɨnkɔnyɛ́k ɔ́ ltásàt̀ The eyes of the old man will become weak (i.e. will not see clearly as before). The body that contains the eyes or a person cannot be the subject. This cannot refer to a congenital inability to see clearly, but refers to the process of losing visual acuity. It does not describe all vision problems, but could, for example, describe eyes that are starting to go blind or that have developed cataracts. It is typically associated with aging.

a-ililí   v. To suspend; hang; dangle. aililí inkírí peê mɛ́nyá impúusîn To suspend meat so that cats will not feed on them. Káílílio. I have hung (sth.). (SN).

a-ililíó   v.mid. To be suspended in the air. This could, but need not, imply that anything is swinging. See: a-ɨ́k To raise up.

a-ilím [South]   v. [South] To weed. See: a-irém To cultivate.

a-ɨlɨpɨlɨ́p   v. To flicker, burn.

a-ilísh   v. 1 • To clean a gourd, preparing it for storing milk. Eyáwúá ŋolé nɨ́nɨ́ oltulét olotó ailísh aɨtáá enkúkúrí. Yesterday my mother brought a gourd in its natural state so as to make a usable gourd out of it. (Pk).

2 • To have a general feeling of discomfort, illness or unease; experience malaise. Syn: a-ibisíóŋ To be ill; a-nyaalá To be ill. See: a-ír(r) To clean a calabash.

a-ilishá   v.mid. To feed. Ɛgɨ́rà Serikali ailishá olórèrè amʉ̂ eéùò ɔlámèyù The government is feeding people because famine has come. Syn: a-itotí To feed.

a-ilishó   v.mid. To be physically weak. Restrict: animate.

a-ilitilít   v.prog. To cause to be slowed down or delayed. Ílitilitó mɛtárreshú ɛngárrì Cause him/her to delay so that he/she will wait for the car. Syn: a-ibók To cause to delay.

ɨ́lɔ̂   [ɪ́llɔ̂]  Nom sg: ɨlɔ̂. Nom pl: ɨlɔɔ́. [The accusative singular is pronounced with low tone [ɨ̀llɔ̀] in context with any preceding or following word, e.g. [fv:kádɔ́lɨ́tà fv:ɨ̀llɔ̀ fv:tʉŋánì]. At the end of a phrase, the final mora may have a phonetic low tone which falls. Phonetically the the [ll] is geminate, but at least some native speakers do not like writing the geminate.] pn.dem. Masculine singular 2nd distal demonstrative; that. Óù amʉ̂ kátíi atúá ɨ́lɔ̂ sokónì ɨ́nâ ɔlɔ́ŋ. [àtúá ɪ̀lɔ̀ sòkónì] Come because I will be at that market that day. Nɛ́mɨ̀r ɨ́lɔ̂ lɨkáɨ ɔɨŋɔ́nɨ̀ básì nélotu aɨtɔrɛ́ inkíshú. He (a bull) chased that other bull, then he came to rule the cows. (W). Áɨ́ŋáɨ́ ɨlɔ̂? ([áɪ́ŋáɪ́ ɪ̀llɔ̂]) Who (masc.) is it? (W). Kálɔ̀ árì apá ɨlɔ̂? Which year was that? See: lɛ́lɔ̂ Masculine plural 2nd distal demonstrative; those.

ɛn-ɨ́lɔ̀   That one. Kákè ɨmɨkɨyâ ɛnkárná inó ɔ́ ɛnɨ́lɔ̀ tʉŋánì lɨ́tádámua. But we will not take your name or that one (of) the person that you have thought of. See: Pronouns-Demonstratives; ɨ́nâ Feminine singular 2nd distal demonstrative; that.

a-ɨlɔgaá   v.away. To cause a little liquid to pour out of a container; spill; slosh. aɨlɔgaá ɛnkárɛ́ To pour out little water.

a-ɨlɔgɨlɔgaá   To keep on spilling out. See: a-ibukoó To pour out.

a-iloikí   Variant: a-ilokí. [North]: a-ɨlɔ́k. In some suffixed forms: iloikin. v.prog. 1 • To take turns at; alternate, go back and forth; swing back and forth between two states or conditions. Kɛ́gɨ́rà ailoikí ɨnkájíjík. He is taking turns in entering houses. Kɛlɔkɨ́tà elde páyìàn. This man is taking turns (e.g. from one wife's house to the next). (-K S). Kéílokínò nkíshú. They are rotating taking care of each other's cows. (S). Káailoikinó Leonard o Kent áàsìè lkásì. Leonard and Kent are taking turns working with me. (S).

a-ɨlɔɨ́rr   v. To make sorrowful, sadden. Ɛɨlɔ́ɨ̀rr ɨnâ báɛ̀. That issue will sadden him/her.

a-ɨlɔɨrrá   To be sorrowful; suddened. Ɛgɨ́rà aɨlɔɨrrá amʉ̂ etúátà inkíshù pɔ́ɔkɨ He is being sorrowful because all the cows died.

a-ilokilók   v. To spill over, overflow.

a-ɨlɔ́m   v.prog. To make dull or stupid. Ɛ́ɨ́lɔ́má ɛnaishó ɔlpayíán Beer has stupified the man.

a-ɨlɔmá   To be stupid.

ɨlɔɔ́   pn. Free-standing form 'those of', having to do with; masculine. ɨlɔɔ́ mpɨ́saí tɔ́mɔ̂n for ten shillings(W). Ɛsʉ́lárɛ̀ tɛ̀ nɛ́akʉ mmɛŋasákɨ̀ ɨnkɛ́râ ɨlɔɔ́ mɛ́nyɛ̀. It is an embarrassment when children do not greet the fathers. (Pk). Nétií ɨlɔ́ lɔɔ́nkuukuuní. There are those (stories) of people who have to do with wild animals. (W). See: ɔlɔɔ́; ɔɔ́ Of; ɨnɔɔ́ Those of (feminine).

a-ɨlɔɔjá   v. To show desire to fight. Míntókì aɨlɔɔjá amʉ̂ mɛátaɨ ɔlárràbàl. Don't show your desire to fight because there is no war. Usage: people or animals. See: a-ɨmɔɔjá To show desire to fight.

a-ɨlɔpɨlɔ́p   v.prog. 1 • To repeatedly dip self into a liquid. Kɛ́nyɔ́rr ɔlmákàʉ̀ aɨlɔpɨ́lɔpa ɛnkɑ́rɛ́. The hippo likes dipping into water repeatedly.

2 • To drink a liquid repeatedly. Usage: colloquial. Áɨ́lɔ́pɨ́lɔ́pɨ́tà ɛnkárɛ́. (i) I repeatedly dip myself into the water. (ii) I drink the water repeatedly.

3 • To make irrevelant and irresponsible interjections in a discussion; make remarks that interrupt. aɨlɔpɨlɔ́p ɨlɔmɔ́n To make remarks that interrupt (in a discussion).

a-ilopilopíé   To dip sth. into a liquid repeatedly.

ilpile   Fish.

a-ilubulúb   v. To blister, swell. Némòrròójù, néílùbùlúbù, nɛ́danya aɨɔtɨɔtá, nétiu ánàà ɨlpɛpɛ́dɔ̀. It becomes rough, it swells, it bursts and it becomes like scabies. Kábúl ɛnê náilubúlùb tɛ̀ nkaɨná. I want to pierce this blister on my hand. (Pk). See: a-tɛ́j To swell.

a-ɨlʉ́d   v.prog. 1 • To sway, move one's body. Ɛ́́ɨ́lʉ̀d. He will sway. Ɛ́́ɨ́lʉ́dɨ́tà. She is swaying. (W). Áílúdìè ɛnkɛ́ráɨ́. I am swaying the child.

2 • [North] To be tall.

3 • [North] To be late. Kɛ́ɨ́lʉ̀d. He is tall/late. (S). This could be said of leaving for Nairobi at 4 p.m., which would be late in the day.

a-ilúg   v. 1 • To hit with force at close range, with a projectile or sth. in the hand. Ááílúgò iyíé. I hit you. (W). Áílúgò ɨntáɨ́. I hit y'all. (W). Áílúgò nɨnyɛ́. I hit him. (W). Kílúgò íyie. You hit me. (W). Áailugó nɨ́nyɛ̀. She hit me. (W). Kílúgó ɨ́ntaɨ. Y'all hit me. (W).

2 • To drink too much liquid. Eilugítò ɛnáíshó. He is drinking too much beer. Kɛ́ɨ́lʉ́gwà naishó. He has drunk too much beer. (S). Kɛ́ɨ́lʉ́gwà nkárɛ́. He has drunk too much water. (S).

a-ilugó   To be restless; go here and there. ailugó aɨŋɔrʉ́ inkíshú naɨ́mɨnâ To go here and there looking for lost cows. Eilúgo ɛnkárɛ̀. The water moves to and fro/heaves. See: a-ósh To hit; a-náŋ To hit; a-ɨpɔ́ny To hit; a-ikúm To hit; a-idúl To drink excessively.

a-ɨlʉmpʉlʉmpá   v.mid. To cause unnecessary delay. Míntókì aɨlʉmpʉlʉmpá mɛshɔ́mɔ̀ entékê. Stop delaying (yourself) unnecessarily (because) the plane will start going. [Implication: you will be left behind.]. Áɨ́lʉ́mpʉ́lʉ́mpɛ̀ mɛshɔ́mɔ̀ ɔlpáyìàn lâî. I delayed unnecessarily (for so long), with the result that my husband left (without me). Áɨ́lʉ́mpʉ́lʉ́mpɛ̀ níkìpùò sáâ nabô. I delayed unnecessarily with the result that we left at 7:00.

a-ɨlʉrá [North]   v. [North] To sleep. See: a-ɨrʉrá To sleep.

a-ilús [North]   v. [North] To eat repeately (mostly milk). See: a-nyá To eat.

a-iluutó   v.mid. To be depressed, be unhappy. LING: There is no word without the Middle ending, *a-iluút.

a-ɨ́m   [West]: a-yɨ́m. v.prog. 1 • To pass through and proceed on, traverse; pass by; penetrate. Áyɨ́mɨ́tà ɛntɨ̂m. I am going through the forest. (W). Káɨ́mɨ́tà nkóítéí náló Karen. I am passing/walking through (along) the path going to Karen. (SN). Órè apá peê éúní ɨlmʉ́rràn nɛ́yɨmâ osínkírá. During the warriors' graduation ceremony, they all passed through the small hut. (Pk). Étóóshó ɛnkáíyóní empírà aimíé oldíríshà. The boy kicked a ball through the window. Ɛ́ɨ́má ɛngárrî ɔlbarɨbárà. The car has passed on the road. Nélò ɔltɔmɛ́, órè aké peê élô, néjò áɨ́ŋʉ́ráa nɛ́lau ɛnɛɨmá. And the elephant went, when it went it tried to look but it missed where it (the hare) passed. Átódúàà ɛnkárɛ́ sápʉ̀k nayɨmá ɛwúásò ŋirô. I have seen a lot of water running in the brown river. (Pk). A: Ɛntɛ́kɛ̀ ɨ́ɨ̀m? B: Áló aɨ́m ɛntɛ́kɛ̀ aɨrɔrɔkɨ́ ɨnkɛ́rà áinêî. A: Are you going by plane? b: I am going by plane to greet my children.

2 • To pass an examination. Kɛ́ɨ̀m Kent ɛntɛ́mátá. Kent can pass the exam.

3 • [North] To follow. ɛshɔmɔ́ áàɨ̀m rrékíé. They have gone to follow the path. (SN).

a-imíé   To drive through, force through. Káímìè nkíshú mukarétè. I will drive the cattle through the cattle dip. (i.e. to wash them) (S). Táwùàrà taá enconí peê itúm eníímíè empítò. Slash out the skin so that you get a place to pass string through.

a-ɨmʉ́   In some suffixed forms: a-ɨmʉ́n. To pass through. Káɨ́mʉ́tà. I'm passing through. (S). Káaɨmʉnɨ́. I will be passed. (People will walk towards me and then continue on.) (SN). Káaɨmuakɨ́. I have been passed by (e.g. by people walking on by). (SN). Q: Ají ɨ́ɨ́mɨ́tà? A: Kááɨ́mɨ́tà atúá táòn ɛ Marlál. Q: Where are you passing through? A: I am passing through Maralal town. (SN) (This conversational exchange would make sense if two people are talking by phone, so that one cannot see the other.). Kááɨ́mʉ. I will pass by you. (SN). Íimúákɨ̀. Pick me up (tomorrow.)/ Pass by me, come see me (S). Kááɨ́mʉ̀. I will pass by, call on you. (with or without picking you up to go somewhere together) (SN).

a-ɨmá   In some suffixed forms: a-ɨmár. To pass by going away. Káaɨmarɨ́. I will be passed. (People will walk away from me.) (SN).

ɨm-   neg. Variant of Negative prefix m-. Imikíiyíéú ... We don't want you...

a-imaampút   v. To bluff. See: a-purú To smoke, bluff.

a-ɨmág   v. To trick someone by taking a share more than what you are suppose to get leaving the other person with less share; cheat. Órè hɔ́ɔ́ nɨ́rá bótór, mɨ́màg ɛnkɛ́ráí kɨtɨ́ Although you are big, don't trick a young child.

a-ɨmagárr   v.prog. To rebuke to an extreme degree; criticise and disapprove overly harshly to cause fear, tyrannize, behave tyrannically. Mɨ́mágàrr ɔlɨkáɨ̀, ɨ́ncɔ̀ɔ̀ ɛ́ɨ́rɔ̂. Don't rebuke the other one, let him talk .

a-ɨmagarrakɨ́   To force s.o do sth by rebuking harshly. See: a-buaakɨ́ To shout at.

a-ɨmakɨ́   v. To mention, reveal, verbally expose; talk about. Kɛ́ɨ̀màkɨ̀ Kent oltuŋánì lenkóp encé orécò. Kent talked about a man in his home area that kills people. (S). Tɛ̀ nkʉtʉ́k aké ɛ́táárá ayɨmakɨ́ ɛntorróní ɛnyɛ́ pɔɔkɨ́. It is only by mouth that he beat him to expose all his wrongdoing. (Pk). iróreí lɔɔ́ lMáásâɨ̂ ɔɔ́ɨmákɨ̀ empúkúnotó ɔ́ ltʉŋánì Maasai words that reveal types of people.

a-ɨmál   v. 1 • To give a cow, sheep or a goat to a relative to avoid calling his/her name but to be able to call the person by the name of what has been given e.g patáwúó 'of heifer'. Káɨ́málà nkáíbártànì e moses. I have given something to Moses' new wife. (S). This custom yields terms of address, as follows. If you give a woman a goat, you call each other pakíné. If you give her a female calf, you call each other patáwó; for a male calf, paáshe; for a sheep, pankérá; for a young goat or sheep, pakwó.

3 • [Purko] To insult s.o. by the name of a respected person.

a-imalíé   To give a cow, sheep or a goat to s.o to avoid his/her name. Káímálìè ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ. I will give him a cow.

a-ɨmaleés   v. To be overly calm and humble. This is mostly mistaken to be foolishness, and is prototypically characterized by being slow, not talking. Káɨ́máléès. I am calm. See: a-bɔ́rr To be humble.

a-ɨmalɨmál   [West]: a-ɨmalmál. [South]: a-ɨmalmál. v. 1 • To fool about (as children might do), be negligent, goof off. Kélo ɔláíyíóní aɨmalɨmál tɛ̀ shóò. The boy is going to neglect herding. (Pk). Kélo ɔláíyíóní aɨmalɨmalíé ɔlɨkâɨ̂ tɛ̀ shóò. The boy will go and distract the other (boy) during herding. Ɛátà ɨnâ kɛráí ɛlʉ́kʉ́nyá amʉ̂ eipírrio sokónì néshukúnyè ɛ́ɨ́tʉ̂ élô aɨmalɨmál. That child is responsible because she ran to the market and returned without going to goof off. ɔltʉŋánì ɔɨmalɨ́màl a person who is negligent (or fools about). Ɛshɔmɔ́ ɨnkɛ́râ áàɨ̀màlɨ̀màl ɔmɛtáà nɛ́ɨ́nɔs inkíshù ɨmpáretí ɔɔ́ ltʉ́ŋánák. The children have gone and played around until the cows ate people's crops. (W).

2 • To engage in ilicit sexual activity. Ɛɨmálímálá ɨnâ titó ɔmɛtáà nɛ́nʉtayú. That girl has played around until she became pregnant. (W).

a-ɨmalmál [North]   [West]: a-ɨmalmál. v. To fool about, goof off; not do work well, through carelessness or being distracted. Ɛshɔmɔ́ ɨnkɛ́râ áàɨ̀màlmàl ɔmɛtáà nɛ́ɨ́nɔ́s inkíshù impáretí ɔɔ́ltʉ̀ŋànàk. The children have gone and played around until the cows ate people's crops. (W). See: a-ɨmalɨmál To fool about.

a-ɨmány   v. 1 • To swear by one's father's name or one's best bull. Ɛ́ɨ́màny ɔlpáyìàn ilmóŋí lɛnyɛ́nà. The man will swear by his bulls.

2 • To take pride in one's animals.

a-ɨmanyá   To swear by the name of one's cows or the name of one's father.

a-ɨmarɨrɨ́   v. 1 • To look upwards at.

2 • To admire, respect. Ɛ́máɨ́mariríá Yesʉ ɔ́láâ nɨnyɛ́ ɔláítúrúkóní náà ɔlɔɨtabáya enkírúkótó âŋ... Let's look up to Jesus who is the author and finisher of our faith...

3 • To put trust in.

a-ɨmarrɨmárr   v.prog. v.prog. To bud.

2 • v.prog. To be very bright and shiny. Usage: rare. Kɛ́ɨ́marrɨ́màrr ɛnkɨ́lâ The cloth is so bright and shinny.

a-ɨmasó   v.mid. To be proud. See: a-ŋɨdá To be proud.

ɨ́mɛ̀   neg. 1 • Not, no. See: ḿmɛ̀ Not, no; ɨmɛɛ́tà He has not, there is not; ɨmɛɛ́taɨ There is not.

imeékure   [North] Acc sg: mokúré. adv. No longer. Órè oshî táatá néméékure kílótú aɨrɔrɔkɨ́ ánàà apá. Nowadays you don't come to greet me like before. (Pk). Órè oshî táatá nɛ́taá ɨntáirrí eishopí imeékure áâ ɨnamʉ́kà oó lonítò ánàà apá. These days people wear tire sandals, not leather sandals like before. (Pk). Ɛ́táá doí apá tásàt ɛldɛ̂ áyíóní imeékure áâ bíyótó That boy is disabled, he is no longer healthy. (Pk). Ɛ́táá tásàt imeékure apá ɛɨdɨ́m atanápà intokitín naáíròshì. He is weak; he is no longer able to carry heavy things. (Pk). Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɨ́tɛ̀ŋ ayeyú amʉ̂ imeékure ɛ́átâ kʉlɛ́. The cow is about to stop letting out milk because it does not have more milk. (Pk). Mokúré agól. I'm no longer strong. (SN). See: ḿmɛ̀ No, not.

ɨmɛɛ́tà   v.s. 1 • he.has.not.

2 • He/she has not; there is not. See: ɨ́mɛ̀; ḿmɛ̀ Not, no; ɨmɛɛ́taɨ There is not.

ɨmɛɛ́taɨ   v.s. There is not. See: ɨ́mɛ̀; ḿmɛ̀ Not, no; ɨmɛɛ́tà He has not, there is not.

a-ɨmɛ́k   v. 1 • To be funny, cheeky, crude.

2 • To transgress.

a-ɨmɛrlɛ́l   v. 1 • To be glittery, shiny. Kɛ́ɨ́mɛ́rlɛ̀l emótì ŋejúk. The new cooking pot is glittery. (Pk). Kɛ́ɨ́mɛ́rlɛ̀l enkiwuaŋatɑ́ ɛ́ ncán. The lightening is flashy (whenever it comes). (Pk). This does not necessarily mean that it is flashing over and over.

2 • To flash. Restrict: lightening.

3 • To throb or wince with pain, as of limbs.

a-ɨmɛ́rr   v. 1 • [North] To look down upon one who is unfortunate or unpriviledged.

2 • To be arrogant; pretend to know nothing. See: a-wuasá To be arrogant; a-yíál To be arrogant.

a-ɨmɛrrɨmɛ́rr   v.prog. To walk as if unable to control one's movements; stagger. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlámɛ́rání aɨmɛrrɨmɛrrarrí aló áŋ. The drunkard is staggering to go home.

ímîêt   [North] Acc sg: ímèt. [Chamus] Acc sg: ímêt. num. The cardinal number five. Ilkimojík ímîêt ɛátà ɔltʉ́ŋání tɛ̀ nkaɨná nábò. It is five fingers that a person has on one hand.

a-ɨmɨ́n   v.prog. To get lost, go astray. Áaɨmɨ́n ɛnkɛráí. My child will be lost. Éímíníé ɛnkáyíóní inkíshú. The boy has lost the cows. áaɨmɨná ɛnkɨ́tɛ̀ŋ. My cow got lost. ɛɨmɨnɨ́tà ɛnkɨ́tɛ̀ŋ. Th e cow is going astray. ɛɨmɨ́nʉ ɛnkɨ́tɛ̀ŋ. The cow will stray towards this side. aɛ́n inkíshú naáɨ́mɨnâ peê mɛ́nyá ilowuarák to tie (for protection) cows that are lost so that they are not eaten by wild animals (Pk). See: a-mɨ́n To loose.

a-imirkikoó   v. To throw away. aimirkikoó orinká to throw away a club. See: a-náŋ To throw.

a-imís   v. To disappear from sight. enkijíko naimisó tɛ̀ nkárɛ̀ the spoon that disappeared in the water.

a-imisíé   1 • To make sth. disappear from sight; cover, hide. Áaimisíé ɨnkʉjɨ́t. Grass covered me (i.e I can not be seen). aimisíé tɛ̀ nkɨ́lâ To hide it with the cloth.

2 • To prevent sth. from being discovered. aimisíé ɛmbáɛ̀ peê méyíólóúnì To hide an issue so that it will not be known.

a-imisiginó [North]   v.mid. [North] To be depressed, feel sad. Míntókì aimisiginó. Stop feeling sad/depressed. See: misigîn A poor person; a-ɨsɨnanúó To be depressed.

a-ɨmɔɔjá   v. To show desire to fight. Míntókì aɨmɔɔjá amʉ̂ mɛátaɨ ɔlárràbàl. Don't show your desire to fight because there is no war. Usage: people or animals. Syn: a-ɨlɔɔjá To show desire to fight.

a-imotót   v. To be salty (of a liquid).

a-imú   Variant: im‹. v.prog. 1 • To be satisfied. Áímù olótótó. I've walked enough. (S). This could be said after 5-6 hours. Ɛɨtʉ́ aímù. I am not satisfied. (SN).

a-imúó   v.mid. To get satisfied. Moókíré anyá ɛndáà amʉ̂ áímuo. I will not eat food again because I am satisfied/full. . See: a-baɨkɨ́ To be sufficient; a-ɨm To pass. LING: Note -ATR 'motion towards' form a-ɨmʉ́ which contrasts with a-imú.

a-imúg   v. 1 • To doze. Ɛgɨ́rà entitó aimúg amʉ̂ kéyieu nɛ́ɨ́rʉ̀rà. The girl is dozing because she wants to sleep.

2 • [North] To flinch, jump back from feigned attack. See: a-ɨrʉrá To sleep.

a-ɨmʉjʉmʉ́j   v. 1 • To suck a sweet hard substance. Kɛ́nyɔr ɛnkɛráí aɨmʉjʉ́mʉja ɔsɛrɛmɛ́ntɛ A child likes to suck a sweet.

2 • To rinse the mouth with a liquid. ɛnkɨtɨ́ árɛ́ náímújúmujie ɛnkʉ́tʉ́k little water to drink (lit: little water to rinse the mouth with).

a-ɨmʉkʉmʉ́k   v.prog. 1 • To chew secretly so as not to be noticed. Ɛgɨ́rà aɨmʉkʉmʉ́k ɛndââ He is chewing food secretly.

2 • To talk in whispers. Émintokíkì áàɨ̀mʉ̀kʉ̀mʉ̀kà ɛ́mbalunyíé oróréí Don't talk in whispers, make it clear (i.e shout for all of us to hear).

3 • To snigger so as not to be noticed. aɨmʉkʉmʉ́k enkuenîâ To laugh secretly.

a-ɨmʉ́l   v.prog. To cover, close. Kɛ́ɨ́mʉ̀l ɔltʉ́ŋání ɨnkɔnyɛ́k tɛnɛ́ɨ́rʉ̀rà A person will cover/close his eyes when he sleeps.

a-ɨmʉlʉmʉ́l   To cover; blindfold; wrap in sth.

a-ɨmʉrgʉtaá   v. To gulp.

a-ɨmʉrjaá   v.itr. To swallow whole. Ɛɨmʉrjáyìè ɔlŋatúny enkitejó. The lion has swallowed the hare.

a-imutíé   v. To be after the expected or usual time; delayed, late. Áímútìè ɛ́ɨ́tʉ̂ aló áŋ. I am late from not going home. See: a-mutú To get late (in the evening).

a-imutikí [North]   v. [North] To delay into the evening. See: a-itumutikí To delay s.o.; a-mutikí To be late.

ɨn-   Variant: ɨn-; i-; ɨ-. gen. Noun prefix for feminine plural referent. Nɛ́yá inkíshú ɛnyɛ̂ ó isirkôn. He took their cows and donkies.

ɨ́nâ   [ɪ́nnâ]  Nom sg: ɨnâ. Acc pl: ɨnɔɔ́. Nom pl: ɨnɔ́ɔ̀. [North] Acc sg: inîâ. pn.dem. 1 • Feminine singular demonstrative; 2nd degree of distalness; that. Máɨ́nɔsá ɨ́nâ dáà Let's eat that food.

2 • Feminine singular demonstrative, 4th degree of distalness; that out-of-view. LING: The accusative singular is ronounced [ɨ̀nnà] in context with any preceding or following word. Phonetically the the [nn] is geminate, but at least some native speakers do not like writing the geminate. Words like ɨ́nâ with H(H)F tone in isolation become L in context. In the following, surface ɨ́nà occurs, presumably due to rightward spreading of H from the Possessive ɛ́: fvːNɛ́dʉmʉ́nyɛ̀ fvːɨntásatí fvːárè fvːɛ́ fvːɨ́nà fvːáŋ. 'Two old ladies from that home rise.'. See: Pronouns-Demonstratives; ɨ́lɔ̂ Masculine singular 2nd distal demonstrative; that.

ɨnadúóó   Previously-mentioned.

tɛ́ɨ́nà; tɛ́ɨ́nâ   From that. Míkíntókì adál tɛ́ɨ́nà kíóòk. Don't keep reflecting with that mirror at me (i.e. the light from the mirror is disturbing me). Néputi ɔlaigúɛ́nànì tɛ́ɨ́nà âŋ. The age-set leader is ordained from that home.

a-ɨnapɨnáp   v. 1 • To walk quickly. Usage: insulting.

2 • To breathe fast and in a non-normal fashion due to fever. See: a-siooyó To walk quickly; a-ɨsarrɨsárr To walk quickly; a-isurokí To walk quickly.

a-ɨnáʉ́r   v. To tire s.o., cause to become tired. Káagɨrá ɛná síáàì aɨnaʉ́r. This work is making me tired. See: a-naurú To become tired.

a-ɨnaʉrá [North]   v.mid. 1 • [North] To be tired. Káɨ́náʉ̀rà. I am tired (perhaps because of working a long time). (SN). Kɛ́ɨ́naʉ́rɨtâ lpágásì olêŋ. The workers are very tired. (SN). Káɨ́náʉ́rìè ŋolé. I have made him tired. / I have weighed him down. (SN). See: a-naʉrá To be tired.

ɨncɛ́rɛ̀   Variant: incérè; ncɛ́rɛ̀. dem. 1 • That; in order that; the reason is.

2 • Incipient complementizer for direct speech complement. Néjòkìní ɨncɛ́rɛ̀, kɛ́ɨ́tayù inkíshú íîp ímíèt. They were told that they were to pay five hundred cows.

incériaá   inter. Interrogative phrase proving to the hearer how untrue his/her earlier statement is. The speaker will repeat the statement made by the former speaker and then add incériaá? "How come? For what reason? Namely?" A: Ɛɨtʉ́ aló áŋ. B: Ɛɨtʉ́ iló áŋ incériaá? A: I did not go home. B: You did not go home, how come? (Implication: you did go home).

ínè [Purko]   Nom sg: inê. 1 • Distal locative demonstrative, indicating approximately where the addressee is located; there, in that location. LING: After tɛ̀, the cliticized form ínè occurs, producing téínè. Shɔ́mɔ̀ tátàlà ínê peê tenélèŋ níkipuonú áàìdùrrìè inkíshú. Go and survey there, if you find it green enough with pasture then we can take the cows.

2 • That place already mentioned. Nɛ́yɛ téínè. It died just there (that place). LING: Like all HF words, ínê surfaces as ìnè in context. See: nénên Those places; Pronouns Þ Demonstrative pronouns.

ɨ́nɛ̂   Variant: ɨnɛ-. psr.prt. The one(s) of; used with a following demonstrative or gender-prefixed noun. LING: This is often used with a following time expression. ɨnɛɨ́lɔ̀ árì of that year. See: ɛ́ Feminine singular possessor.

a-ɨnɛnɛ́ŋ   v. 1 • To assess the weight of sth.

2 • To assess, try, tempt. In S, this can include testing s.o., either with strengh physically, or ability in school.

a-ɨnɛnɛŋaá   v. To try out.

a-ineníá   v. To be piled; crammed. Ɛgɨ́rà ɨmbáâ áàìnènìà kírréshítô è ntúmò naɨmakinyíékì pɔɔkɨ́ The issues are getting piled up as we wait for the meeting that all of them will be discussed. See: a-sót To pile them up.

a-ɨnɛpʉ́   In some suffixed forms: a-ɨnɛpʉ́n. v.s. 1 • To catch up with s.o. or sth. which is ahead (e.g., on the road, in work). Ɛɨnɛ́pʉ̀. He will catch up with him. Áɨ́nɛ́pʉ̀. I will catch up with him/her. Áínépua. I have caught up with him/her. Nɛ́ɨ́nɛ̀pʉ̀ ɔltásât, néjò áɨ́rɔ́rɔ́kɨ́, nɛ́ɨ́ŋatáà. He caught up with an old man, and tried to greet him, but he ran away.

2 • To meet or find s.o. or sth. Áɨ́ŋásìè peê aɨnɛ́pʉ̀ tɛ̀ súkùùl. I was surprised to find him at school. Áɨ́nɛ́pʉ̀ tɛ̀ súkùùl. I'll find (meet) him/her at school. Áɨ́nɔ́sɨ́tà ɛndáà asiokí amʉ̂ álótítò aɨnɛpʉ́ ɛngárrì. I am eating food quickly because I'm going to catch (meet) the bus/car. (W). LING: The simple form *a-ɨnɛ́p does not occur synchronically. A directional suffix must occur. In Central Maa, the Toward and Away directionals preclude use of the progressive aspect suffix -ɨ́tà. Thus, a-ɨnɛpʉ́ and a-ɨnɛpaá formally pattern as stative verb stems. In North Maa, the progressive is acceptable: Káɨ́nɛpʉ́tà. 'I'm catching up.' (S -K, -Pk).

a-ɨnɛpaá   To catch up with s.o. or sth. while going away; a-ɨnɛpaá and a-ɨnɛpʉ́ are basically synonymous. See: a-inót To find.

Ingiito   n.prop. Place name. Probably in Kajiado District, near ɛmbɔɔ́.

e-iní   v.pass. To be born. Órè peê einí aké ɛnkɛ́ráí.... When a child is born.. LING: The root i(n), associated with 'giving birth', only occurs in derived forms.

a-inyíé   v.appl. To be born at (a time). See: a-íú To bear offspring, give birth; a-ikí To bear; copulate.

ínîâ [North]   pn.dem. [North] North Maa variant of ínâ 'that'. ínîâ pârr [ìnìà pârr] that day (SN). See: Pronoun Paradigm Þ Deomonstrative.

a-ininíŋ   v. To listen, pay attention. Tábòlò inkííyaa inónók; máíniniŋó oróréí lɛ́ nKáí. Open your ears; let's listen to the word of God. (W).

a-ininiŋishó   To listen, pay attention. See: a-níŋ To hear.

injí   pn.dem. Thus, this way, like this. Pápâ ɔ́ɨ́kʉná injí iyíóók. It is our father who has done this to us. Injí taá ɛ́nkʉ̀nàrì amʉ̂ ɨ́náŋárɛ́rɛ̀. Go this way because you will meet them coming. abá injí To be as big as this.

ɔ-ɨnkát   Nom sg: ɔ-ɨ́nkat. Acc pl: ɨ-ɨnkatí. Nom pl: ɨ-ɨ́nkatí. n. Wildebeest, gnu. In Samburu, the tail of this animal is decorated and used by elders to swat flies.

In-kiítò   n.prop. Place name. Probably in Kajiado District, near ɛmbɔɔ́.

inkó   imp. Second person inflected form of a-ikó(n). Inkó! Take it! Inkó? Can you do it? (S). See: a-ikó To do; Ɛ́nkʉ̀nà (pl); Ɨ́nkʉ̀nà Take it! (Imperative).

ɨ́nkʉ̀nà   imp. Take it! See: a-ikó To do; Ɛ́́nkʉ̀nà! (pl); inkó! (sg) Take it! (Imperative).

ɨ́nkʉ̀nà   Acc pl: ɛ́nkʉ̀nà. v.imp. Do like! See: a-ikó Do to.

(l)-inó   Nom sg: ínò. pn.psr. Your. ɛnkají inó your house (W). Shɔ́mɔ̀ tɔ́rɔ̀jɔ̀ sútúó linó meéù bɔɔ́. Go and signal yur friend to come out. (SN). l- is prefixed when the possessed is masculine. See: Possessive pronoun paradigm.

ínò   imp. Be off! Get out of the way! See: Cómo go away!.

a-ɨnɔ́k   [North]: inók. PF: a-inúá. v.prog. 1 • To light (fire, lamp), kindle fire. Káɨ́nɔ́kɨ́tà nkɨ́má I'm lighting a fire. (S). Ɨ́nuáá ɔltáà amʉ̂ kémisimis doí ájì. Light the lamp because it is dark here in the house.

2 • To make feverish or infected. Káaɨnɔkɨtâ nkíréwùà. My body has been attacked by malaria. (S). See: a-ɨpɨrʉ́ To kindle fire.

inónók [West]   Nom pl: ínonó. pn.psr. Your plural (things). Néjokí ɔlpáyian: Papa áí, ámaâ ɨ́mɔ́nɨ́ra tɛ̀ nɨ́kɨya kʉlɔ̂ mɔ́ŋɨ́ linóno? They told the man, "Our father, do you mind if we take these bulls of yours?". Órè intɨ́pátɨ́ inóno náà imólelîân ɨ́lmákɛsɛ́n ɨltáárrósérò amʉ̂ nɨncɛ́ óoyíú ɨnɔɔ́ nkakúí inóno. Your lineage is imólelîân, ɨ́lmɔ́kɛsɛ́n, and ɨltáárrosérò because they are the sub-clans of your grandparents (lt. because they are the ones your grandparents gave birth to). (Pk). Tábòlò inkííyaa inónok; máíniŋinɔ oróréí lɛ́ nKáí. Open your years; let's listen to the word of God. (W). Kákè eótò ɨlnyányấ línonók olɛ̂ŋ. But your tomatos are overripe. (W).

ɨnɔɔ́   Nom pl: ɨnɔ́ɔ̀. pn. Those of; feminine. Néjò ɨnɔ́ɔ̀ ŋɔtɔ́nyɛ̀... Their mothers said... (KS). ɨnɔɔ́ mpɨ́saí tɔ́mɔ̂n for ten shillings(W). See: ɔɔ́ Of; ɨlɔɔ́ Those of (masculine).

a-inopú   v. To come last. See: siadí Last.

a-inórr   v. To falsely speak words that damage the reputation of another; slander. Míkíntókì ainórr hɔ́ɔ́ nɨ́kɨ́mbáyìè. Don't slander me even though you have hated me. See: a-isúr To slander.

a-ɨnɔ́s   v.prog. 1 • To eat. Ɛɨnɔ́sɨ́tà ɔlŋatúny ɛncɛrɛ́rɛt. The lion is eating the monkey. (W). Ɛɨnɔ́sɨ́tà ɛncɛ́rɛrɛ́t ɔlŋátúny. The monkey is eating the lion. (W). Ɛɨnɔ́sɨ́tà olkínyáŋ olowuarú márà. The crocodile is eating the leopard. (W). Ɛɨnɔ́sɨ́tà olówuarú márâ olkinyáŋ. The leopard is eating the crocodile. (W). Áɨ́nɔ́sɨ́tà ɛndáà. I am eating food. Átódúàà náají ɛntúrkulúò naɨnɔsɨ́tà ilkúrt tɛ̀ mpɔ́lɔ̂s ɛ́ bɔɔ́. I have seen a dove eating worms in the middle of the homestead.

2 • To discuss; share news. Áɨ́nɔ́sɨ́tà ɨlɔmɔ́n. I am getting/sharing news. Nɛ́kɨnɔ́s (~ nékɨɨnɔ́s) taá tɛ̀ nkádɔrɨ́. We had a long discussion. (lit: We discussed for a long time.) (W). Kɨ́ɨnɔ́s. We will discuss it. (W).

3 • To cause pain; wound. A: Káɨ́nyɔɔ nɨ́kɨ́nɔ́sà ɛnkáɨ́ná? B: olkikúèì láataremó. A: What has made your arm ache? B: I was stabbed by a thorn. Ɛ́ɨ́nɔ́sâ intúduí ɨnkɛ́rà ilkimojík lɔɔ́ nkɛjɛ́k. Children have jiggers infesting their toes (lit. the digits of the feet). (Pk).

4 • To have a specific value; worth.

5 • To make s.o cry. LING: Sense 2 is possibly dominant in W, though all senses are clearly prominent.

a-ɨnɔsɨshɔ́  

a-ɨnɔsʉ́   1 • To eat coming this way.

2 • To narrate a story, tell news.

3 • To regret.

a-ɨnɔsaá   1 • To eat going away.

2 • To spread the news or contents of a story.

a-inosíé   1 • To eat with or at.

2 • To do sth. at the expense of another.

3 • To exchange one thing for another; barter, buy, sell. Ɛgɨ́rà ainosíé ɛnâ kɨlâ iropiyianí îp aré. He is exchanging (selling or buying) this cloth for four hundred shillings. (Pk).

4 • To make sth. be consumed by another (e.g. grass by fire).

5 • To discuss with, talk with.

a-ɨnɔ́s ɔlmʉmâî   To take an oath. Áɨ́nɔ́sà ɔlmʉmâî I have taken (eaten) an oath. (Pk). Syn: a-nyá To eat. See: a-daá To eat; a-ám To eat; cause distress; Támà! Eat it!.

ɛnk-ɨ́nɔ́sátá   n. Eating. See: a-ɨnɔ́s To eat.

a-ɨnɔsʉ́ lɔmɔ́n   v. To tell the news.

a-ɨnɔsaá lɔmɔ́n   To tell news at several houses, one at a time.

a-ɨnɔsʉnyɛ́   v.mid. To be remorseful over past deeds; feel guilty. ɔltʉŋánì ɔɨnɔsʉ́nyɛ̀ person who is remorseful, guilty. See: a-ɨnɔ́s To eat.

a-inót   v. To find. ainótó ropianí tɛ̀ mbɛnɛ áí I found some money in my pocket. See: a-ɨnɛpʉ́ To catch, meet, find.

e-inótì   Nom sg: e-ínòtì ???. n. 1 • Daughter, true daughter.

2 • Child that resembles s.o. very closely -- physically, in action, etc.

3 • Resident of an area over a long time, that is well known and belongs to the area.

4 • Person who learns young how to do a work, and does so perfectly.

o-inótì   Son, true son.

ɨntáɨ́   Nom pl: ɨ́ntaɨ. [North] Acc sg: ntáɨ́. pn. You (plural). Áílúgò ɨntáɨ́. I hit y'all. (W). kɨ́ntɔɔ́mɔ̀n aké ɨntáɨ́ ánàà aké. We welcome you always. (C). Kílúgó ɨ́ntaɨ. Y'all hit me. (W). Íyíólóroro apá ɨ́ntaɨ ɔ́ nɨ́nyɛ̀? Did you (PL) and he know each other? (KS).

́-inua   v.pf. 1 • Perfective form of a-ɨnɔ́k 'to kindle a fire, light (a lamp)'. Éínúá. He kindled the fire. Áínùà ɔltáà amʉ̂ kémisimis doí ájì. I lit the lamp because the house is dark. Light the lamp because it is dark here in the house. (Pk). Ɨ́núá ɛnkɨ́má amʉ̂ ɛɨrɔ́pɨja. You (pl) lit the fire because it was cold. Ɨ́nuá ɔltáà amʉ̂ kémisimis doí ájì. Light the lamp because it is dark here in the house.

2 • Subjunctive or imperative form of a-ɨnɔ́k. Ɨ́nuá ɛnkɨ́má amʉ̂ kɛ́ɨ́rɔ́bɨ̀. You light the fire because it is cold.

a-inuaakɨ́   1 • To light the fire for.

2 • To rouse up s.o.'s emotions; agitate, "stir up"

a-inuaakɨ́ ɛngárrì   To accelerate a car. Usage: colloquial. See: a-ɨnɔ́k To kindle fire; a-ɨpɨrʉ́ To kindle fire.

a-ɨnʉná   v.mid. To be motionless and quiet in the house. Ɛgɨ́rà aɨnʉná tɛ̀ ájì némepuku He/ she is just quiet and motionless in the house and doesn't get out. Syn: a-mʉká To remain in the house.

a-ɨnyaaká   v. To return sth. to its original container or dwelling. Káɨ́naakínò. I'm going back (e.g. into my house, after stepping outside to talk to you). (S).

a-inyaayá   v.mid. 1 • To take towards a certain direction. Einyaáyá inkíshú ídîâ áló He will drive the cows towards that direction.

2 • To take it back to. ainyaayá Naɨrɔbɨ To take it back to Nairobi. áínyááyìè Nairobi 1. I took it back to Nairobi 2. I took it towards Nairobi.

a-inyál   v. 1 • To annoy, tease, vex.

2 • To spoil, damage. Ɛgɨ́rà abarakɨ́ ainyál esíáì. He is intentionally spoiling the work. (Pk). Einyálàtɛ̀ ɨmʉ́katɛnɨ́. These breads are bad. (W).

3 • To insult, offend, wrong, harm. Esúpátìshò nátomitikíó einyál ɛnkáɨ́ His goodness prevented him from harming her. (Pk). Kéísídáí oshî ɔltʉ́ŋání ɔ́tɔ̀tà ɔltáʉ́ sídáí amʉ̂ kɛ́palíkì ɨlkʉlɨ́káɨ́ tɛnɛ́ɨ́nyál. A good-hearted person is good because he forgives others when they wrong him. (W).

4 • To cause trouble. amʉ̂ ínyálà kɛwán because you have brought problems to yourself (KS). See: a-dɛ́k To insult; a-mórr To insult.

a-inyaminyám [Chamus]   v. [Chamus] To slash. Nɛ́gɨráɨ̀ aké áàìnyàmìnyàmà. People just slashed each other. (C).

a-inyáŋ   Variant: a-inyíáŋ. v. v. To buy from; get in trade or by barter from. Káínyáŋà Móses. I have bought something from Moses. (S). Káínyáŋà ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ ɛ Móses. I have bought Moses' cow. (S). LING: Adding directionals changes argument frame to be Ag Th.

a-inyaŋʉ́   To buy sth. Íncooí iropiyianí meshómoi áàìnyàŋʉ̀ ɛndáà. Give away money so that food can be bought. Mainyáŋʉ̀ ɛngárrì ɛnyɛ́ amʉ̂ súújí. I will not buy his car because it is bad. (e.g. rusting, uncared for, possibly missing parts). Rrantílì ŋéjúk áyíéú náínyáŋʉ̀. It is a new scale that I want to buy. (SN). Káɨ́nyɔɔ íyieu nínyáŋʉ̀? What do you want to buy? (W). Áínyáŋákɨ́ kaán ɨlnyɛ́nyà. I buy myself tomatoes. (W). Ááínyáŋákɨ́ ɨlnyɛ́nyà. I buy you (sg) tomatos. (W). Aɨ́nyáŋákɨ́ ɨntáɨ́ ɨlnyɛ́nyà. I buy y'all tomatos. (W). Áínyáŋákɨ́ nɨnyɛ́ ɨlnyɛ́nyà. I buy him tomatos. (W). Áínyáŋákɨ́ nɨncɛ́ ɨlnyɛ́nyà. I buy them tomatoes. (W). Kínyáŋákɨ́ íyie ɨlnyɛ́nyà. You (sg) buy me tomatos. (W). Ínyaŋakɨ́ iyíóók ɨlnyɛ́nyà. You (sg) buy us tomatoes. (W). Ɛinyáŋákɨ́ iyíóók ɨlnyɛ́nyà. He buys us tomatoes. (W). Kínyáŋákɨ́ ɨlnyɛ́nyà. He buys you (sg) tomatoes. (W). Ɛinyáŋákɨ́ ɨntáɨ́ ɨlnyɛ́nyà. He/they buys y'all tomatoes. (W). Kínyaŋákɨ̀ iyíé ɨlnyɛ́nyà. We buy you tomatoes. (W). Kínyaŋákɨ̀ ɨntáɨ́ ɨlnyɛ́nyà. We buy y'all tomatoes. (W). Kínyaŋákɨ̀ nɨnyɛ́ ɨlnyɛ́nyà. We buy him tomatoes. (W). Ínyaŋakɨ́ nɨnyɛ́ ɨlnyɛ́nyà. You (sg) buy him tomatoes. (W). Einyáŋákɨ́ kaán ɨlnyɛ́nyà. He buys himself tomatoes. (W). Inyáŋákɨ́ nɨ́ncɛ̀ nɨnyɛ́ ɨlnyɛ́nyà. Y'all buy you tomatoes. (W). Înyaŋakɨ́ nɨncɛ́ ɨlnyɛ́nyà. You buy y'all tomatoes. (W). Ényaŋakɨtɨ́ átɛ́ ɨlnyɛ́nyà. Y'all buy yourselves tomatoes. (imperative) (W). Kínyáŋákɨ́ nɨ́ncɛ̀ ɨlnyɛ́nyà. They buy you (sg) tomatoes. (W). Ɛinyáŋákɨ́ nɨnyɛ́ ɨlnyɛ́nyà. They buy him tomatoes. (W). Ɛinyáŋákɨ́ iyíóók ɨlnyɛ́nyà. They buy us tomatoes. (W). Ínyáŋù ɨlnyɛ́nyà oshî aké. You buy tomatoes everyday. (W). Ínyáŋákɨ́ kaán ɨlnyɛ́nyà. You buy yourself tomatoes. (W). Kínyáŋákɨ́ íyíé ɨlnyɛ́nyà. You buy me tomatoes. (W). Ínyaŋakɨ́ nɨnyɛ́ ɨlnyɛ́nyà. You buy him tomatoes. (W). Ínyaŋakɨ́ iyíóók ɨlnyɛ́nyà. You buy us tomatoes. (W). Înyaŋakɨ́ nɨncɛ́ ɨlnyɛ́nyà. You buy y'all tomatoes. (W). Ínyáŋákɨ́ nɨncɛ́ ɨlnyɛ́nyà. You buy them tomatoes. (W). Einyáŋákɨ́ kaán ɨlnyɛ́nyà. He buys himself tomatoes. (W). Áainyaŋákɨ̀ ɨlnyɛ́nyà. He/they buys me tomatoes. (W). Kínyáŋákɨ́ ɨlnyɛ́nyà. He buys you tomatoes. (W). Einyáŋákɨ iyíóók ɨlnyɛ́nyà. He buys us tomatoes. (W). Einyáŋákɨ́ ɨntáɨ́ ɨlnyɛ́nyà. He/they buys y'all tomatoes. (W). Einyáŋákɨ́ nɨncɛ́ ɨlnyɛ́nyà. He buys them tomatoes. (W). Ínyáŋáká Málákàì ɨlnyɛ́nyà. You buy/bought Malakai tomatoes. (W). Ínyáŋákɨ́kɨ̀ Málákàì ɨlnyɛ́nyà. Y'all buy/bought Malakai tomatoes. (W). Kínyaŋákɨ̀ iyíé ɨlnyɛ́nyà. We buy you tomatoes. (W). Kínyaŋákɨ̀ nɨnyɛ́ ɨlnyɛ́nyà. We buy him tomatoes. (W). Kínyaŋákɨ̀ ɨntáɨ́ ɨlnyɛ́nyà. We buy y'all tomatoes. (W). Ínyáŋù ɨlnyɛ́nyà oshî aké. You (sg) buy tomatoes everyday. (W). Ínyáŋúŋù ɨlnyɛ́nyà oshî aké. Y'all buy tomatoes everyday. (W). Kínyàŋù ɨlnyɛ́nyà oshî aké. We buy tomatoes everyday. (W). Kínyáŋákɨ́ íyie ɨlnyɛ́nyà. You (sg) buy me tomatoes. (W). Kinyaŋakɨ́kɨ̀ ɨntáɨ́ ɨlnyɛ́nyà. Y'all buy me tomatoes. (W). Ínyáŋákɨ́kɨ̀ nɨncɛ́ ɨlnyɛ́nyà. Y'all buy them tomatoes. (W). Einyáŋákɨ́ átɛ́ ɨlnyɛ́nyà. They buy themselves tomatoes. (W). Kínyáŋákɨ́ nɨ́ncɛ̀ ɨlnyɛ́nyà. They buy you tomatoes. (W). Einyáŋákɨ́ nɨnyɛ́ ɨlnyɛ́nyà. They buy him tomatoes. (W). Einyáŋákɨ́ iyíóók ɨlnyɛ́nyà. They buy us tomatoes. (W). Áainyaŋákɨ̀ ɨlnyɛ́nyà. They/he buys me tomatoes. (W). Áínyáŋúá ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ. I bought a cow. (W). Ínyáŋúá ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ ŋolé. You bought a cow yesterday. (W). Ɛɨtʉ́ inyáŋʉ̀ ɨlnyɛ́nyà ŋolé. You did not buy tomatoes yesterday. (W). Einyáŋúá ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ ŋolé. He bought a cow yesterday. (W). Einyáŋutúá ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ ŋolé. They bought a cow yesterday. (W). Kínyaŋutúà ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ ŋolé. We bought a cow yesterday. (W). Ínyáŋutúá ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ ŋolé. Y'all bought a cow yesterday. (W). Mainyáŋʉ̀ ɛngárrì ɛnyɛ́ amʉ̂ súújí. I will not buy his car because it is bad. (e.g. rusting, uncared for, possibly missing parts). (W). Áínyáŋʉ̀ ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ tááisérè. I will buy a cow tommorow. (W). Ínyáŋʉ̀ ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ tááisérè. You will buy a cow tommorow. (W). Einyáŋʉ̀ ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ tááisérè. He will buy a cow tommorow. (W). Kínyàŋʉ̀ ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ tááisérè. We will buy a cow tommorow. (W). Ínyáŋʉ́ŋʉ̀ ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ tááisérè. Y'all will buy a cow tommorow. (W). Rrantílì ŋéjúk áyíéú nainyáŋʉ̀. It is a new scale that I want to buy. (SN). Áínyáŋʉ̀ ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ. I am buying a cow. / I will buy a cow. / I buy a cow. (W). Ínyáŋʉ̀ ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ. You are buying a cow. (W). Einyáŋʉ̀ ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ. They/he are buying a cow. (W). Kínyàŋʉ̀ ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ. We are buying a cow. (W). Ínyáŋʉ́ŋʉ̀ ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ. Y'all are buying a cow. (W). Ínyáŋʉ̀ ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ. You are buying a cow. (W). Áyíéú náínyáŋʉ̀ ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ. I want to buy a cow. (W). Íyíéú nínyáŋʉ̀ ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ. You want to buy a cow. (W). Eyíéú néínyàŋʉ̀ ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ. He wants to buy a cow. (W). Kíiyíéú nékìnyàŋʉ̀ ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ. We want to buy a cow. (W). Íyíéúù nínyaŋʉ́ŋʉ̀ ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ. Y'all want to buy a cow. (W).

2 • v. To buy s.o (so as to solve a problem of poverty). Ényiaŋʉ́ ɨltʉ́ŋánák. Hire/buy people.

3 • v. To buy things from a distance or several places. See: a-mɨ́rr To sell.

ɛnk-ɨnyátɨ̀   Nom sg: ɛnk-ɨ́nyàtì. Acc pl: ɨnk-ɨnyát. Nom pl: ɨnk-ɨnyát. n. Peel, of a tree or fruit. ɨnkɨnyát oó nkuashên potato peels. The smooth enkɨnyátɨ̀ of a young tree can be used for making rope. See: ɛnk-abobókì Piece of bark.

a-inyenyé [North]   v. 1 • [North] To slowly become thinner and thinner.

2 • [North] To become worse and worse.

3 • [Chamus] To shake. See: a-ipirripírr To shake; a-ɨŋʉnʉŋʉ́n To shake; a-igusigusíé To shake; a-iseiseiye To shake; a-ɨpɔ́sh To shake; a-ɨkíj To shake.

a-inyeyíé   v.prog. 1 • To gently shake sth. (e.g. to awaken a sleeping person, a dusty cloth to discern the amount of dust in it).

2 • To shake so as to make sth. stand (typically a living thing).

3 • To shake sth. until sirred up (e.g. sediments in water). See: a-inyenyíé To shake.

inyî   Nom pl: ínyi. pn.psr. Second person plural possessive pronoun. Ɛ́táá apá nɨnyɛ́ ɛnkâŋ ínyi. It has become your home. Olkékún lâŋ táatá peê eokishó inkíshù olinyî tááisérè. It is our turn today for our cows to drink (water) and tomorrow is yours. (Pk).

a-inyiaarí   v.mid. To go towards, move to. Ɛgɨ́ráɨ́ áàdàm inkíshú méínyìààrì ɛnkáló naiŋúáà. The cows are being turned so they go towards the direction they came from. (Pk). See: a-ló To go to.

a-inyiakʉ́   v. To bring back sth. that had already passed. ainyiakʉ́ emíón to bring pain back.

a-ɨnyiakʉnyɛ́   1 • To begin to ache again (a scar).

2 • To remember sth. bad done to one's self and revisit it again.

3 • To get back to the former position.

a-inyíál   v. To destroy. Éínyíálárì.

a-inyialakɨ́   1 • To destroy for.

2 • To insert sth. wrongly.

a-ɨnyiarɨ́   v.mid. To return. Ɛgɨ́ráɨ́ áàdàm inkíshú mɛ́ɨ́nyìàrɨ̀ ɛnkáló naiŋúáà. The cows are being turned so they return to the direction they came from. (Pk). See: a-ɨnyaaká To return something to its container.

a-ɨnyɨ́g   v.prog. To have dry heaves. Ɛɨnyɨgɨ́tà ɛnkɛráí The child is having dry heaves. See: a-yíóg To hiccup.

a-inyó(t)   Variant: a-inyíó. IMP.SG: ínyôô. IMP.PL: ényeitó. v. 1 • To rise, get up. Ényeitó! Rise up! Néjokín ɛntásàt, ""ínyôô sií íyie shɔ́mɔ̀." The told a woman, "Get up and go.".

2 • To wake up. Áínyò. I have woken up. (S, KS). Ínyô! Wake up! (KS). Keinoótò He will wake up. (e.g. he is still in bed)(S). See: a-inyototó To wake up.

ɨnyɔ́ɔ́   Nom sg: ɨnyɔ́ɔ̀. Acc pl: ɨnɔɔ́ nyɔ́ɔ́. Nom pl: ɨnɔ́ɔ̀ nyɔ́ɔ́. pn.inter. Question word used to inquire about what a listener has not understood from the conversation; what? [Speaker 1:] Ɛtarákɨ̀. [Speaker 2:] Ɨnyɔ́ɔ́? [Speaker 1:] Ɔlásʉ́ráí. [Speaker 1:] It has been killed. [Speaker 2:] What? [Speaker 1:] A snake. See: áɨ́nyɔɔ What?.

a-ɨnyɔrɨnyɔ́r   v. To taste. See: a-ɨshám To taste.

a-inyototó   [Purko]: a-inyiototó. PF; SUBJN: a-inyó, -nyo. v. To wake up, get up, arise. Kéínyotótò He will wake up. (e.g. he is still in bed)(S). Ekáínyótótò adé. I will wake up later. Nɛ́manáà taá tɔ̀ lcánì omɛtába ánàà néínyotótò oladúóó mʉrraní. So he went around the tree until the warrior woke up. Áínyò. I'll get up. (W). Áínyò. I have woken up. Ínyò Wake up!/Stand up! Ényeitó! Rise up! Néjokiní ɛntásàt, "ínyô siî íyie shɔ́mɔ̀." The woman was told, "Get up and go.". Kéínyotótò He will wake up. (e.g. he is still in bed)(S). Órè naá táatá ɛlɛ̂ payîân néínyotótò nɛ́ɨ́tɔbɨ̂r ɛnkapʉtɨ́. Now this man planned to arrange marriage negotiations [for his daughter]. (Pk). See: a-inyeyíé To awaken someone.

a-ɨŋaaŋirró   v.mid. To be in a confused state, not sure of what you want to do. Míntókì aɨŋaaŋirró shɔ́mɔ̀ áɨ́ áló nabô Don't be confused (of where to go) just go to one side.

a-ɨŋadɛdɛ́   v. To not be in a stable sitting or standing position. This can be positioned part-way between a sitting and standing position while trying to get up, standing on tip toes, or perched precariously on a chair. Kágɨ́rà aɨŋadɛdɛ́ matɔnɨ́tà aɨtɔbɨrakɨ́ amʉ̂ kétíi ɔlbɛnɛ́ olórìkà I am not stably sitting down because there is a bag on the chair. ɛɨŋádedia He was part-way between a sitting and standing position. LING: Verb cannot take Inceptive or Progressive. Can take Perfective. See: a-jʉjʉmá To squat.

a-ɨŋaɨŋáɨ́   v. To worry; be anxious. Kɛ́ɨ́ŋaɨ́ŋàɨ̀ ɔltʉ́ŋání tenéjokiní, "ɨ́yɛ.̀ A person will be worried if he is told, "you will die". See: a-idiyiadí To be worried; anxious.

a-ɨŋamɨŋám   Variant: a-ɨŋɔmɨŋɔ́m. v. To whisper.

a-ɨŋamɨŋamɨtá   To talk softly; whisper. Ɛ́ɨ́ŋámɨ́ŋámɨ́tà réréí. He is talking softly; murmuring (S). LING: This form of the verb is apparently incomplete without something like oróréí. See: a-ɨŋɔmɨŋɔ́n To whisper.

a-ɨŋamɨŋám   v.prog. To notch repeatedly. See: a-ŋám To make a notch.

a-ɨŋancʉmá [North]   v. 2 • v. [North] To be stranded.

2 • v. [North] To be suprised. See: a-iŋasíá To be frightened; suprised.

a-ɨŋantialá   v.mid. To be stranded. Áɨŋántíálɛ̀ mayíólò ɛnáló I am stranded I don't know where to go.

a-ɨŋáŋ   v.prog. 1 • To feint. aɨŋáŋ ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ To pretend to hit the cow.

2 • To start but not finish sth. because of a mental realization or feeling about the matter. aɨŋáŋ oróréí To start but not finish what one is saying.

3 • To give a mock name. Néíŋàŋì áɨ́ árná. And they will give a trial name.

4 • [North] To rain for short period.

a-ɨŋaraná   v.mid. To be stranded.

a-ɨŋárr   v.prog. To join forces in doing sth to ensure success. Ɛ́ɨŋárrâ ɨlɔɨŋɔ́k ááré ɔlɨkâɨ̂ Two bulls joined forces to fight the other one. Kɨ́ŋarrâ áàìnyìàŋʉ̀ ɛngárrì We joined forces to buy a car. This could involve pooling money in order to afford the car, or making the decision together to be more confident it is the best decision. See: a-iríám To do simultaneously.

a-ɨŋasíá   [̃àɪ̀ŋàsɪ́á - two final moras]  [North]: a-ɨŋasɨá. [Chamus]: a-ɨŋasɨ́á. PF: a-ɨŋasíé. v.mid. 1 • To wonder; be astonished, amazed, surprised. Etorikókì enkókó Naɨrɔ́bɨ̀ nélò aɨŋasíá tɛ̀ nkárakɨ́ oó nkájíjík sapúkì. The grandmother was taken to Nairobi and she was surprised because of the big buildings. Áɨ́ŋásìà (tááisérè). I will be surprised (tomorrow). (W) [This verb form cannot co-occur with ŋolé 'yesterday'; compare with the following:]. Kɨ́ŋàsìà tááisérè. We will be suprised tomorrow. (W). Kɨ́ŋàsìà ŋolé. We were suprised yesterday. (W). Kɨ́ŋasíátɛ̀. We were surprised. (W). Ɛɨŋásìè ɔlpáyìàn. The man has been surprised. Ɛɨŋásíáyíé ɔlpayíán enkítòk. The man was surprised by the woman (e.g., her conduct, appearance, etc.). Áɨ́ŋásìè dúoó́ peê aɨnɛ́pʉ̀ tɛ̀ súkùùl. I was surprised to find him at school. Káaɨŋasîâ. [káàyŋàsyâ] Something surprised me. (S). Káɨ́ŋásìè. I am amazed. (SN). Kɛ́ɨ́ŋásìètè. They were surprised. (S). LING: With the 3>1 áa- inverse prefix, the subject is the one who surprises, and the object is the one surprised. Without it however, the 'surpriser' is in the accusative (enkitók, above), and the 'surprised' is in the nominative (olpáyìàn, above.) This distinction held up with lk (See 18.059b for notes.). LING: There is no extant form *a-ɨŋás.

a-ɨŋasiayíé   [West]: a-ɨŋasieyíé. To astonish, surprise, make to wonder. Ɛɨŋásíáyíé ɨltʉ́ŋánák ɛntɔnatá ɔ́ɔ̀ lMáásâɨ̂. The Maasai way of life surprises people. Áaɨŋasíáyìè. He will surprise me.

a-ɨŋasiaɨshɔ́   To be astonished, wonder, marvel. ɔltʉŋánì ɔɨŋásìàɨ̀shɔ̀ a person who astonishes, surprises.

a-ɨŋásh   v. 1 • To doubt sth.

2 • To not carry on sth. to the end; leave sth. before completion.

a-ɨŋashɨŋásh   1 • To keep on doubting.

2 • To walk with legs apart.

a-ɨŋát   v. 1 • To not be fit by (i.e. outgrow, e.g. clothes). Ɛ́ɨ́ŋàt ɛnkɛ́ráí ɨná kɨ́lâ tɛ̀ nɛ́bʉ̀lʉ̀. That cloth will not fit the child when she grows up. (W). Káaɨŋatâ nkíla. I have outgrown these clothes. (S) (lit: These clothes have moved away from me.). Kɨ́ŋátà nkíla. Your clothes aren't fitting you. (S).

2 • To be insuffient for (i.e. go without one's share). Íkíŋátà nkítábù. You missed your share of the books. (S). aɨŋát ɛndáâ To miss food. Ɛɨŋátʉ̀ inkirí é nkíné tɛ̀ nɛ́akʉ kúmòk ɨltʉŋanák. Goat meat will not be enough if people become (too) many. (W). Órè ɔlɛɨtʉ̂ étûm ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ, ɛɨŋatɨ́shɔ̀ inkíshù... Now the one who did not get a cow, as cows fall short...

3 • To move away from. Ɛ́ɨ́ŋàt ɨnkɛjɛ́k áainéí ɛnkɔ́p tɛ̀ náípìd. My legs will move away from the ground when I jump. Ɛɨŋátá ɛnkɛ́jʉ̀ ɛnkɔ́p. The leg has lifted up from the ground (e.g. when running). (W). Áɨ́ŋátìè ɛnkɛjʉ́ áí ɛnkɔ́p. I will lift my leg from the ground. (W). LING: The Nominative subject of the verb is what is too small or insuffient, and the Accusative Object is what the item no longer fits. The Spanish verb faltar 'to lack (to s.o.)' is a close syntactic parallel. The English idomatic translation would be 'to miss; to outgrow (sth.)', but English syntax is not parallel.

a-ɨŋataá   To run away from; flee. Áɨ́ŋátáà ɔlŋátúny. I will flee from the lion. (W). Áɨ́ŋátáyìè ɔlŋátúny. I fled from the lion. (W). Káɨ́ŋátáyìè. I've not caught what I was going after. (S). Nɛ́ɨ́nɛ̀pʉ̀ ɔltásàt, néjò áɨ́rɔ́rɔ́kɨ́, nɛ́ɨ́ŋatáà. He caught up with an old man, and he tried to greet him, but he (the old man) fled from him. Tɛnákatá aké kipúo amʉ̂ kɛ́ɨ́ŋatáa iyíóók. We are going immediately because he will flee from us. Máapé tɛnákatá peê mɛ́ɨ́ŋátaa iyíóók adé. Let us go now so that he does not flee from us in the evening. (Pk). Ɛtʉshʉrtárì doí nɨ́nyɛ̀ ɨlɔ̂ ashé aɨŋataá ɨlkʉlîê. That calf has leapt away to flee from others. (Pk). Ɛgɨ́ráɨ́ áàìpùk áàɨ̀ŋàtàà é mperî. The people are busy fleeing from the famine. (Pk). Ɛgɨ́rà enkóílií apɛrá aɨŋataá ɔlŋátúny. The gazelle is running very fast fleeing from the lion. (Pk). Áaɨŋatayiokí. The people went and I was left behind .

a-ɨŋatɨkɨ́   To fall short of sth. áaŋatikíá ɛɨlatá ɛ́ ngárì ɛ́ɨ́tʉ̂ abáyà Nairobi I fell short of the car's fuel before I reached Nairobi (i.e the fuel got finished before I reached Nairobi).

a-ɨŋataríé   To move away with sth ahead of.

áà-ɨ̀ŋàtàrʉ̀   To move away from each other.

a-ɨŋatíé   1 • To take the greater share of.

2 • To take away ahead of.

3 • To cause to flee from. Áàɨ̀ŋàtìè ɔlŋátúny. He will make me flee from the lion. (W). Áaɨŋatíé ɔlŋátúny ŋolé. He made me flee from the lion. (W).

a-ɨŋatɨshɔ́   To flee. Áɨ́ŋátɨshɔ nanʉ́. I will flee. (W).

a-ɨŋatɨŋataá   To keep on moving away from.

áà-ɨ̀ŋàtɨ̀ŋàtà   To follow each other with a space in between. Ɛɨŋatɨ́ŋata ɨlmʉ́rrân ɛjɨŋʉ́ ɛnkáŋ. The warriors follow each with a space in between them as they enter into the home.

a-ɨŋɨ́n   v. To limp.

a-iŋirít   v.prog. 1 • To drag, pull sth.

2 • To scrape sth. by pulling a rough object on its surface. aiŋirtít ɛnkɨlâ tɔɔ́ lkɨ́kʉ̀ To scrape /scratch the cloth with thorns.

a-iŋirtitoó   To pull away.

a-ɨŋɨ́s [North]   v. [North] To make patterns on a surface (e.g. the sole of a shoe).

a-ɨŋɔdɛ́   v.prog. 1 • To stare mostly without speaking. Ɛɨŋɔdɨ́tà ɨltɔmíá. He/she/ it is staring at the elephants.

2 • To rebuke, warn sternly.

3 • To stare at with hatefull eyes. Ɛgɨ́rà ilpáyianí áàìŋòdìà. The men are gazing at each other (i.e they want to fight each other). See: a-ɨŋɔ́r To look at.

a-ɨŋɔɨŋɔ́ɨ́   v.prog. To move slowly in a twisting motion; wiggle. Restrict: Animate. This is a slow and twisted motion, such as made by a worm. It can also refer to any slight movement made by a big animal, when it is a sleep or almost dying. See: ɔl-aiŋóiŋóì Type of worm.

a-ɨŋɔ́l   v. To stir a liquid.

a-ɨŋɔlɨŋɔ́l   1 • To stir a liquid or a thick substance. aɨŋɔlɨŋɔ́l oloshoró To stir porridge.

2 • To disturb the public peace; be loud and rough; be rowdy. aɨŋɔlɔŋɔ́l olórèrè To disturb the people's peace. aɨŋɔlɨŋɔ́l nkugwánà To 'stir up' a meeting; cause chaos in a meeting to try to stop it (S).

a-ɨŋɔlá   v. 1 • To be playful.

2 • To have duties in lots of places; travel a lot to take care of responsibilities; be peripatetic.

3 • To be unstable. The unstability is a matter of fact, and can be good or bad.

a-ɨŋɔlɨŋɔ́l   v. 1 • To stir a liquid, or a thick substance like porridge.

2 • To stir people up; be roudy.

a-ɨŋɔlɨŋɔ́l nkugwánà   To 'stir up' a meeting; cause chaos in a meeting to try to stop it. See: a-ɨŋɔ́l To stir.

a-ɨŋɔmɨŋɔ́m   v. To whisper. a-ɨŋɔmɨŋɔmakɨ́ To whisper to.

áà-ɨ̀ŋɔ̀mɨ̀ŋɔ̀mà   To whisper together. See: a-ɨŋamɨŋamá To whisper.

a-iŋoŋú   v. To inhale the odor of sth. close to one's nose; smell. Ɛgɨ́rà oldîâ aiŋoŋú ɛmpɔ́pɔ̀k. The dog is smelling the odor of the carcass. Syn: a-ɨsʉmataá To inhale the odor of; smell. See: a-iŋuayá To smell.

a-ɨŋɔpʉ́   v. To lag behind. Syn: a-isiadʉ́ To remain.

ɔ-ɨŋɔ́pùà   n. Remnant. See: a-ɨŋɔpʉ́ To lag behind.

a-ɨŋɔ́r   In some suffixed forms; PF; SUBJN: ɨŋʉr(r). v.prog. 1 • To look at or after. Káɨ́ŋɔ́rɨ́tà nkálámù. I'm looking at the pen. (S). Áaɨshɔɔ́ náají ɔlashʉmpáí ɛntarubínì ɛnyɛ́ maɨŋórìè iltomíá oóòkìtò ɛnkárɛ́. The European gave me his binoculars to observe elephants drinking water. Áɨ́ŋʉ́rà asɨpʉ́ olêŋ ajó ḿmɛ̀ nɨnyɛ́ ɨlɔ̂. I have scrutinized him to ensure that he is not the one. Ɨ́ŋʉrá siî íyíé ɛldɛ̂ mʉ́rránì óyìàp tenélò. Look at that warrior who walks hastily and springingly. Áaŋɔrɨtâ nkúusîn. The cats are looking at me. (S).

2 • To care for, look after. Káɨ́ŋɔ́rɨ́tà inkíshú. I'm looking after cows.

3 • To see. See: a-dɔ́l To see.

4 • To search out using the mind.

a-ɨŋɔraá   To go and look at sth.; go and check on in order to find; look through things in order to find sth; "look up" This does not mean physically looking upwards.

a-ɨŋɔrʉ́   To look for. Etíi ɨnkɛ́râ enkigúràn tiáúlùò áàìŋòrùnò. The children are playing hide-and-seek outside the kraal. Nɛ́rà intókìtìn nílo aɨŋɔrʉ́ oŋúán. The things you are going to look for are four. Ɛ́táá kíŋórùà ɛmpɨ́dɨ́ŋ. You have looked for the back of my neck. (KS). Káɨ́ŋɔ́rʉ̀ enkóítóí nátúmíé iropiyianí. I'll look for a way to get the money.

a-ɨŋɔrʉŋɔrʉ́   To keep on looking for sth.

a-ɨŋɔrá   v.mid. To face towards one-another. See: a-ɨrɨ́sh To face-up to a challenge.

a-iŋuaá   [North]: ɨŋʉaá. [Chamus]: ɨŋʉáá. 1 • To leave, leave alone, leave behind. LING: Takes Class I PF form. Kéíŋúàà entitó ɛnkáŋ ɛnyɛ̂ nélò mɛ́yàmɨ̀. A girl will leave her home and go to be married. (Pk). Áítúŋúaa ɛnɛshál arík énétóyíó. I will make him/her leave (the place) that is wet and go to that which is dry. (Pk). Tɔ́bɔɨnʉ́ ɛldɛ̂ áshê tárâ níŋúáá ɔlɔ́ɨ́bɔr. [tàrà] Bring that spotted calf and leave the white one. (Pk). LING: In the perfect(ive) and causative, this verb drops the stem-initial ɨ- and inflects as a Class I motion-away verb: Etuŋúáyìè apá entitó ɛnkáŋ ɛnyɛ̂ nélò mɛ́yàmɨ̀. The girl had left her home and gone to be married. (Pk). Etuŋúáyìè inkíshú ɨnâ kítòk nɛ́mɛ́átà ɛlʉ́kʉ́nyá. That irresponsible woman has left the cows. (W). Etuŋúáyiokí kʉlɛ́ naáyiará mɛtádokú. The milk that is boiling has been left to spill over. (Pk).

2 • To come from. Ɛgɨ́ráɨ́ áàdàm inkíshú mɛ́ɨ́nyìàrì ɛnkáló naiŋúáà. The cows are being turned so they go towards the direction they came from. Kájì eiŋúàà? Where does he come from? Néjokí, "Kájì íŋúaa?" Néjokí, "Káɨ́mɨ́nà dúóó." He said to him, "Where do you come from?" He answered, "I was lost.". Nájó ádɔ́l kórè ɨmbáà kúmòk néíŋúàà embólúnotó è oŋúán. I saw that a lot of items [questions on an exam] came from chapter four. (W).

áà-ìŋùàrò   To leave each other. See: a-pál To leave; a-lotú To come (move toward); a-dúŋ síádí To go to the opposite direction.

a-iŋuayá   v. To sense the smell of sth. not close to your nose. Káíŋúáyà nkírí náápejó. I smell roasted meat. (S). Áíŋúáyìè esoŋoúnà oó nkírí naápejitôî. I am smelling an aroma of meat that is being roasted. (Pk). See: a-ŋóú To have the smell of sth. come to you; a-ŋú To stink; a-iŋoŋú To get the smell of sth.

a-iŋuɛɨkɨ́   [North]: a-iŋuaakɨ́. Variant: a-ŋʉɛkɨ́. v. 1 • To let go, let loose of sth. one is holding. Túŋuɛkɨ́ oldîâ mekúɛ́tà Let the dog run.

2 • To bequeath; entrust to s.o, leave with. Kiŋúɛ́kɨ̀ ɨntáɨ́ eseríáni. We leave peace with you (C). Kíŋúɛ́kɨ̀ kʉnâ kɛ́rà ɨnkáɨ́k inónò. We leave these children in your hands. (C). Eiŋúɛ́kɨ ɔltásât ɔlayíónì lɛnyɛ́ inkíshú tɛnɛ́ɨ́rʉ̀rà The old man will bequeath/leave with his son the cows when he sleeps (dies). Kááíŋúɛ́kɨ́ ɛlɛ́ bɛ́nɛ́ táatá peê alotú ayá táaisérè I will leave this bag with you today so that I come for it tomorrow. Kááíŋúɛ́kɨ́ ɛnâ kɨlá tɔrrɔ́nɔ̂ amʉ̂ mayíéú. I will leave this no-good cloth with you because I don't want it. See: a-ɨŋuaá To leave alone.

a-ɨŋún   v.s. To make a short, jerky motion.

a-iŋuníé   To make sth. move in a short jerky motion.

a-ɨŋʉnʉŋʉ́n   v. To shake because of instability; rock; wiggle. For example, a post, a tooth about to fall out, an insect -- but not of a person. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlcánì aɨŋʉnʉŋʉ́n. The tree is shaking.

a-iŋunuŋuníé   To shake, jerk, rock sth. See: a-ipirripírr To shake; a-ɨpɔ́sh To shake; a-igusugús To shake; a-iseiseiyíé To shake; a-inyenyíé To shake; a-ɨkíj To shake.

a-ɨŋʉ́ny   v. To utter a word of grumbling; complaining.

a-ɨŋʉnyʉŋʉ́ny   To keep on complaining; grumble quietly. Ɛɨŋʉnyʉŋʉnyɨ́tà. He is grumbling quietly. ɔltʉŋánì ɔɨŋʉnyʉ́ŋʉ̀ny person who is grumbling, complaining habitually.

a-ɨŋʉ́r   [Chamus]: ɨŋʉ́rr. v.subjn. To look at (subjunctive). See: a-ɨŋɔ́r(r) To look at. LING: The form *a-ɨŋʉ́r does not occur in W. This verb cannot occur in Progressive.

a-ɨŋʉráá   v. [North]: a-ɨŋʉraá. 1 • To look at. Ágɨ́rà aɨŋʉráá ɨntarɛ́. I am checking for/looking at the sheep. (W). Áɨ́ŋúráà ɨntarɛ́. I will/Iˈm going to check on the sheep. (W).

2 • To find out. Ɛgɨ́rà iláyìòk áàtɛ̀mà áɨ̀ŋʉ̀ràà ajó kálɔ̂ ógòl. The boys are trying each other to find out which is strong. See: a-ɨŋɔ́r To look at.

a-ɨŋʉráá   [North]: ɨŋʉraá. [Chamus]: ɨŋʉ́rr. v. 1 • To look at. Ágɨ́rà aɨŋʉráá ɨntarɛ́. I am checking for/looking at the sheep. (W). Áɨ́ŋúráà ɨntarɛ́. I will/Iˈm going to check on the sheep. (W).

2 • To find out. Ɛgɨ́rà iláyìòk áàtɛ̀mà áɨ̀ŋʉ̀ràà ajó kálɔ̂ ógòl. The boys are trying each other to find out which is strong. LING: The form *a-ɨŋʉ́r does not occur in W. LING: Cannot occur in Progressive. See: a-ɨŋɔ́r To look at.

a-iŋurríé   v. 1 • To pity, feel mercy for, have compassion with.

2 • [West] To prefer, favor. Shɔ́mɔ̀ ɨ́rrɨtá inkíshú táatá; íŋurríé Kónené amʉ̂ ɛɨrrɨ́tà inkíshú inkólònì kúmòk. Go look after cows today; favor Konene (i.e. help him especially) because he has been looking after cows for so many days. (W). Áatiaká ŋolé maiŋúrrìè Sáràh. He told me yesterday to prefer Sarah. (W). Áíŋúrrìè Sáràh. I will prefer Sarah. (W). Áíŋúrrìè ŋolé Sáràh. I preferred Sarah yesterday. (W). LING: In W the form *a-iŋúrr apparently does not occur. See: ol-ŋûrr Mercy.

a-iŋusíl   v. To smell bad, stink, reek. See: ol-ŋúsíl Smell; a-ŋú To smell.

a-iŋuyúm   v. To make s.o stay or sit temporarily for a rest or in wait of sth. aiŋuyúm ɔltʉŋánì To make a person rest. Íŋuyumó ɨnkɛ́rà tò lóîp amʉ̂ ɛnaʉ́ràtɛ̀. Make the children rest in the shade because they are tired.

a-iŋuyumó   v.mid. To stay or sit temporarily for a rest or in wait of sth. Áíŋúyúmo tò lóîp amʉ̂ ánáʉ́rɛ̀. I rest in the shade because I am tired. Áíŋúyúmè ŋolé. I rested yesterday. Íŋuyumoyú! Rest / sit down! See: a-tɔ́n To stay; sit down.

a-ɨɔtɨɔ́t   [North]: a-ɨwɔtɨwɔ́t. v. To infect. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlbáɛ̀ aɨɔtɨɔ́t. The wound is getting infected. (Pk).

a-ɨɔtɨɔtá   v.mid. 1 • To be infected. Káɨ́wɔtɨwɔ́tɛ̀ I have been infected. (S). This could be said when a wound swells after several days, it becomes pussy, the pain increases and the area affected widens.

2 • To become muddy. See: a-tír to infect.

îp   num. Hundred. ipkát tɔ́mɔ̂n thousand (lit: hundred times ten). î́p tɔ́mɔ̂n kát îp aré two hundred thousand (lit: ten hundren times two hundred). LING: [íp tomon kát ip aré].

îp inkúyú   num. Countless; more than can be counted. Îp inkúyú ɨlántɛ́rɛ̀rà lɔ́ sɨ́nyáí. The grains of sand are countless.

ɨ́pà   [West]: ápà. greeting. Appropriate answer to sʉ́pà(i). See: íkó Greeting response from a woman.

ɨ́pà   [West]: áápà. greeting. Appropriate answer to sʉ́pà(i); said by men, women, children. Áápà! Hello! (greeting response from a man) (W). See: íkó Greeting response from a woman.

a-ɨpaaŋʉ́   v. To have diarrhoea.

a-ɨpaapá   v.pass. Mɛtáà órè apá intóyìè ɛɨtʉ́ ɛɨpaapaakɨnɨ́. So the girls were not left without say.

a-ɨpaayá   [North]: a-ɨpaayá. v. To send s.o. away to do or bring sth. Ɨ́rá ŋáí íyìè peê kímpááya? Who are you to send me (to get it)? [rude] (W). Áípááyìè ɛnkɛ́ráí ɛndâ áŋ. I have sent a child to that home. Ɨ́mpaáí. Send her/him. Áaipaakakɨ́ ɔlɔmɔ́nɨ̀. A visitor has been sent to me. Manyɔ́r ɛnkɨ́páárotó. I don't like being sent. Ɨ́mpááká? Did you send her/him to him/her?

a-ɨpakʉ́   To send s.o to. See: a-rɛ́ʉ́ To send; a-ɨrrɨwaá To send.

a-ɨpadán   v. Hit the target or goal, as intended. Ɛ́ɨ́padán ɔlmʉrraní ɔ́tɨ̀l ɔlŋátúny The warrior who hit the lion is a "good shot". Ɛɨpádàn ɨlɔ̂ mʉrraní ɨ́nâ mótonyî. That warrior will precisely shoot that bird. (W). Ɛɨpádánɨshɔ ɨlɔ̂ mʉrraní That warrior is a sharp-shooter (always). (W). ɔltʉŋánì ɔɨpádàn person who hits the target as intended. See: pádán Skilled, sharp-shooter; a-tár To be skilled.

a-ɨpagʉ́   v. To have a nap.

a-ɨpák   v. 1 • To perform (any) dance. ɔlapá sínkólio lɛ́ nkɨ́páátá, kɨ́mpàkìè apá kɨ́râ ɨlayíòk. the old song for the dancing ceremony, we use it to dance when we were boys.

2 • To dance before a raid.

3 • [North] To go from one place to another; patrol.

a-ɨpakíé   To make dance.

a-ɨpakɨpák   v. 1 • To be restless, going form one place to another.

2 • To speak too much and not tell the truth.

a-ɨpáŋ   v. 1 • To exit. Níyoókì aɨpaŋíé entíto inó. Very early you will exit with your girl. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛntásât aiwuaŋíé ɔltîm peê ɛɨpáŋ intárɛ̀. The woman is removing the (last of) the gate branches so that the goats/sheep may go. (Pk).

2 • To reach final extent or termination point. Ɨ́ncɨmɨshɨmákɨ̀ aɨtɛrʉ́ ɔlkɨdɔŋɔ́ɨ̀ ɔmɛshɔ́mɔ̀ aɨpáŋ tɛ̀ lʉkʉnyá. Pierce me starting from the tail up to the end of the head. (KS).

a-ɨpaŋakɨ́   To appear to.

a-ɨpaŋʉ́   To come out; appear from. See: a-ipúŋ To exit; shɔmɔ gone.

a-ɨpaŋɨpáŋ   v. 1 • To pant.

2 • To go out repeatedly.

a-ɨpár [North]   v.prog. [North] To question, ask. Káɨ́párɨ́tà lomón. I'm asking something. (S). Káɨ́pàr Leonard tanáà kélotú táísèrè. I will ask Leonard if he can come tomorrow. (S). Mpárá. Ask him! (S).

a-ɨpárr   [North]: ɨpár. v. To ask. Káypárà. I have asked him. (S). See: a-ikilikúán To ask.

a-ɨparraár   v. To move about aimlessly. See: a-ló To go.

a-ɨpásh [North]   v. [North] To churn. See: a-ɨpɔ́sh To churn.

a-ipashá [North]   v. v. [North] To wander off due to mental problems. This could be said of people or animals.

2 • v. [North] To not give up a fight that has been broken off; hold a grudge.

a-ɨpatɨpát   v.prog. To do things aimlessly with a lot of haste and not reasoning. This is commonly associated with a lot of talking, not thinking of what to say, and not minding about protocol. Meyíéú nɨ́mpatɨ́pàt, tábarakɨ́ ɨmbáà You don't need to do things aimlessly, do things with thoughtfullness.

a-ɨpɛɛ́j   v. To show off, display proudly, act ostentatiously or pretentiously. Ɛ́ɨ́pɛ́ɛ́jʉ́nyɛ̂ ɨlmʉ́rrân ɛmányátá. Warriors have walked ostentatiously into the ceremonial home. ɑɨpɛɛ́j osínkólìò To sing ostentatiously. See: a-dɛɛ́ny To act proud; a-ɨtɔkɔɔ́s To show off; flirt; a-ŋɨdá To be proud; a-ɨká To be suspended; puffed up; a-ɨtaakunó To pretend.

a-ɨpɛɛjá   v.mid. To flirt.

a-ɨpɛɛjarí   v. To walk ostentatiously. See: a-ɨkadɨkád To walk carefully.

a-ipɛ́k1   v. 1 • To coax or nag s.o. to continue a behavior.

2 • To give an animal pain to make it care for its young. This is done on the rare occasion that an animal despises its young. In S, the method varies by the animal as follows: for cows, air is blown into the the birth canal. For goats, their tail is shoved tightly into the birth canal, and perhaps a strap is tied tightly in the mouth. For sheep, the mouth is tied tighly with a strap, and the animal is tethered, and not allowed to graze for a day or so. In Pk, this is done by putting salt into the birth canal of a cow, or putting salt on the young of a sheep or goat. LING: In S, this word is more likely used for cows, and a-isísh more likely used for goats, sheep, or people. See: ɛn-kɨ́tɛ́ŋ kɨ́pɛkɛ́ calfless cow.

a-ɨpɛ́k2   v. 1 • To jeer. Ɛ́ɨ́pɛ̀k. He will jeer.

2 • To make a sound by blowing on your wrist.

a-ɨpɛ́ny   1 • To press hard.

2 • [North] To keep on milking even when it seems the milk has stopped flowing from the cow's teats.

a-ɨpɛnyakɨ́   To milk for someone. See: a-aarakɨ́ To coerce; kill for.

a-ɨpɛrdɛ́d   v. To tear into shreds. See: a-pɛrdɛ́d To cut into shreds.

a-ɨpɛrɨpɛrá   v. To lie on a bed with motive of not sleeping.

enk-iperût   n. Upper edge of the house where the roof joins the walls.

a-ɨpɛ́rr   Variant: ipér. v. To split. aɨpɛrrʉ́ sóít to break off a piece of stone from a boulder (SN). Káɨ́pɛ́rrà. I have split it. (S). See: a-danyʉ́ To split; a-rɛ́k To split.

a-ɨpɛrrɨpɛ́r1   v.prog. 1 • To roll sth. on a horizontal surface. Áɨ́pɛ́rɨ́pɛ́rɨ̀tà. I am rolling it on top of a surface.

2 • To make sth lie on a horizontal surface. aɨpɛrrɨpɛ́r ɛnkɛ́ráí tɛ̀ ndapásh To make the child lie on the bed.

3 • To take care of animals around the homestead. aɨpɛrrɨpɛ́rr ɨntaré tɛ̀ aúlùò To take care of the sheep around in (the vicinity of) the homestead. (Pk).

4 • To beat. Usage: Metaphorical. Nɛ́ɨ́pɛrɨpɛrrɨ́ ɛnkayíónì naɨmalɨ́màlà. A boy that has erred was beaten.

a-ɨpɛrɨpɛrá   1 • To lie down.

2 • To roll around.

a-iperiperíé   To use it to roll sth. on the ground.

a-ɨpɛrrɨpɛ́rr2   v.prog. To keep on splitting (e.g. wood) into smaller pieces. Áɨ́pɛ́rrɨ́pɛ́rrɨ̀tà. I keep on splitting it.

a-iperriperríé   To use it to split.

a-ipíd   v.prog. 1 • To jump up and quickly land back onto a supporting surface. Éípìd. He will jump. Éɨ́pìd ɛntárgéetî tɔɔ́ nkʉjɨ́t A grasshopper keeps on jumping in the grass. Éípídó ɔlmʉrraní arisioré encani The warrior has jumped to the height of a tree. Áípídítò. I am jumping. Átódúàà ɔyɛ́kɛ̀ny oipidítò tɔɔ́ lkeék. I have seen a baboon jumping from tree to tree. Ímpidó. Jump! (W). Usage: In K, a-ipíd is the hypernym for at least a-ɨ́d, a-itiám, a-dʉmʉ́, a-igís, and a-láŋ.. See: a-ɨ́d To jump over; a-itíám To hop, jump to different spot; a-dʉmʉ́ To jump, as in dance; a-igís To jump, as in dance; a-láŋ To step or jump over; a-dookí To jump into; a-ŋoró [North] To jump; a-ɨtɨ́r [North] To jump a long distance; [North] a-ɨpɨrɨ́ To jump, as in dance; [North] a-cʉtʉnyɛ́ To jump; [North] a-ɨdɨɨdá To jump.

2 • To change one's mind after an agreement. Ímpidó mɨ́nyɔrráà aké aás ɨ́nâ. You need to change your mind, don't agree to do that.

a-ipidokí   To jump for, to, on. Eipídoki olówùàrù ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ. The beast will jump on a cow. Áaipidókì. He is jumping on me.

a-ipidipíd   To jump repeatedly.

a-ipiíp   v.prog. To be in flames. Restrict: fire. Eipiipítò ɛnkɨ́mà The fire is burning. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlcháta aipiíp The stick/firewood is burning. See: a-yupuyúp To be in flames; a-péj To burn; roast.

a-ɨpɨ́k   v. To protrude; stick out; sprout. Ɨlálá aárè ɔɔ́ɨ́pɨ̀kʉ̀ bɔɔ́ ɛátà olbitír. A warthog has two tusks that project conspicuously outside. (Pk).

a-ɨpɨkʉ́   To extend out; project outward. Ɛɨpɨ́kʉ̀. It will sprout. Ɛɨpɨ́kʉ̀ ɨlalá lólbitir. The teeth of the warthog extend out. See: a-bʉ́l To increase, sprout.

a-ɨpɨ́l   v. 1 • To coil; twist. Ɛ́ɨ́pɨ̀l inkítùààk ɨnkɔɨpɨlaní. Women coil beaded-necklaces.

2 • To initiate a clever deceptive manouvre intended to oppose sth. Ɛɨpɨlɨ́tà ɔltásât ɨmbáà ɔ́lcámpà amʉ̂ meyíéú nɛ́ɨmákɨnɨ́. The old man is indirectly opposing the issues about the land because he doesn't want them discussed.

a-ɨpɨlá   v.mid. Variant: a-ɨpɨrá. 1 • To be coiled; twisted. Kɛ́ɨ́pɨ́là ɛná ɔɨpɨláí aɨtɔbɨrakɨ́. This coiled beaded necklace has been coiled properly.

2 • To have a clever deceptive maneuver to derail a certain action. See: a-mɛrrɛgɛ́l; a-mɛrrɛgɛlá To twist; ɛnk-ɔ́ɨ́pɨ́láí A coiled beaded ornament.

a-ɨpɨlɨpɨ́l   v. 1 • To thrive; flourish. Kɛ́ɨ́pɨlɨ́pɨ̀l imbenék óo lkeék tɛnɛ́shà The leaves from trees will flourish when it rains.

2 • To twist repeatedly.

3 • To flash, flicker, shine from reflected light.

a-ipím   v. To measure, weigh. See: a-tɛ́m To measure.

a-ɨpɨ́r1   v.prog. 1 • To face. Ɨ́mpɨrá Karen. Face towards Karen.

2 • To head in a certain destination, go towards. Ɛshɔmɔ́ aɨpɨ́r oldóínyó. He went towards the hill. (W). Áɨ́pɨ́rɨ́tà ídíà áló ɛ̀ Tanzania. I am heading to Tanzania.

3 • To be directly overhead. Restrict: Sun. Ɛ́ɨ́pɨ̀r ɛnkɔ́lɔ̀ŋ. It is midday. (lit: The sun is up above.).

4 • To aim. Ɛtaŋoróyìè ɛnkáyíóní eremét aipiríé ɔlcaní. The boy has thrown the spear towards the tree. Eipiríé ɔláíyíóní eremét enetií ɔltɔ́mɛ́ kákè ɛɨtʉ́ eŋoróò. The boy aimed the spear in the direction the elephant is, but he did not throw it. (W).

5 • [North] To chase for a along time, without catching. Káɨpɨrá ltɔmɛ́. The elephant chased me a long time (but didn't catch me.) (S).

6 • To concern.

a-ɨpɨrarɛ́   1 • To be concerned with; responsible for.

2 • To be direct to; opposite to;

3 • To be directly behind sth such that one is not visible.

a-ipiríé   1 • To direct to; aim with.

2 • To exchange with.

a-ɨpɨrʉ́   To direct towards the point of reference. See: a-ɨpɨrtá To be concerning; a-ipiríé To aim with; a-mɨ́r To chase.

a-ɨpɨ́r2   v.prog. 1 • To roll a stick rapidly between the palms of the hand; stir. Ɛɨpɨ́rɨ́tà pápaáí inkiwúó. My father is stirring the soup. (W). This is done by rotating a stick attached to a wide piece of wood between the palms. Ɛɨpɨ́rɨ́tà kʉlɔ̂ páyianí ɛnkɨ́má. These men are making fire. Ɛɨpɨ́rɨ́tà ɛnkɨ́má. They are making a fire by rotating sticks rapidly between the palms. (W). aɨpɨrrɨpɨ́rr To continue the palm action for an extended period of time.

2 • [North] To rub sth. folded inside a cloth between the palms of the hands, in order to break or mix it well (e.g. red ocher). See: ɔl-kɨ́pɨ̀rɛ̀ Whisk.

a-ɨpɨrarɛ́   v. 1 • To be opposite.

2 • To stand behind sth. Ɛɨpɨ́ràrɛ̀ oyékenyî ɔlcaní nɛ́akʉ moókire itumókì atodúàà. The baboon has moved behind the tree so you can no longer be able to see it.

a-ipirdán [North]   v. 1 • [North] To play.

2 • [North] To run around aimlessly, as a young child or calf.

3 • To do things carelessly, jokingly, flippantly. See: a-ipirrár To run around aimlessly; a-dalá To play, to joke.

a-ɨpɨrɨ́ [North]   v. [North] To jump; jump during dancing. See: a-igís To jump, as in dancing; a-ipíd To jump; a-ɨ́d To jump; a-dʉmʉ́ To jump; a-itíám To jump.

a-ipiríé   v. To send sth. in a particular direction. Impírie nkíshú nì. Send the cows in that direction. (S). See: a-ɨpɨ́r To aim.

a-ipirinyaány [North]   v. [North] To taste ...; makes the tongue become rough, not smooth; perhaps caused by unripe fruits, chewing the bark of certain fruits.

a-ipiripír   v. To shake off (e.g. dust from a cloth). See: a-ɨpɔ́sh To shake.

a-ipiripirú   v.dir. To empty (e.g. a flour sack of its contents).

a-ipirís   v.itr. To give willingly and freely.

a-ipirisíe   To give willingly and freely.

a-ɨpɨrtá   v. 1 • To be about; Concerning; Ékíiyíéú siî níkiyiolóù ɨndamunót ɔɔ́ lMáásâɨ̂ ánàà oltúrrúr tɔɔ́ ɨmbáâ náàɨ̀pɨ̀rtà empúkúnotó ɔ́ ltʉŋánì. We also want to learn about how Maasai people as a group think about character. (lit: We also want to know thoughts of the Maasai as a group about issues concerning type of person.).

2 • To aim at. See: a-ɨpɨ́r To face.

a-ɨpɨrʉ́   v. 1 • To invent; originate.

2 • To make fire with firesticks; kindle.

3 • To sift by beating a powder on a cloth with a club, over another cloth, such that the fine, soft powder falls through. This is done to ochre, which is then used for beads and warriors' hair. Káɨ́pɨrʉ́tà. I'm beating the ochre. See: -núá To kindle fire; a-ɨnɔ́k To kindle fire; mpíróí firemaker.

a-ipirrár   v. To run around aimlessly, like a child or calf. Kɛ́ɨ́pɨrrarrɨ́tà láshàʉ̀. The calves are jumping around. (SN). See: a-ipirdán To run around aimlessly.

a-ipirrí   v. run.

1 • To run fast; gallop. Áípírrì. I am running. (W). Ímpírrì. You are running. (W). Kímpìrrì. We are running. (W). Ímpírrírrì. Y'all are running. (W). Eipírrì. They are running. (W). Áípírrio ŋolé. I ran yesterday. (W). Ímpírrio ŋolé. You ran yesterday. (W). Eipírrio ŋolé. He ran yesterday. (W). Eipírrieitô ŋolé. They ran yesterday. (W). Ímpírríó tɔ́tɔ́nàǃ Because you have run sit down! (K) Run and sit! (W). Ímpirríó ɨ́yaʉ́ ɛnkárɛ́! [ḿpìríó] Go and get water quickly! Eipírríó osíkírìà aló áŋ. The donkey galloped home. Ɛátà ɨná kɛráí ɛlʉ́kʉnyá amʉ̂ eipírríó sokónì néshukúnyè èìtù èlò aɨmalɨmál. That child is responsible because she ran to the market and returned without going to goof off. (W). Áípírrì tɛ́nakatá. I am running right now. (W). Áípírríó aɨlány ɛncán. I ran away from rain.

2 • To fly. Eipírríó emótonyî. The bird flew away.

3 • To flinch; be unable to bear the pain of the knife during circumcision. Ɛ́yíɛ́ŋ ɨlaɨbarták ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ tè néípìrrì oláyíóní. The newly circumcised men will slaughter a cow when the boy cannot bear the pain of being circumcised.

4 • [North] To jump up and down (as in dancing). See: a-kúɛ́t To run away; a-ɨŋát To run away; a-ɨsɨ́k To escape; a-ló tì aí To fly; a-itiamá To fly.

a-ipirripír   v.prog. To shake off. Áípírípírítò ɔlkáráshá I am shaking off (the dust from) the sheet.

a-ipiripiroó   To shake off from. aipiripiroó entérít To shake off the dust.

a-ipirripírr   v.prog. 1 • To shake an item so as to remove sth from it (dirt, liquid, etc.), shake off; empty by shaking. aipirripír ɨnkɨlání aaraá entérít To shake off the dust from the cloth. Kéípiripíro. He shook himself. (e.g. an animal shaking itself dry) (S).

2 • To change for the better. Kéípiripírè. He was bad, but became good. (S). This could be said of a thin/healthy contrast, as well as a moral one. See: a-ɨpɔ́sh To shake; a-ɨŋʉnʉŋʉ́n To shake; a-igusugusíé To shake; a-iseiseyíé To shake.

ipkát tɔ́mɔ̂n   [ìpkát tɔ̀mɔ̀n] num. Thousand. See: ɛn-catá Thousand.

a-ɨpɔɨpɔ́ɨ́   v. To handle an animate but vulnerable creature lightly and carefully so as not to damage it. Ɨ́mpɔɨpɔyá ɛnkɛ́ráí kɨtɨ́. Handle the little baby with great care. LING: Note that when suffixes are added to this stem, -ɨ is replace by -y.

a-ɨpɔɨpɔyʉ́   1 • To nurture. Nɛ́ɨ́pɔɨpɔyʉnɨ́ ɛnkɛ́ráí mɛtʉ́bʉlʉ́. So the child is cared for with great care so that she grows up.

2 • To bring carefully. Ɨ́mpɔɨpɔyʉ́ ɛnkɛ́ráí ɨ́yakákɨ̀. Bring the child carefully to me. See: a-ramát To take care of.

a-ipók   v. 1 • To cleanse ritually, purify. Kéípòk inkítùààk ɛnkají natoíshòrè enkítòk peê étûm ɨlpáyianí áàtɨ̀jɨ̀ŋ. Women ritually clean a house used for delivering [a baby] by a woman so that men could get in. Éípòk. He will cleanse ritually. Áípòk. He will cleanse ritually. (W).

2 • [North] To paint a calabash or hide with charcoal to make it look black.

a-ipók n-kají   To ritually cleanse the house.

a-ipók nk-ɔ́shɛ̀kɛ̀   To nurture a sick person by giving specialized foods.

a-ɨpɔ́k   v. To wound by stabbing.

a-ipokú   v.vent. To wipe water off a surface. aipokú ɛnkárɛ́ natíi ɛndápásh to wipe off water that is on the bed.

a-ɨpɔlɔsá   v.mid. To recite by giving an account describing incidents or events. This is done by warriors who are in the meat-eating-camp in the bush. One warrior at a time will wake up at dawn and walks out of the camp and starts recital describing what they have gone through, their triumphs.

ɛn-kɨpɔlɔ́sà   n. Recital made in the meat-eating-camp by warriors.

a-ɨpɔ́ny   v. To knock against, bump into, push. Ɛ́ɨ́pɔ́nyá oldîâ láí ɛngárrî. A car has bumped into/hit my dog. (PK). The dog could be dead as a result. Usage: See usage note at a-ósh.

a-iponyíé   To make things knock one another. See: a-óC To hit; a-náŋ To hit; a-ikum To hit, ram; a-ilug To hit.

a-ɨpɔ́ŋ   v.prog. To overfill the stomach. See: a-poŋú To be overfull (in the stomach).

a-ɨpɔ́sh   [North]: ɨpásh. v.prog. 1 • To churn, shake (esp. milk). Ɛ́ɨ́pɔ̀sh. He will churn. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛntásât aɨpɔ́sh kʉlɛ́. The old woman is churning the milk. (Pk). Ɛ́ɨpɔshɨ́tà ɛntásât kʉlɛ́. The old lady is shaking milk. This is done to milk four or five days old, after it has curdled. Káɨ́páshɨ́tà kʉlɛ́. I'm shaking milk. (S).

2 • To move sth. from one place to another. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛntásât aɨpɔ́sh ɛnkɛ́ráí kɨtɨ́. (i) The woman is shaking the little child. (Pk) (ii) The woman is taking the little child from one place to another. (K). Ɛshɔmɔ́ dúóó ɔlmórúô aɨpɔ́sh ɔlɨkâɨ̂. The old man has taken the other one around moving from place to place. (Pk). For a human patient, the idea in K, Pk is that the patient is moved from one place to another without rest. In S, a-ɨpɔ́sh can to be done only to milk, either churning or homogenizing it. This may be done when the milk has sat for a long time, such that it blocks the opening of the gourd. After shaking, it pours more easily. Etym: Proto-Lotuko-Maa *-(ɪ)pɔt- 'churn' (v.) (Vossen 1982ː346).

a-ɨpɔshá   1 • To heave like a lake. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkárɛ̀ aɨpɔshá tɨ̀ átùà ɛnaɨpɔ́shà. The water is heaving in the lake. (Pk).

2 • To move from place to place; restless. aɨpɔshá ɑɨŋɔrʉ́ ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ naɨmɨná To go from place to place looking for a lost sheep.

a-ɨpɔshɨpɔ́sh   To churn repeatedly. See: ɛ-naɨpɔ́shà Lake; a-ipiripír To shake off; a-ɨŋʉnʉŋʉ́n To shake; a-igusugús To shake; a-iseiseiyíé To shake; a-inyenyé To shake; a-ɨkíj To shake.

a-ipót   v.prog. 1 • To call, beckon, summon. This may be used even for calling someone on the telephone if you're asking them to come. Éípòt. He will call. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛntásât aipót ɛnkɛ́ráí meyêû ají. The woman is calling the child to come to the house. (Pk). Áípótítò. I am calling him/her. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛntásât aipót Námʉ́nyák peê élô ayaʉ́ ɛsʉkárì. The old lady is calling Namunyak [who is far away] to go and bring sugar. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛntásât aipót Námʉ́nyák peê élô ayá ɛsʉkárì. The old lady is calling Namunyak [who is far away] to go take sugar [to somewhere else]. Néípòtì ɛnapá áŋ áàjòkì, "óotú." The previously-mentioned family is called and told, "Come.". Eipótù. He will call towards (s.o.).

2 • To name, give a name to. Órè peê eipotíékì ɔltʉŋánì ɔláísíááyìànì When a person is named after a servant.

a-ipotoó   To call loudly or far for s.o. to come to the point of reference (e.g. where the caller is). Ɛgɨ́rà ɛntásât aipotoó ɛnkɛ́ráí mɛshɔ́mɔ̀ aɨrɔrɔkɨ́ mɛ́nyɛ́. The old woman is calling (out to) the child to come and greet her (the child's) father. (Pk) [The old lady and the father are together, but the child is far away, either within calling distance or in a distant city. The old lady could be sending someone, or call via raising her voice. In any case, the child is being called to come to where the old lady is.].

a-ipotú(n)   To call towards the point of reference. Compare: Ɛgɨ́rà ɛntásât aipót ɛnkɛ́ráí meyêû enetíi. The old woman is calling the child toward herself (i.e. toward the old woman). (Pk). Ɛgɨ́rà ɛntásât aipotú ɛnkɛ́ráí mɛshɔ́mɔ̀ aɨrɔrɔkɨ́ mɛ́nyɛ́. The old woman is calling the child to go and greet her (the child's) father. [The child could be near or far away, and the calling may be loud or soft. The old lady and the father are together and the child is being called to come to where the old lady is.].

a-ɨpɔ́t   v.prog. To fill sth. Mɛɨpɔtɨ́tà. She is not filling it up. (W).

a-ɨpɔyʉpɔyʉ́   Variant: a-ɨpɔyɨpɔyʉ́. In some suffixed forms: a-ɨpɔyʉpɔyʉ́n. v. v. To handle carefully.

2 • v. To raise. Nɛ́ɨ́pɔyʉpɔyʉnɨ́ táatá namna hii áâ nɨnyɛ́ aké ɔpɛ́ny So its brought up like this her being alone.

a-ipúk   v. 1 • To flee. Éípùk. He will flee. Ɛgɨ́ráɨ́ áàìpùk áàɨ̀ŋàtàà é mperî. The people are fleeing from the famine. (Pk).

2 • To hurry. Míkíntóki aipukíé amʉ̂ ɛ́tɔ́n aátà esíáàì. Stop hurrying because I still have work to do. (Pk).

a-ipukokí   To flee to.

a-ipukíé   To put to flight, cause to flee. Ɛgɨ́ráɨ́ áàìpùkìè inkíshú mɛ́nyà ilowuarák. The people are putting the cows to flight so that the lions will not eat them. (Pk).

a-ɨpʉnʉká   v. To be excessively full due to overeating. See: ɔl-pʉ́nʉ́ká One of the stomachs of a cow.

a-ipúŋ   Variant: a-ɨpáŋ. v. To go out, go out from, exit. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɛráí aipúŋ aló bɔɔ́. The child is going out (from the house) to the outside. (Pk). Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlpáyìàn aipúŋ tɛ̀ idîâ ájì. The man is going out from that house. (Pk). aipúŋ aló To get out (lit: to exit to go).

a-ipuŋokí, a-ipaŋakɨ́   To appear to.

a-ipurdék   v. To do sth. accidentally. See: a-otikí To do intentionally.

a-ɨpʉ́rj   v. 1 • To mix liquid and powdery substances together (e.g. water and maize meal for ugali, water and soil to make mud, water and cement powder, eggs and sugar). Ɛ́ɨ́pʉ́rjɨ́tà ɛnkárɛ́ ɔ́ entérít peê émúrîê ɛnkají. [ɛ̀ŋkáɾɛ́ wéntìɾìt] She is mixing water and soil to plaster the house with.

2 • To mix people of different backgrounds or cultures together; integrate. Usage: slang. See: a-ɨtʉshʉ́l To mix; a-kúr To mix.

a-ipúrr   v.prog. 1 • To roar; bellow; growl. Ɛgɨ́rà olŋatúny aipúrr tɔ̀ lkɛ́jʉ̀. The lion is roaring at the river. (Pk). Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlɔ́ɨ́ŋɔ́nɨ́ aipúrr tɛ̀ bɔ́ɔ̀. The bull is bellowing to the outside. (Pk). Kéípúrrótò. He is roaring. (S). This can be done by a warrior who has just returned to society.

2 • To bluff; speak with empty words. aipúrr pɛ́shɔ̀ To speak about sth and not do anything by actions.

3 • To speak authoritatively. Nɨnyɛ́ ɛgɛlʉ́nɨ méípurrokí oloshô lɛnyɛ́. He is the one to be elected to speak to and on behalf of his section (of people).

a-ipurrupúrr   v. 1 • To let sth. fall to the ground so that it gets smeared with soil.

2 • To wrestle s.o. down to the ground. Usage: metaphorical.

3 • To keep on roaring.

a-ipurupurorí   To roll down.

a-ipurupuríé ɛnkʉ́tʉ́k   To oil one's mouth by eating an oily substance (especially meat). See: a-ipúr To roar.

a-ɨpûs ɔ́ŋʉ̀   v.phrase. To have a bad, diseased eye. Kɛ́ɨ́pʉ̀s-ɔ́ŋʉ̀ alɛ́ tʉŋánì. This man has an eye problem/has a bad eye. (SN). The eye problem is likely permanent and is visible to others. LING: 'eye' is in the Nominative, suggesting an External Possession construction.

a-ɨpʉsá   v.mid. 1 • To be blue.

2 • To become angry, annoyed. Áɨ́pʉ́sà. I have become angry/annoyed.

a-ipusíé   v. 1 • To make sth. grey-blue. Ɛgɨ́rà áàìpùsìè ɛnâ kɨlâ áàpɨ̀k emúá pʉ̂s. They are making this cloth blue (by) putting it in blue color (pigment, dye).

2 • To add milk to. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛntásât aipusíé oloshoró óôk ɨnkɛ́râ peê érêt. [òòk] [èrèt] The old woman is adding milk to the porridge that the children drink so that it can be nutritious. aipusíé here refers to the resulting color of the porridge, and not to its consistency. Compare a-bɛbɛ́k.

3 • To make s.o. be despised, hated; bad-mouth s.o; slander. Ɛgɨ́rà olórérè áàìpùsìè olkíríkóí oibáyiokí. The people are making the vagrant be despised/hated. Kááípúsìè. I will bad-mouth you. (lit: I will make you blue.) (Pk).

a-ipusíé ɛnk-áɨ́ná   To make the hand blue by twisting blue beads on it. Ɛgɨ́ráɨ́ áàìpùsìè ɔlmʉ́rránì oléŋ ɛnkáɨ́ná. The generous warrior is having his hand made blue by twisting blue beads on it. (Pk). This is done to generous warriors. See: pûs Blue.

a-ɨpʉsʉ́   v. 1 • To become blue. Ɛgɨ́rà shʉmatá aɨpʉsʉ́ amʉ̂ ɛgɨ́rà ɨnkátàmpò áàìwùàŋà. The sky is becoming blue because the clouds are clearing off.

2 • To lack, go without. Ɛɨpʉ́sʉ. He will go without it. Ɛ́ɨ́pʉsʉ́. He will go without it. (W). Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlápúróní aɨpʉsʉ́ amʉ̂ mɛátà entókì napurróò. The thief is going without because there is nothing to steal. Ɨ́mpʉsʉ́! Stop it! (lit: Become blue!) (W). This is a joking expression said to children when they cause others to laugh. It is based on the metaphor of 'lack', implying that the child should come to lack ideas, or not "get ideas" that cause so much laughter.

3 • To turn to a different color because of sickness or anger. See: pʉ̂s Blue.

a-ipúsh   v.prog. To apply force to move sth away and/or towards you with quick motion. Kááípúshítò. I'm pulling you back and forth. aipúsh emilánkò mɛtáboloyú To apply force to move the door back and forth so that it could be opened.

a-ipushó   To throw oneself back and forth.

a-ipushú   To pull.

a-ipushoó   To push.

a-ipushupúsh   To move back and forth; shake.

a-ɨpʉ́t   v. To fill. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkárɛ̀ aɨpʉ́t ɔlcɔ́rrɔ̀. The water is filling the well. Ɛ́ɨ́pʉ̀t. He filled it. Ɛɨpʉ́tá. He has filled it. Nérukúnye aké isírúàì, nɛ́ɨ́pʉt ewúéji. Elands just came out, and filled that place. Kéyieu néori ɛnâ tulúgumî amʉ̂ ɛ́ɨ́pʉ́tá bɔɔ́. This old powdered dung needs to be swept because it has filled the kraal. Mɛɨpʉ́táí áɨ́kata inê amʉ̂ eúlulû nɛ́mɛ́átà enkítíŋótó. You can never fill there because it is a gorge that has no end. Ɛtanárèyìà nɛ́ɨ́ŋɔr ɨltʉŋaná átɛ́ amʉ̂ ɛ́ɨ́pʉ́tá entórroní óò mpukunót pɔɔkɨ́ ɛnkɔ́p. People should take care of themselves because the world is full of all kind of evil/bad feeling/trouble. (Pk). See: a-ɨgány To fill.

a-iputukúny   v. 1 • To be frightened; horror-struck; amazed. Eiputúkùny. He is / will be frightenend, horror-struck. Eipútúkùny. He is / will be frightenend, horror-struck. (W). Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɛ́ráí aiputukúny amʉ̂ étódúáá ɔlnátúny. The child is frightened because she has seen a lion. ɔltʉŋánì oiputúkùny person who is frightened, horror-struck. See: a-irút To be frightened.

2 • To worry; be concerned with.

a-iputukunyíé   To frighten s.o.

a-ɨpʉʉdá   v.mid. To bluff; deceive by pretending to be stronger, brave, smarter than one really is. Mɨ́mpʉʉ́da ajó íyíólò entókì nímíyíólò Do not pretend to know sth that you do not know. Syn: a-itukutukó To bluff.

a-ír   v. 1 • To clean a calabash using a stick from the olóíríén tree which is burning or has charcoal at one end. Etoírè enkúkúrì The calabash is (finally) cleaned.

2 • To root out corrupt or problematic people. Usage: This has the connotation of wielding power.

3 • To prune out bad habits in people; discipline. See: a-ilísh To clean a gourd.

a-ír   v.prog. To move sideways or back and forth in unstable manner; sway; wobble. This can happen to trees, as swayed by wind, thoughts.

a-iriiró   To be swayed.

a-iriirunyé   1 • To sway towards the point of reference.

2 • To come in bigness like clouds, heavy truck, big animal.

a-ɨramɨrám   v. 1 • To have a permanent speech disorder involving hesitations and involuntary repetitions of certain sounds; stutter; stammer. Kégogóŋ ɔltʉ́ŋání ɔ́ɨ́ramɨ́ràm A stuttering person can be easily angered.

2 • To bite lightly and repeatedly. Syn: a-ɨrɔmɨrɔ́m To bite lightly and repeatedly. See: a-ɨdáŋ To be disfluent or stumble in speech.

a-ɨrány   v. To rain so long that the ground is soaked with water and muddy. Kɛ́ɨ́rɛ̀ny táatá ɛncân ɛnkɔ́p. Today the rain will soak the ground.

a-ɨráŋ   v. To talk proudly, displaying great dignity by the manner one talks. This mostly happens because of wealth and possessions. Míntókì aɨráŋ tɛnɨ́rɔ. Don't speak proudly when you talk. See: a-rɨ́ny To talk boastfully.

a-ɨrás   v. To pierce through with a sharp instrument. aɨrás enkíòòk To pierce the ear. airás ɛnkɨlâ To. See: a-irasíé To glimpse.

a-irasíé   v. 1 • To drink a little bit of a liquid; sip. airasíé ɛnkárɛ́ To drink a little bit of water.

2 • To catch a glimpse of; see briefly. airasíé ɔlŋátúny To catch a glimpse of a lion.

a-irebúk   v. 1 • To be damp. (K)eirébùk táàtá inkúlùpùòk amʉ̂ ɛtasháɨ́kia ŋolé nɛ́tʉ̀ etoyú olêŋ. The soil is damp today because it was rained on yesterday and it did not get completely dry. Kéírébùk inkílaní amʉ̂ ɛ́tɔ́n ɛ́ɨ́tʉ̂ etoyú olêŋ. The cloths are damp because they are not yet completely dry. (Pk).

2 • To sweat. See: a-shál To be wet; a-ɨlɨbɨlɨ́b To be wet; a-ɨrɔbɨ́ To be cold.

a-irém   [South]: a-ilím. v. To dig; cultivate. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlpáyìàn airém inkulupúók. The man is digging the ground. (Pk). Ɨ́yakákɨ̀ enturét náló airemíé endê. Bring me a hoe so that I can go and dig with it there. (Pk). See: a-ŋér To weed; a-túr To cultivate.

a-iremokí   1 • To dig sth. into the ground. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkáyíóní airemokí ɨ́mpɔ́ɔ́shɔ̂ ɛnkɔ̂p. The boy is digging the beans into the ground. (Pk).

2 • To weed. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkáyíóní airemokí ɨ́mpɔ́ɔ́shɔ̂. The boy is weeding the beans-garden.

a-irenkés   v. To spy.

a-ɨrɛnyá   v. To contract the abdomen or push, as when giving birth or defecating. Ɛgɨ́rà enkínè náishó aɨrɛnyá. The goat that is giving birth is contracting the abdomen. (Pk). See: a-irianyá To contract the abdomen.

a-irewejé   To boil. See: a-irowua; a-irowuajíé To boil; a-ɨtɔ́k To boil.

a-iríám   v. To do more than one thing at the same time. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlpáyìàn airiamakɨ́ eríkúnotó é nkitók ɔ́ ɛncátátá ɛ́ nkají. The man is marrying and building his house at the same time. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkáyíóní airíám enkírítátá ɔɔ́ ntarɛ́ ɔ́ ɛnɔɔ́ lashɔ́. The boy is simultaneously doing the herding of the goats/sheep and calves. (Pk). In S, this is primarily used for two deaths that happen at the same time, or two people that go to a place together. It cannot be used to describe two people working, either together or independently, at the same time.

áà-ìrìàmàrì   v.pl. To go off together. Ɛshɔmɔ́ ɔlpáyìàn ɔ́ nkitók ɛnyɛ́ shoó áàìrìàmàrì. The man and his wife have gone to herd together. (Pk). Kórè tɛ̀ nétolikíó nɨnyɛ́ ajó elóítò sokónì ánáátá eiriamarî. If he had told her that he was going to the market, she would/could have gone with him. (W).

a-irianyá [North]   v. [North] To contract the abdominal muscles or push, as when giving birth or defecating. Usage: Vulgar. Syn: a-ɨrɛnyá To contract the abdominal muscles or push, as when giving birth or defecating.

a-irím   v. 1 • To put spots on the face or body with chalk or ochre; daub; splatter. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɛráɨ́ airím enkomóm ɛ́ nkáɨ́ tɛ̀ nturotó. The child is daubing the face of the other using chalk. (Pk).

2 • To make permanent decorative cuttings or tatoos. For S, the idea of decoration is more important than the shape or method. It may be done with fire or knife, and the decoration is permanent. It can be on a house or a warrior. On a warrior, it often consists of dots burned in a circle around each nipple. See: a-igér To make decorative cutting.

a-irimó   v.mid. To be spotted or dotted, involving at least two colors of spots (e.g. black and red, brown and black, white and red, black and white). The spots are conspicuous but not as big as tárâ. For S, the spots are congenital, not the result of a-irím. ɔlmɛʉ́t oirímò spotted giraffe. ɔrmɛʉ́t oirímò spotted giraffe (Pk). Kéírímò apá ɔlapá ashé ɔ́tɨmɨrá mpapá. The calf that Dad sold was spotted. (Pk).

a-irimó é nyókîê   Spotted red.

a-irimó ɛ́ rɔ̂k   Spotted black. See: a-irím To daub, splatter.

a-irimokí   v. 1 • To weed.

2 • [North] To make spots on sth; plant sporadically. See: [South] a-ilím To weed; a-ŋér To weed.

a-ɨrɨ́n   v. 1 • To twist. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlpáyìàn aɨrɨ́n ɛnkorínì. The man is twisting a wire.

2 • To tie the side posts of a house together using slender branches of plants. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛntásât aɨrɨ́n ɛnkají ɛnyɛ́. The old woman is tying the side post of her house. (Pk).

3 • To wrap around, surround. Ɨ́rɨná nkáɨ́ná. Tie up your hand (e.g. it is wounded, so put a bandage around it). (SN).

4 • To make s.o. late; delay s.o. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛntásât aɨrɨ́n encólìèk ɛnyɛ́. The old woman is delaying her partner. (Pk).

a-ɨrɨná   v.mid. 1 • To look for delaying tactics; do sth. unwillingly.

2 • To wander around without proper direction.

a-ɨrɨnakɨ́   To twist sth. around sth. Káɨ́rrɨ́nakɨ. I will twist it around it (e.g. make a rope or vine wrap around a tree trunk). (SN). LING: In SN, the vowel between /r/ and /n/ is reduced and tends to be elided, resulting in the pronunciation [ɨ̀rrnàkɨ́] (as only the trilled /rr/ occurs in syllable-final position).

a-ɨrɨnakinó   v.mid. 1 • To be going round s.o.

2 • To run for refuge and use the other person as a shield in order to not be hit. See: a-nunúk To twist; a-pɨyáɨ̀ To twist; a-mɔnɨ́r To twist.

a-irirí   v. To cut down to the desired shape or size. airirí eŋúdì To cut the stick to the desired size. airirí ɨlpápít To shave hair to the desired size.

a-iriríó   To cut one's hair to the desired size or shape.

a-ɨrɨrɨakɨ́ [North]   v.dat. [North] To carry through with; complete (a task).

a-iririkí   In some suffixed forms: a-iririkín. v. 1 • To do sth. accurately; do properly. airirikí ɨmbáà To do things accurately.

2 • To fit; make reach. Ɛgɨ́raɨ áàìrìrìkì ɛnkɛ́ráɨ́ ɛnkɨlâ náyâ sukúùl. The child is being fitted (with) the cloth she will take (to) school. (Pk). This can be used of clothes, luggage, or to check if a stick is suitable for making a rungu or spear.

a-iririkinó   v. 1 • To fit well (of a dress, job, book for a course, etc.). Kéíririkínò. It fits well. Íkíríríkíno anâ sʉrúálɛ̀. This trouser fits you. (SN).

2 • To be suitable for the desired purpose. kéíririkíno It is suitable for him/her/ it. Íkíríríkínó alɛ́ síáâî. You deserve this job. (SN). See: a-narɛ́ To be suitable; a-ishiaá To be suitable; a-ishiaakinó To be suitable; a-nyɔrɛ́ To be suitable.

a-ɨrɨ́sh   v. To face-up to; resist; dare. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlɔ́ɨ́ŋɔ́nɨ́ ɔ́tɨ̀ apʉ́sh aɨrɨ́sh ɨlkʉlɨ́kaɨ. The young bull is getting aroused to fight the others. (PK). Mɛɨrɨ́shayu ɛnkɛ́ɛ̀yà. No one can face death. (lit: Death cannot be faced.).

a-ɨrɨshaá   v. 1 • To support sth. so it does not fall down (e.g. the roof of a house).

2 • [North] To parry.

3 • [North] To say what another intends to speak about.

4 • To delay s.o. from going where he/she intends to go.

5 • To stop s.o. from beating another person. See: a-lɔ́ny To parry; ɛ-rɨ́shɨná Rafters.

a-ɨrɨshakɨ́   v. To lay against sth for support. aɨrɨshakɨ́ ɛlʉ́kʉ́nyá olórìkà To lay one's head against the chair. See: a-ɨrɨshaá To support sth; a-ɨrɨshakinó To lean against sth for support.

a-ɨrɨshakinó   v.mid. To lean against sth for support. aɨrɨshakinó ɛsʉntáì To lean against the wall. See: a-ɨrɨshaá To support; a-pɛ́t To keep close to.

a-ɨrɨshʉ́   v. To support sth that is crumbling or falling down. aɨrɨshʉ́ ɛmɨ́sà nagɨ́rà aurorí To support a table that is falling down. See: a-ɨrɨshaá To support.

a-ɨrɨʉ́   v. To send. Kórè tɛ̀ nékítólíkíó ajó ílóítò sokónì ánáátá áɨ́rɨ́wáyìè ɨyakákɨ̀ osabúnì. If you told me that you are going to the market, I could have sent you to bring me soap. (W).

a-ɨrɨwaá   To send.

a-ɨrɔ́   Variant: a-ʉrɔ́(r). In some suffixed forms: a-ɨrɔ́r. v.prog. 1 • To speak; talk. Ɛɨrɔ́. He will speak. LING: The LH tone is unusual for Class II verbs. Káɨ́rɔ́rɔ̀. I have talked. LING: In both S and K the perfect(ive) takes rather than -a, though it is a -ATR root. cf. *Káɨ́rɔ́rà (I have talked). Káɨ́rɔrɨ́tà. I'm talking. (S). Ɛgɨ́rà ɛntásât aɨrɔ́ tɛ̀ bɔ́ɔ̀. The woman is talking outside. (Pk). Éɨniniŋó ɔlɔɨrɔrɨ́tà! Listen to the one who is speaking! (W). aɨrɔ́ nkʉ́tʉ́k nemeishiakínò to speak a language incorrectly (S). Ɛgɨ́rà olmeekí aít tɛ̀ nɛ́ɨ́rɔ̀ Maâ. The Kikuyu is speaking Maa with a Kikuyu accent. (lit: The Kikuyu is speaking with an accent when he speaks Maa.) (Pk). See: a-jó To say; a-iroríé To talk to.

2 • To chat. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlpáyìàn aɨrɔ́ ɔ́ lɨkâɨ̂. The man is chatting with the other one. (Pk). See: a-dɛ́r To chat.

a-iroríé   To speak to/with.

a-ɨrɔrɔkɨ́   To visit, greet. Órè oshî táatá néméékúré kílótú aɨrɔrɔkɨ́ ánàà apá. Nowadays you don't come to see me like before. (Pk).

a-ɨrɔbɨ́   In some suffixed forms: a-ɨrɔbɨj. v.s. 1 • To be cold. Ɛɨrɔ́bɨ̀. It is cold. Kɛ́ɨ́rɔ́bɨ kʉná lɛ́. This milk is cold. (Pk). Kɛ́ɨ́rɔ́bɨ̀ táatá olêŋ amʉ̂ nemetîi enkólòŋ. It is very cold because there is no sun. (Pk). Ɛgɨ́rà airopijíé oloshoró apɨ́k kʉlɛ́ náɨ́rɔ̀bɨ̀. She is cooling the porridge by adding milk that is cold. (Pk). The name of Kenya's capitol, Nairobi, stems from a relative-clause formation of this Maasai verb.

2 • Not easily aroused sexually. Kɛ́ɨ́rɔ́bɨ̀ ɛlɛ̂ ŋɔ́nɨ́ mmɛɨtɨamakɨ́ta inkíshú. This bull is not easily sexually aroused so it does not mount the cows. (Pk). ɔltʉŋánì ɔɨrɔ́bɨ̀ person who is not easily aroused; person who is cold.

3 • [North] To be easily attained.

4 • [North] To be polite. LING: Different stem forms with this root do have different voicing properties for the bilabial stop.

a-ɨropijú   To become cold.

a-ɨropijíé   To make cool. See: ɛn-kɨrɔ́bɨ̀ Coldness.

a-ɨrɔgɨrɔ́g   v.prog. To speak in a rising and falling intonation; singsong. See: a-ɨramɨrám To stutter.

a-iroishí   v. 1 • To be heavy in weight (objects or people).

2 • To be pregnant. Usage: polite. See: a-iroshí To be heavy.

a-ɨrɔmɨrɔ́m   v. To bite something repeatedly. Ɛɨrɔmɨ́rɔ̀m enkítòk inkírí ɛ́nkɛrai ɛ́tɔ̂n ɛ́ɨtʉ̂ ɛ́ɨ́shɔ̂ mɛ́ɨ́nɔsá. The woman will bite the meat before feeding it to the baby. Ɛɨrɔmɨ́rɔma oldíà ɛnkáɨ́ná ɔ́ lɔmɔ́nì. The dog has repeatedly biten the hand of the visitor. Usage: a-nyaál is more severe and crushing than is a-ɨrɔmɨrɔ́m.. Syn: a-ɨramɨrám To bite lightly and repeatedly. See: a-nyaál To chew.

a-iromokí   v. To dig sth. into the ground. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkáyíóní airomokí ɨ́mpɔ́ɔ́shɔ̂ ɛnkɔ̂p. The boy is digging the beans into the ground. (Pk).

a-ɨrɔ́ny   v.prog. 1 • To squeeze, press against sth. Káaɨrɔnyɨtâ. It's pressing me. (S). Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɛráí aɨrɔ́ny ɛnkɨlâ naɨsʉjɨ́tà. The child is squeezing the cloth she is washing. (Pk). This could be said if one leans on sth. that puts pressure on the person, such as a chair; or by crowding up against s.o. one is sharing a bed with.

2 • To force s.o. to do sth. that they would probably not do on their own.

3 • To have an abortion.

a-iróŋ   v. To drill a hole into; bore. airóŋ ɛnkɔ́p To drill a hole in the ground.

a-iroŋiróŋ   1 • To drill different parts on the ground.

2 • To be talkative; talk aimlessly. See: a-úd To pierce; make a hole.

a-iropijíé   v. 1 • To make sth. cool. Ɛgɨ́rà airopijíé oloshoró apɨ́k kʉlɛ́ náɨ́rɔ̀bɨ̀. She is cooling the porridge by adding milk that is cold. (Pk).

2 • To make sth. bearable. Eyéwùò ɛncân airopijíé ɛrámátàrɛ̀ amʉ̂ ɛ́tágóló oshî. The rain has come to make the rearing of livestock bearable because it has been very difficult. (Pk). See: a-ɨrɔbɨ́ To be cold; a-iropijú To become cold.

a-iropijú   v. 1 • To become cool in temperature. Eirópiju. It becomes cold. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɨ́jìàpɛ̀ airopijú. The climate is becoming cool. (Pk).

2 • To be unenthusiastic. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlpáyìàn airopijú tɔɔ́ mbáà esukúùl. The man is no longer enthusiastic about matters of school. (Pk). LING: This and certain other derived forms of a-ɨrɔb(r) clearly have a voiceless /p/. See: a-ɨrɔbɨ́ To be cold.

a-ɨrɔpɨrɔpakɨ́   adv. Many times at short intervals; frequently; oftentimes. See: a-siokí To do fast.

a-iroríé   v. To talk to. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlpáyìàn airoríé enkitók ɛnyɛ́ nagɨ́rà. The man is talking to his wife who is listening. (Pk). Mikíròrìè ɨlasúriaa. We do not speak to snakes. (W). Ɛɨtʉ́ kíróríè ɨltɔmíá ŋolé. We did not speak to the elephants. (W). Mikíròrìè ɨltɔmíá tááisérè. We will not speak to the elephants tommorow. (W). See: a-ɨrɔ́(r) To speak, talk.

a-ɨrɔrɔkɨ́   v. To greet. Áátà ɛncɨpáì sápʉ̀k amʉ̂ kɨ́nyááká alotú aɨrɔrɔkɨ́. I have great happiness/joy because you have come to greet me again. (Pk). Ɛgɨ́rà ɛntásât aɨrɔrɔkɨ́ ɔlpayíán tɛ̀ nkaɨná. The woman is greeting the man by (extending her) hand to him. (Pk). See: a-ŋasakɨ́ To greet; a-ɨrɔ́(r) To talk.

a-iroshí   v. 1 • To be heavy in weight (people, things). Eiróíshì ɛnkɨ́tɛ̀ŋ aláŋ enkíné. A cow is heavier than a goat. Kéíróshì ɛlɛ́ bókîs olêŋ. This box is very heavy. (Pk). Ɛ́táá tásàt imeekúré apá ɛɨdɨ́m atanápà intokitín naáíròshì. He is weak; he is no longer able to carry heavy things. (Pk). Kéíróshì olêŋ ɛlɛ̂ pâyìàn mmɛɨdɨmárɨ̀. This man is very heavy; he cannot walk properly. (lit: This man is very heavy; he cannot do it properly.) (Pk). ɔltʉŋánì oiróshì a person who is heavy (in weight).

2 • To be pregnant. Usage: polite. Kéíróshì ɛnâ kítòk olêŋ amʉ̂ ɛ́táá kéísho. This woman is pregnant; she is just about to give birth. (Pk).

a-iroshíú   1 • To become heavy.

2 • To become pregnant.

a-iroshí lómòn   To have heavy words, to say things that one cannot understand or respond to.

a-iroshí lototó   To have an extreme degree of some characteristic which prevents one from walking far. This might be a problem with a leg, age, being to big, or some natural characteristic of a person. Ant: a-nɛnɛ́ŋ To be light. See: a-nʉtá To be pregnant; a-iturukúm be.pregnant (animals).

a-irót   v. To load; pack an animal or truck. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛntásât airót osíkìrìà. The woman is packing the donkey. (Pk). See: a-ɨdɔndɔ́rr To train donkey with a pack.

a-irotorí   To go while loaded. Usage: metaphorical.

e-írótó   Nom sg: e-irotó. Acc pl: i-irót. Nom pl: i-íròt. n. The cleaning of a gourd. See: a-ír(r) To clean a gourd.

a-ɨrowúá   [North]: kéréwwà. In some suffixed forms: a-ɨrowúáj. v. 1 • To be warm, hot. Kɛ́ɨ́rówùà táatá. The weather is hot today. Kɛ́ɨ́rówùà kʉná lɛ̂. [kʉná ! lɛ́] This milk is hot. Eirówùà ɛná shááì. This tea is warm. (W). Áyíéú kʉná lɛ́ naaíròwùà. I want these milks that are warm. (W). Usage: See usage note at a-péj.

2 • To be hot from a fever.

3 • To want to migrate. Kéírówùà ɛlɛ́ páyìàn kéyieu nɛ́ɨ́dʉr. This man wants to migrate. (Pk).

4 • To want to mate. Restrict: bulls. Kéírówùà ɛlɛ́ ɔ́ɨ́ŋɔ́nɨ́ kéyieu néítiamákɨ̀ inkíshú. This bull wants to mate with the cows.

a-ɨrowuajú   To become hot. Eirówuajú. It will become warm. (W). Ɛgɨ́rà airowuajú amʉ̂ ɛ́ɨ́pɨ́rá ɛnkɔ́lɔ̀ŋ ɛnkáí. It is becoming hot because the sun is high up in the sky. (lit: It is becoming hot because the sun is facing the sky.) (Pk). Eirówúájɨtá nɛná lɛ̀. This milk has become warm. (W).

a-irowuajíé  

a-irewuajíé [North]  

a-irewejé [Chamus]   In some suffixed forms: a-irowuajíék. 1 • To warm sth. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛntásât airowuajíé kʉlɛ́. The old woman is warming up the milk. (Pk). Kɛ́lɛlɛ́k ɛncɔlatá ɛ́nà ɨ́látá tenéírowuajíékì. It is easy to liquify this fat if it is heated.

2 • To heat up or cook sth. a second time; reheat.

3 • To boil a liquid. In S, a-irowuajíé may be used for water or milk, but not for boiling such things as beans in water. It can be used for reheating cooked beans a second time (sense 1). See: a-ɨrowuajíé To warm, heat; ɛn-kɨrówùàj Hotness, heat.

a-ɨrʉ́j   v. To decay. This is mostly happens when worms infest on a carcass. aɨrʉ́j olkurtó To be infested by worms. Ɛ́ɨrʉ́já ɛmpɔ́pɔ̂k. The carcass has decayed.

a-ɨrʉjʉrʉ́j   v. 1 • To drizzle. Kɛ́shal ɛnkɔ̂p amʉ̂ kɛ́gɨ́rà táatá aɨrʉjʉrʉ́j. The ground is wet today because it is drizzling.

2 • To be lots of small creatures moving around on a dead animal, eating it. Usage: worms. Kɛ́ɨ́rʉjʉrʉjâ lkurú nkɨ́tɛ́ŋ natúâ ŋolé. The worms were eating the cow that died yesterday. (S). See: a-shá To rain; a-ɨtɨpɨtɨ́p To drizzle; í-rúújî Sessions of drizzling.

a-ɨrʉjʉrʉjʉ́   v. To grow. Usage: rare. See: a-bʉlʉ́ To grow.

a-irúk   v. 1 • To believe, believe in sth. or s.o. Éírùk. He will believe her. Atɛlɛ́jà Dórìs néírùk. I cheated/deceived Doris, and she believed. (W). Ɨmagɨ́rà airúk ajó ílótú mɛ́kátódúàà. I can't believe that you are coming until I see you. (Pk). Níkirúk iyíé. We believe in you. (C).

2 • To obey.

3 • To answer when addressed. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɛráí airúk ŋɔ́tɔ́nyɛ́ naipotítò. The child is answering as her mother addressed her. (Pk).

4 • To permit. Éírúkó ɔláɨ́tɛ́ŋɛ́nání peê ɛɨlɛ́p ɛnkɛráí. The teacher has permitted the child to go to the next class. (Pk).

5 • To agree. Néírukó naá ɨlMaasáɨ́ áàjò máírukó. And the Maasai agreed to comply.

a-irukokí   1 • To agree with.

2 • To answer someone. See: a-nyɔrraá To permit, agree; a-ɨshɔ́ To permit; a-camá To agree.

áà-ìrùkùrùkò [North]   v.mid. [North] To go along (e.g. down a path) together or in file.

a-irukurukoré   [[ayɾūkuɾūkoɾḗ macrons = stress] v. 1 • To follow after s.o. who is moving. Usage: a-ɨjɨpaá indicates the subject follows along the same path behind s.o., while a-irukurukoré indicates travelling together.. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlashé airukurokoré ŋɔtɔnyɛ́. The calf is following the mother (cow). (Pk).

2 • [North] To move together with someone. Nónokúà nkíshú náírukurukórè ntaré. There are the cows moving together with the goats. (SN). Nɛ́idía nkɨ́tɛ́ŋ náírukurukórè nkíné. There is the cow moving together with the goat. (SN). See: a-sʉ́j To follow; a-tubake To follow; a-ujipaá To follow after.

a-ɨrʉmʉrʉ́m   v. To look at sth without being seen; peep at. Áɨ́rʉ́mʉ́rʉ̀m ɨltʉ́ŋáná tè lúsìè I will peep at the people through the window.

a-ɨrʉnyʉrʉ́ny [North]   v. [North] To rain a little for a long time. Kɛ́yrʉnyʉ́rʉnyʉ́tà. It is raining a little for along time.

a-ɨrʉŋʉrʉ́ŋ   v. To snore.

a-irúp   v. 1 • To bewitch. This is very serious, and is only done by ol-oibónì.

2 • To go away unceremoniously. Ɛ́ɨ́rʉ́pâ dúóó ɨlárûôk. The wrong-doers have vanished unceremoniously. (Pk). See: a-sakút To bewitch; a-rúp To bewitch.

a-ɨrʉpʉrʉ́p   v.prog. To be indistinct, fuzzy, blurred, unclear. Kɛ́ɨ́rʉpʉ́rʉ̀p ilkeék amʉ̂ etomisímìsò. The trees are unclear because it has become dark.

áà-ɨ̀rʉ̀pʉ̀rʉ̀p ɨnkɔnyɛ́k   To have fuzzy eyes.

a-ɨrʉrá   [North]: ɨlʉrá. v. 1 • To sleep, be sleeping. Ɛshɔmɔ́ enkítòk aɨrʉrá tɛ̀ nkájì ɛ́nyɛ̀. The woman has gone to sleep in her house. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɛráí aɨrrʉŋʉrʉ́ŋ náɨ́rʉ̀rà. The child who is sleeping is snoring. (Pk). Tɛ̀ nɛ́ɨ́rʉ̀rà oshî ɔltʉ́ŋání náà kɛjɛ́k ɛ́pɨ́k ɨnkɛjɛ́k. When a person sleeps, he puts his legs at the feet of the bed. (Pk). Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɛráí aiseyieseyíé ɛnkáɨ́ naɨrʉ́rà. The child is shaking the other one who is sleeping. (Pk). Mayíéú náɨ́rʉ́rà. I do not want to sleep. (W). Miyíéú nɨ́rʉ́rà. You do not want to sleep. (W). Mikíiyíéú nɨ́kɨ̀rʉ̀rà. We do not want to sleep. (W). Maiyíéú náɨ́rʉ́rà. They do not want to sleep. (W). LING: Synchronically, there is no transitive counterpart.

a-ɨrʉrɛ́   1 • To have slept, rested. Restrict: elder.

2 • To have died, especially of old age. Usage: euphemistic. LING: The meaning of death is only avaliable in the (middle) perfective form, though the literal interpretation of sleep is also avaliable. Kɛ́ɨ́lʉ́rɛ̀. [kɛ́ylʊ́rɛ̀] He has slept (or died). See: ɛn-kɨ́rrágátá Laying out of corpse; m-pérótó Lying down, sleeping; a-imúg To doze; a-ɨrág To sleep; a-pér To sleep.

a-irús   v. 1 • To pierce very fast. Ɛgɨ́rà ɨnkɛ́râ áàìrùs inkuashên tɛ̀ nkígùrràn. The children a piercing the potatoes very fast. (Pk).

2 • To have many assertions with no conclusion, either in one's own speech or in what one has heard from others. The two examples mk gives are 1) getting lots of second hand information from different people, but it conflicts; and 2) a person who talks of many things, but doesn't resolve any of them. Kéírùs lomón. He speaks a lot without resolution. (S). Usage: See usage note at a-úd 'to pierce'.

a-irusurús   To make many holes.

a-ɨrʉsʉrʉ́s   v. To do sth after very short intervals. Ɛɨrʉsʉ́rʉ̀s ɛnkɛráí ɛnkɨ́nɔ́sátá ɛ́ ndáà. A child eats food after very short intervals. Syn: a-idikidík To do sth. after short intervals.

a-irút   v. 1 • To be frightened, startled, surprised, worried. Ɛgɨ́rà ɨnkɛ́râ áàìrùt amʉ̂ étódúââ ɔlŋátúny. The children are frightened because they have seen a lion. (Pk). Kɛ́átà ɔltáʉ́ ogól ɛlɛ́ tʉ́ŋání; méírùt tenéjokiní etúá mɛnyɛ́. This man is heart-hardened; he does not show any worry when he is told that his father is dead. (Pk). ɔltʉŋánì óírùt person who is frightened, startled.

2 • [North] To run fast.

3 • [North] To shake the body, especially when being circumcised. Such shaking or flinching indicates of cowardice. See: a-iputukúny To be frightened, horror-struck.

a-ɨrraarrí   v. 1 • To fall physically to the ground.

2 • To emotionally be overcomed by problems. See: a-batát To fell.

a-irraayá   v. To drop several things at once (maize, firewood, etc.). See: a-ɨrriaayá To make s.t fall down; a-itíák To drop; a-batát To make s.o. fall down.

a-ɨrráb [North]   v. [North] To get late.

a-ɨrrabalá   v. To lie flat, with stomach down. Ɛgɨ́rà oldîâ aɨrrabalá aiguraníé inkiyiotín ɛnyɛ́nà. The dog is lying flat while playing with its puppies. (Pk). airrabalakinó ɛnkɔ́p to lie flat (with stomach) on the ground. See: a-irrág To lie down.

a-ɨrrabalakinó   To lie down flat on a surface. aɨrrabalakinó ɛndápásh To lie down flat on the bed.

a-ɨrrabɨrráb   v.prog. 1 • To walk while bending.

2 • To fly close to the ground. A bird or an aircraft can do this.

a-ɨrrabɨrrabíé   To make sth fly close to the ground.

a-ɨrrág1   v. 1 • To lie down. Máɨ́rragá. Let us lie down. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɨ́tɛ̀ŋ aɨrrág tɛ̀ bɔ́ɔ̀. The cow is lying down in the kraal. (Pk).

2 • To sleep at, sleep somewhere. aɨrrág ɨnkáŋítìè To sleep in other homes (other than yours). Néponu ɛnâ dúóó áŋ áàɨ̀rràg páà kɛ́ɛnɨ́ mɛtábaɨkɨ́ inkíshú ɨnkɛjɛ́k. They come to that home to sleep and tomorrow the cow's legs are tied. Áairrág táatá. [áàyráɡ] He will sleep in my home today. (Pk). Néponu ɛnâ dúóó áŋ áàɨ̀ràg. They come to that home to sleep.

3 • [West] To have sexual intercourse. Usage: polite. Ɛɨrrágá Josefin, Jon. Josefin and Jon have slept together (i.e. had intercourse). (W).

4 • To continually do sth. in a bothersome way. Nɛ́ɨ́rrág aɨrɔ́. He keeps talking (e.g. like a drunkard might incessantly do). (W). Áshɔ́mɔ̀ amɨ́r incereretí tɛ̀ mparét nɛ́ɨ́rrág aké áàrʉ̀nyɛ̀. I went to chase the monkeys from the farm and they just kept forcing themselves (back) this way. (W). LING: When occurring with this aspectual meaning, a-ɨrrág cannot follow the semantically more specific verb: *Nɛ́ɨ́rɔ́ aɨrrág. Usage: See usage note at a-gɨrá..

a-ɨrragɨshɔ́   To spend the night away.

a-ɨrragʉ́   1 • To sleep in sth. Ɛɨrráguakɨ́. It was slept in. Mɛɨrragʉ́ni.̀ Let it be slept in.

2 • To stop to sleep in different places before reaching where one is going.

3 • To lie oneself down.

a-ɨrragaá   1 • To sleep at a place while on the way to somewhere else. Áɨ́rrágáa Lemek. I shall sleep at Lemek (on my way out). Kálò aɨrragaá Naɨrɔ́bɨ̀ peê atúm ashɔ́mɔ̀ áŋ. I will sleep at Nairobi on my way to home.

2 • To sleep away (from home). Usage: Negative, esp. with respect to young people. Ɛshɔmɔ́ ɛnkɛráí náíúshúùsh aɨrragaá inkáŋítìè. The loitering child has gone to sleep away in other homes. (Pk).

3 • To lie around. Ɛgɨ́rà intárɛ̀ pɔ́ɔkɨ áàɨ̀rràgàà tɛ̀ lɔ́kɛ̀t. All the goats and sheep are lying in the pen. (Pk).

a-ɨrragíé   1 • To lay sth. down, put down. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlpáyìàn aɨrragíé iŋúsìdìn ɛnyɛ́na pɔɔkɨ́. The man is putting down all his sticks. (Pk). See: a-pɨ́k To put sth. down.

2 • To lie down with/at. Ɛshɔmɔ́ ɛnkɛráí aɨrragíé ɔlcaní ɔɨshɔɔ́kɨ̀. The child has lain down with medicine she took. (Pk). Ɨ́rragíé ɨnáíshí ɔ kʉ́lɛ! Have a good night! (lit: Lie down with beer and milk!) [Good-night wish before going to sleep].

3 • To make lie down. Ɛshɔmɔ́ ɛntásât aɨrragíé ɛnkɛráí kɨtɨ́. The woman has gone to make the little child lie down. (Pk).

a-ɨrragaríé   1 • To sleep away somewhere with sth. Képuo ɨltʉŋaná ɔ́ɨdʉ́rr áàɨ̀rràgàrìè inkíshú ɛnyɛ̂ inkáŋítìè. The migrants will sleep away at other people's homes with their cows. (Pk).

2 • To lay down low.

a-ɨrragakinyé   1 • To lay down on/with.

2 • To lay out before. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛntásât aɨrragakinyé ɨnkɛ́rà ɛndáà. The woman is laying down the food before the children. (Pk). Nɛ́ɨ́rragakinyíékì nɨnyɛ́ ɛndáà mɛ́ɨ́nɔsá. And food was set before him to eat. (lit: And food was laid out for him so that he eats.). See: ɛn-kɨ́rrágátá Lying down; a-ɨrurá To sleep; a-pér To sleep.

a-ɨrraŋɨrráŋ   v.prog. To walk aimlessly; loiter; wander. Ímesídáí tɛnɨ́rraŋɨ́rràŋ It is not good to walk aimlessly. See: a-iwushuwúsh To loiter; wander.

a-ɨrrapɨrráp   v.prog. To feel by touching. This is particularly done using the hand(s). Áɨ́rrápɨ́rrápɨ́tà ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ I am feeling the cow by touching. See: a-ɨbʉ́ŋ To touch.

a-ɨrrásh   v. 1 • To find out; catch red-handed. Ɛ́ɨ́rráshá ɔlpáyìàn ɛnaasɨ́tà ɨláyìòk. The man has found out what the boys are doing. (Pk). Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlpáyìàn aɨrrásh ɛnaasɨ́tà ɨláyìòk. The man is finding out what the boys are doing. (Pk).

2 • To jeer; scoff at. Ɛgɨ́raɨ áàɨ̀rràsh ɔlpúrríshóí, Hɔ̂ɨ̂! Hɔ̂ɨ̂! Hɔ̂ɨ̂! The thief is being jeered, "Hɔ̂ɨ̂! Hɔ̂ɨ̂! Hɔ̂ɨ̂!".

a-ɨrrashʉ́   Variant: irashu. In some suffixed forms: a-ɨrrashʉ́n. v. To catch up with s.o. This is applicable regardless of wrongdoing (unlike a-ɨrrásh). (S). Rashúàkì! Catch up with him! (S).

a-ɨrrataát   v. To extend or lie across; in a crosswise direction; at right angles to the long axis; transverse. ɔlcaní oirratáàt A tree.

a-ɨrrɨ́   v. v. To send. Nɛ́nà ɛmpálai nairríwutûâ ɨláláshɛ̀rà. Here is a letter sent by brothers.

2 • v. [North] To have diarrhea. This can be from either a bad disease or from a treatment to clean the stomach. Káɨ́rrɨ̀. I have diarrhea.

3 • v. [North] To circumcise. Káɨ́rrɨ̀ nkɛ́rà. I will/can circumcise my children. Kɛɨrrɨ́akɨ́ nkɛ́rà. The children have been circumcised. (S). See: a-ɨrrɨʉ́ To send toward point of reference; a-ɨrrɨwaá To send away; a-rɛ́ʉ́ To send; a-ipaayá To send.

a-ɨrriaayá   v. 1 • To make sth. fall down.

2 • To promise sth. and then not do it; let a person down. See: a-rriáá To fall down; a-irraayá To drop things.

a-irríáŋ   v.prog. To be astonished; perplexed; dumbfounded. Éírríáŋá peê ɛ́dɔ̂l ɔlŋátúny He was astonished when he saw a lion. See: a-ɨŋasíá To be surprised.

a-ɨrrɨapíé ɛnkɔŋʉ́   v. To blink. See: ɛnk-ɔŋʉ́ Eye.

a-irríb   v. To encounter; come upon by accident. Átéjò áló Nairobi, náírrìb Wilson I tried to go to Nairobi, I met accidentally with Wilson. See: a-túm To get.

a-ɨrrɨdʉ́   v. To repent; feel remorse for; feel sorry for; be contrite about. Restrict: wrong-doing. aɨrrɨdʉ́ iŋók To repent the sins.

a-irríg [North]   v. [North] To bend.

a-irrigó   v.mid. [North] To bend self over. Múntókì airrigó! Stop bending over! (SN). See: a-irrúg To bend sth.

a-ɨrrɨɨ́d   v. To hit with an instrument or shoot with arrows, with intention of hurting the targeted item. See: a-náŋ To hit.

a-irriírr   v. 1 • To shake back and forth. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔltɔmɛ́ airriírr ɔlcaní The elephant is shaking the tree back and forth.

2 • To confuse; cause to be unable to do anything properly. See: a-irriirrán To confuse.

a-irriirrán   v. To confuse; cause to be unable to think or do things properly. airriirrán olórèrè To confuse the people.

a-irriirraná   To be confused. See: a-irriirr To shake back and forth.

a-ɨrrɨkɨ́   v. 1 • To drive in; put into. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɛráí aɨrrɨkɨ́ ɨlashɔ́ ɔlálɛ́. The child is driving the calves into the pen. Nɛ́ɨ́rrɨ́kɨ̀ ɛnkáɨ́ná nɛ́ɨ́bʉŋ ɛnkɛjʉ́ é nkitojó. He put his hand into it and he caught the hare's le.g.

2 • To incite to fight. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkáyíóní aɨrrɨkɨ́ ɨlɔɨŋɔ́k. The boy is inciting the bulls to fight. Áɨ́rrɨ́kìà. I have made them fight. Áɨ́rrɨ́kà. I have made them fight. (SN). See: a-ɨrrɨ́ To send.

a-ɨrrɨnakɨ́   v. To twist sth. around sth. Káɨ́rrɨ́nakɨ lgíitâ lcaní. I will twist the rope around the tree. (SN). See: a-ɨrɨ́n To tie around.

a-ɨrrɨtá   v. 1 • To look after, watch over; tend, herd. Ɛɨrrɨ́ta ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ ŋolé. She herded a cow yesterday. (W). Kɨ́rrɨtâ inkíshú ŋolé. We herded the cows yesterday. (W). Ɨ́rrɨtá taá táatá ɨntaré mɛtáraposhotó. You herded the sheep and goats until they were satisfied. Ɛɨrrɨ́tà oláyíóní inkíshú abarakɨ́. The boy looks after the cattle well (every day). Áírrítùà ɨntaré. I have taken care of sheep towards this direction. (SN). Shɔ́mɔ̀ ɨ́rrɨtá inkíshú táatá; íŋurríé Kónené amʉ̂ ɛɨrrɨ́tà inkíshú inkólònì kúmòk. Go look after cows today; favor Konene (i.e. help him especially) because he has been looking after cows for so many days. (W). Ɛɨrrɨ́tɨ́tà ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ. She is herding a cow. (W). Káɨ́rrɨ́tà nkɨtabuní áinén payîê mórróyò. I will take care of my books so that they are not spoiled. (e.g. protect from water, be careful about lending them). (SN).

2 • To guard or watch against s.o. doing wrong. Káɨ́rrɨ́tà olpúrríshóí. I will guard against that thief. (Pk). Ágɨ́rà aɨrrɨtá ɔlpúrríshóí peê mɛ́yá intokitín. I am guarding against a thief so that he does not steal. (Pk).

a-ɨrrɨʉ́   v.dir. To send towards the point of reference, this way. Ɛgɨ́rà aɨrrɨʉ́ ɛnkayíónì enê natíi. She is sending the boy where I am. See: a-ɨrrɨwaá To send away; a-ɨrrɨ To send.

a-ɨrrɨwaá   v.away. To send away. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛntásât aɨrrɨwaá ɛnkɛ́ráí ɛndâ ají. The woman is sending the child to that house. Néítàyù ɔláɨ́gúɛ́nání Sólómòn ɨltʉ́ŋáná ɔ́ɔ̀às esíáàì tɛ̀ ísíráèl pɔ́ɔ̀kɨ̀; nɛ́ɨ́rrɨwáà nɨncɛ́ mɛshɔ́mɔ̀ Lɛ́bànɔ̀n. Solomon the chief selected all the people who work in Israel; and he sent them to go to Lebanon.

ɨnk-ɨrrɔ́   n.pl. Compensation for murder. Generally used in the expression inkíshú ɔɔ́ nkɨrrɔ́.

a-ɨrrɔ́k   Variant: a-ɨrrɔ́g. v.prog. To cough; cough heavily (as from tuberculosis or a serious infection). Ɛgɨ́rà ɔltásât ɔ́mùèì aɨrrɔ́k. The sick old man is coughing. (Pk). Kɛ́ɨ́rrɔkɨ́tà. He is coughing. (S).

a-irrúg   [North]: irrigó. v. To bend or incline sth. down from a vertical position. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɛráí airrúg ɛncaní. The child is bending the shrub. (Pk). Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɛráí airrúg kewón. The child is crouching over. (Pk) (lit: The child is bending herself over.). A-kordíl indicates bending sth. relatively non-flexible so it remains in a bent shape. A-kɔrɨny indicates bending sth. flexible which has inner elasticity, with the aim of straightening it. Because the object has inner elasticity, it can springs back into its original shape. A-reré simply means 'to straighten sth.' A-gɨ́l means 'to fold' (a flat flexible item like cloth or paper), or 'to break' (a brittle item like a stick). A-irrúg indicates 'to bend sth.' Its middle form a-irrugó indicates 'to bend slightly forward from about the upper back and shoulders'; while a-ijululó can be used for a person bending forward from the waist so that the buttocks point outward. A-olól means 'to bend sth. flexible that can again resume its shape', but the object does not have inner elasticity.

a-irrugó   v.mid. 1 • To bend one's head or back forward from the waist on down. This is the position of a child when greeting an elder. Ɛ́máírrugó ɨlʉ́kʉ́ny Let us bow our heads! Ɛgɨ́rà ɨnkɛ́râ kʉ́tɨtɨ́ áàìrrùgò ɛgɨrá áàìgùràn. The small children are bending down as they play. Éírrúgè. It has become bent. See: a-ijululó To bend forward with buttocks out.

2 • To bend each other down.

a-irrugokí   To bend down towards, stoop down to. airrugokí ɛlʉ́kʉ́nyá ɛnkɔ́p To look down (lit: To bend the head to the ground). This is the action a child does when greeting an elder.

a-irrugokinó   To bend down towards, be stooped down towards; bend over each other; bend down.

a-irrugoré   1 • To bend down at.

2 • To tumble at.

a-irrugorí   To bend over that way.

a-irrugoyú   To be bendable. Meirrúgòyù. It cannot be bent.

a-irrugú   To bend this way.

a-irrugunyé   To bend over this way. See: a-ɨrrág To lie down; a-kɔrɨ́ny To bend; a-olól To bend; a-shúk To bend roofing sticks.

a-ɨrrʉɨ   v.prog. To prevent the cows from moving further or in haste so as to settle them down to drink water. aɨrrʉ́ɨ́ inkíshú peê éôk ɛnkárɛ́ To prevent the cows from further movement so as to settle them down to drink water.

áà-ɨ̀rrʉ̀ɨ̀   To do sth together in great numbers. áàɨ̀rrʉ̀ɨ̀ eŋúès toó sóìtò To throw stones in great numbers to an animal.

a-irrumó [North]   v. [North] To have a problem breathing.

a-ɨrrʉŋʉrrʉ́ŋ   [North]: ɨrʉ́ŋ. [Chamus]: ɨrrʉ́ŋ. v.prog. 1 • To snore. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɛráí náɨ́rʉ̀rà aɨrrʉŋʉrrʉ́ŋ . The child who is sleeping is snoring. Órè taá doí ɔltásháláí laaíjo ɛlɛ̂ nɛ́mɛ́átà entókì nátúm amʉ̂ kɛ́ɨ́rrʉ́ŋʉ́rrʉ́ŋɨ́tà aké. For an idler like this one, he will never get anything because he is always snoring. This means he is always sleeping, not working.

2 • To growl like a dog. Ɛgɨ́rà oldîâ aɨrrʉŋʉrrʉ́ŋ amʉ̂ ɛgɨ́rà ɨnkɛ́râ áàìgùrànìè. The dog is growling because the children play with it. LING: In S, the simple form refers to 'one snore,' or noise made by breathing in/out just once. The reduplicated form referrs to the the behavior over time (e.g. a whole night.).

a-ɨrrʉshá   v. 1 • To be thick in mass (e.g. a thick book, thick hide). Ant: a-bɛbɛ́k To be thin.

2 • To be viscuous. Usage: liquid. Imeó́koyu olóshoró ɔ́ɨ́rrʉ̀shà. A thick porridge is undrinkable.

3 • To be huge. Usage: human. ɔltʉŋánì ɔɨrrʉ́shà A huge person.

a-ɨrrʉshá ɔlŋɛjɛ́p   To speak a foreign language with difficulty.

a-ɨ́s1   v. To show off to, try to impress. See: a-ɨsɨ́s To praise.

a-ɨ́s [North]2   v. [North] To be a person whose blessings and cursings are effectual. See: laiser Person with magic.

a-ɨsabɨsáb   v. To move aimlessly via an indirect route or at no set pace, often in search of food; wander. Kɛ́nya ilowuarák enkíné naɨsabɨ́sàb Wild animals will eat a goat that wanders.

a-ɨsabɨsabakɨ́   To grab things without permission.

a-ɨsaganyá   v.mid. To squat. Ɛɨságánya táatá. He will squat today. (W). Ɛɨságánya oshî aké. He always squats. (W). Ɛɨságányɛ̀ ŋolé. He squatted yesterday. (W). Míntókì aók kʉlɛ́ intáshè; ísaganyayú. Don't drink milk while standing; at least squat. (W).

a-ɨsalaásh   v. To spread sth. out. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɛráí aɨsalaásh ɔlkáráshá. The child is spreading out the sheet.

a-ɨsalaashá   v.mid. To be spread out; relax. See: a-lɔ́ To spread out to dry.

a-ɨsamɨ́s   v. 1 • To stink strongly, typically from rotting (e.g. a carcass, decaying food). Káítúkò sógisí naáɨ́samɨsɨtâ. I washed the socks that stunk. (SN). See: a-ŋuoyú To be rotten; tóŋúá To be rotten.

2 • To be rotten. Kɛ́ɨ́samɨsáà He is rotten.(S) They are all rotten. (K). Kɛ́ɨ́sámɨ̀s. It is rotten.

3 • To be fermented (e.g. of milk). Áyíéú kʉlɛ́ naaɨ́samɨ̂s. I want fermented milks. (W).

4 • To be profane, full of offensive insult. Kɛ́ɨ́sámɨ̀s kʉlɔ́ ɔmɔ́n. This speech stinks. (SN). This is more than just critical.

a-isamisú   1 • To be rotten, go bad. Ɛgɨ́rà kʉ́lɛ̀ náatií olkúkúrí áàìsàmìsù. The milk in the calabash is going bad. (Pk). Ɛgɨ́rà ɛndáâ nátií emotí aisamisú. The food that is in the cooking pan is getting rotten. (Pk). Kéísámisu. He will rot.

2 • To go sour, ferment (e.g. of milk). LING: The inceptive meaning is triggered by any aspect suffix, including the Inceptive, Perfective, or Progressive. Eisómisu táatá. It will ferment today. (W). Ɛɨsɔ́mɨsa ŋolé. It fermented yesterday. (W). Ɛɨsɔ́mɨsa enkúkú. The calabash (of milk) has fermented. (W). Ɛɨsɔ́mɨ́sɨtá nɛná lɛ̀. That milk has fermented. (W) (lit: Those milks have fermented.). Syn: a-ŋú To stink. See: a-isiijó To become sour, fermented.

a-ɨsampásh   v.prog. To roam or hang around aimlessly.

a-ɨsampú   v. To harvest. See: ɛn-kɨ́sámpúàrɛ̀ Harvest.

a-ɨsamulumuloó   v.away. To carry sth away without being noticed. See: a-isudoó To hide sth.

a-ɨsankál   v. To joke, jest.

ɔl-tʉŋánì ɔɨsánkàl   A jesty person, someone who teases.

a-ɨsarɨsár   v. To hurry.

a-ɨsárd [North]   v. [North] To scatter. Kɛ́ɨ́sàrd. They will be scattered. (S). Kɛ́ɨ́sárdà. They are spread/scattered. (S).

a-ɨsardák   v. To scatter. Ɛgɨ́rà ɨnkɛ́râ áàɨ̀sàrdàk intótò ɛnyɛ̂. The children are scattering their pebbles. (Pk).

a-ɨsardakinó   v.mid. To be scattered over sth. Ɛgɨ́rà inóilîîn áàɨ̀sàrdàkìnò entîm. The gazelles are/have scattered over to the bush. (Pk).

a-ɨsarkín   v. To desecrate; spoil or defile a ceremony; make unholy.

sárkîn   Defiled; desecrated; unholy. Ɛgɨ́rà aɨtaá kɛwán sárkîn He is making himself defiled.

a-ɨsarkiníé   To cause the defilement of a ceremony. Ɛgɨ́rà aɨsarkiníé kɛwán. He is defiling himself.

a-ɨsarrɨsárr   v. To walk fast. Ɛgɨ́rà ɨnkɛ́râ áàɨ̀sàrrɨ̀sàrr áàpùò sukúùl. The children are walking fast to school. (Pk). See: a-siooyó To walk quickly; a-ɨnapɨnáp To walk quickly; a-isurokí To walk quickly.

a-ɨsɛɛ́rr   v.prog. 1 • To make a noise to let others know where you are (e.g. boys walking at night); yodel. Ɛgɨ́rà ŋolé ɨlmʉ́rrân áàɨsɛ̀ɛ̀rr kewaríé. The warriors were yodelling last night. (Pk). Kɛ́ísɛ́ɛ̀rr aikó ánàà iltʉ́ŋáná oópuonú bátíshò. They make wild screams as if they are a people coming for danger.

2 • [North] To make a noise, as when an animal wants to attack another, or wants to get to its calf. Usage: animals. Káɨ́sɛɛ́rrɨ́tà. He is hollering. (S). See: a-igór To holler.

a-ɨsɛgɛ́l   v.prog. To tilt; set on edge. See: ɔ-sɛ́gɛ́l Edge.

a-iseiseyíé   v. 1 • To keep on touching gently. The touch should be repetitive. See: a-ɨbʉ́ŋ To touch.

2 • To shake sth. by tapping (particularly sth. lying). Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɛráí aiseiseyíé ɛnkáɨ́ naɨrʉ́rà. The child is shaking the other one who is sleeping. (Pk). See: a-ipiripír To shake; a-ɨŋʉnʉŋʉ́n To shake; a-igusugús To shake; a-ɨpɔ́sh To shake; a-inyenyé To shake; a-ɨkíj To shake.

3 • [North] To move sth. small back and forth horizontally or vertically, without effort.

a-isekaá   [North]: ɨsɛgaá. v. 1 • To spit far away.

For km, this is a non-verbal expression of pride and contempt for something. See: a-ɨsɨkaá To spit; a-nɔtá To spit; ɛnk-ámʉ́lák spit blessing.

a-ɨsɛlɛɛ́j   v. To do sth secretly.

a-ɨsɛlɛɛjʉ́   To bring secretly.

a-ɨsɛlɛɛjaá   To take sth away secretly.

a-ɨsɛlɛɛjarí   To go secretly; sneak out.

a-ɨsɛnyɨsɛ́ny   v.prog. To jog.

a-ɨsɛpɛ́   v. To be greedy; gluttonous. ɔltʉŋánì ɔɨsɛ́pɛ person who is greedy, gluttonous. See: a-lubó To be hungry; a-ʉlʉ́ To eat heavily.

a-isér   v. To rebel, revolt.

a-ɨsɛrpɛ́p   v. To lay sth horizontally.

a-ɨsɛrpɛpiarí, a-ɨsɛrpɛparí   To slither; creep.

a-ɨsɛrʉ́ [North]   v. [North] To defeat someone in a contest of fear. Káysɛ́rʉ́à. I have defeated him (in a fear contest). The contest could be anything that some people might be afraid to do, such as each of two warriors holding a piece of fire against his arm, to see who will give up first, or jumping off a great height.

a-ɨsɛʉsɛ́ʉ́   v. To have the whole or part of the body move slightly. See: a-ɨŋɔɨŋɔ́ɨ́ To move slightly.

ɨsɛʉ́sɛ̀ʉ̀   Nom sg: ɨsɛ́ʉ̀sɛ̀ʉ̀. n. Living things; animate.

a-iseyíé   In some suffixed forms: a-iseyíék. v. To touch sth. very gently. Míséyìè aké ɛndâ mús oóltóròk amʉ̂ eŋórìshò. Don't disturb/touch that swarm of bees because they sting. (W).

a-isiaaí   v. To serve; work for; attend. aisiaaí olaigúɛ́nànì To serve the chief. See: e-síáàì Work.

a-isiadʉ́   v. To lag behind, come last.

a-isidakɨ́   To lag behind. Kórè ɔpá kɨ́ndʉ́rrɨ́tâ áàpùò enetií ɛnkárɛ̀, ɔlálɛ́ loó nkíshú âŋ náàìtùrùkìtò, nɛ́sʉjakɨ́ ɔlálɛ̀ lóò nkíshú ɔɔ́ Ɛmpapá, nɛ́ɨ́sɨadákɨ̀ ɔlálɛ̀ lóò nkíshú oó Lemeín. When we were moving to where water is, then the group of our cows was the first one, followed by a group of Empapa's cows, then lastly the group of Lemein's cows. (W). See: a-ɨŋɔpʉ́ To lag.

a-ɨsɨaj   v. To clear.

a-isiajá   v.mid. To be plain, flat, cleared. Néítokiní áàjò Gɨláì tɛ̀ nkárakɨ́ ɛnkɔ́p naɨsɨ́ájà. They are called Gilai because of the land that is plain. (KS).

a-ɨsɨajá   v.mid. To be plain, flat, cleared. Néítokiní áàjò Gɨláì tɛ̀ nkárakɨ́ ɛnkɔ́p naɨsɨ́ájà. They are called Gilai because of the land that is plain. (KS). See: a-isiashá To be clear, plain.

a-isiáp [North]   v. [North] To cover; close (e.g. a container, sleeping person). See: a-itoíp To cover; a-pɨsɨ́ŋ To cover; a-pukúr To cover.

a-isiapírd   v. To scatter; disperse. aisiapírd ɨntaré To scatter the sheep. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔláyíóní aiturrúrr ɨntaré amʉ̂ eisiapírdàtɛ̀. The boy is gathering together the sheep because they are scattered. (Pk). See: a-ɨdapásh To scatter.

a-isíásh   v.prog. Inflict a heavy blow on sth, using hand, tool, or weapon; make unconcious; smite; knock down. Ɛ́tánáŋíé ɔláyíóní enkitejó ɔlcʉrtɛ́t néísiash. A boy hit a hare with a club and made it unconcious. (Pk).

a-isiashá   v.mid. To be a clear or unobstructed space or expanse of land or water. ɛnkɔ́p naisíáshà (i) a clear land (ii) a plain.

a-isiashá ɔltáʉ̀   To have clean and clear intentions deriving from ethical or moral principles, which govern one's thoughts and actions. aatá ɔltáʉ́ oisíáshà To have clear conscience (lit: to have a heart that is unobstructed).

a-isiaúl   v. To say things jokingly; be funny.

ɔl-tʉŋánì ɔɨsíáʉ̀l   A comical person.

ísíêt   num. Eight. Ɛɛ́tà inkíshù árɛ̀ ɨlkɨ́ ísíêt. The teats of two cows are eight. (Pk). Etym: < Proto-Kalenjin *sist; Ehret: < Eastern Cushitic lg in which Proto-East-Cushitic *z > y. The Kalenjin word is from a lg. in which the *z was preserved..

a-ɨsɨ́g [North]   [North] To flee, escape. See: a-ɨsɨ́k To flee, escape.

a-ɨsɨɨ́d   v. To pull a liquid or a queue into a line; align; array.

a-ɨsɨɨdaá   To shoot a liquid far off through a narrow pipe.

áà-ɨ̀sɨ̀ɨ̀dàrì   To follow each other in a line. See: a-yíét To stretch, pull; a-ɨsɨŋɨɨ́d To pull into line.

a-isiijó   v. To become sour, ferment. See: a-kú To ripen, brew beer; a-isamís To go bad, sour.

a-ɨsɨɨshɔ́   v. 1 • To taste sour (e.g. milk, lemons). Kɛ́ɨ́sɨ́ɨcɔ kʉná kʉ́lɛ̀. This milk is sour. (SN).

2 • To taste salty. Kɛ́ɨ́sɨ́ɨshɔ aná kíriŋó olêŋ. This piece of meat is too salty.

3 • To want to argue? To want to resist an attack.

a-ɨsɨ́k   [North]: a-ɨsɨ́g. v.prog. To run away, flee, escape. Ɛ́ɨ́sɨ̀k. He will run away / escape. Ɛɨsɨkɨ́tà. She is running away. Kɛ́ɨ́sɨ́gâ. They have run away. (S). Kórè peê ɛ́dɔ́l iyioó lósowuaní nɛ́arárì áàɨ̀sɨ̀g. When the buffalo saw us, they ran away fleeing. (SN). Kɛ́ɨ́sɨgɨ́tà rónkòn. The dik-diks will run away. (SN). For mk, this is not a permanent departure.

a-isikíé   To run away with.

a-ɨsɨkakɨ́   To flee to. See: a-kúɛ́t To run; a-ipirrí To run away.

a-ɨsɨkaá   v. To spit. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔltásât aɨsɨkaá inkamʉlák ɔ́ lkumpaú. The old man is spitting saliva(from the chewing) of tobacco. (Pk).

a-ɨsɨkakɨ́   To spit to. Syn: a-nɔtaá To spit. See: a-nɔtá To spit close by.

a-isikitóí   v. To be yellow. LING: When a-isikitóí occurs together with túlélei, a special shade of yellow is designated. Éísikítóí túlélei ɛná tulélei. This sodom apple is yellow. (Pk).

a-ɨsɨkɔ́ŋ   v. To rebuke; chastise.

a-isíl [North]   v.prog. [North] To comb. Káísílítò ngwé. (=nkúé ?) I'm combing my head.

a-isilén   v. 1 • To borrow from. Áayewûô ɛldɛ̂ páyìàn aisilén iropiyianí áainéi. That man has come to borrow money from me. (Pk). This kind of 'borrowing' implies a promise to return the item, or pay back the money. See: a-pará To borrow without promise to return.

2 • To lend to. Áagɨrâ ɛldɛ̂ páyìàn aisilén iropiyianí ɛnyɛ́nà. That man is lending me his money. (Pk).

a-ɨsɨlɨ́g   v. 1 • To trust.

2 • To expect.

a-ɨsɨlɨgʉ́   To expect.

a-isilisíl   v.prog. To cause suffering to; trouble. See: a-ɨtanyamál To trouble.

a-ɨsɨ́m   v. 1 • To take by force. Áɨ́sɨ́máyìè ɨ̀nà kɨ́tɛ́ŋ hɔ́ɔ́ nɛ́mɛ́na áí. I have taken that cow by force (and/or refused to give it back), even though it is not mine. (Pk). Eisimáyìè Kónené isilinkiní áinéì. Konene has taken my money by force. (W).

2 • To accuse unjustifiably.

a-ɨsɨmaá   To take sth. by use of strength; seize.

a-ɨsɨmʉ́   To lie repeatedly.

a-ɨsɨmaríé   To bulldoze one's way to get or do sth.; take sth. forcefully from s.o.

a-ɨsɨmakɨ́   To force s.o. to do sth. See: a-uáp To snatch; a-yá To take; a-ɨkɔ́ny To seize; a-ɨbʉ́ŋ To seize.

a-ɨsɨná   v. To be(come) depressed, troubled, sad; the condition is described as being not happy, sometimes associated with crying, possibly because of a troubling situation. Kɛ́ɨ́sɨ́na. He will get depressed/He gets depressed (i.e. he is that kind of person) (Pk). Ɛgɨ́rà aɨsɨná amʉ̂ étómítíókokí élô aɨsʉmá. He/she is looking sad because he/she has been denied a chance to go to study. (Pk). ɔltʉŋánì ɔɨsɨ́na person who is depressed, troubled.

a-ɨsɨnanú   v.incep. To become depressed. Kórè peê eyé ŋotonyé Jôn, nɛ́ɨ́sɨnánù Jôn olêŋ. When Jon's mother passed away, Jon was very depressed.

a-ɨsɨnanúó  

a-ɨsɨnanúá [West]  

a-ɨsɨnaníó [North]   v.mid. Variant: a-ɨsɨnaníó. To become depressed; be mentally obsessing on the depression itself or over the situation that has brought about the depression. For W, the term describes a low quiet mood, perhaps after an individual has cried and cried, that results from a particular situation which cannot be reversed or helped by others such as failure, victimization, bereavement, complete loss of one's cattle, etc. The feeling may be brief or prolonged. This feeling may also be shared by sympathetic people who know and care about the individual's state. In W, the word would not describe s.o. who is in a low mood for no reason. Káɨ́sɨ́nánio olêŋ. I am very depressed (or lonely). (SN). Múntókì aɨsɨnaníó. Stop being dejected/depressed/sad (e.g. said to a child who has experienced loss of his/her goat). (SN). Kéísinánio amʉ̂ nkitók ɛnyɛ́ nátùà ŋolé He is feeling loss because his wife died yesterday. (SN). Kéísinánio amʉ̂ kɛ́taráyiekí nkíshú ɛnyɛ́naá pɔɔkɨ́. He is poor (needy) because all his cows were raided. (SN). The primary sense of this term is to have lack, desperate need, and poverty; but it can also be used with reference to a rich person who is sad and depressed. See: a-gɨrá To be quiet; a-rɔ́k ɔ́shɔ́kɛ̀ To be unsociable.

a-ɨsɨnɨgá   v. 1 • To stiffen one's muscles.

2 • To be uneasy; unrelaxed. See: ɔ-sɨ́nɨ̀g lk.

a-isinkán   v.prog. To serve; work for; attend. See: o-sinká Slave.

a-ɨsɨŋɨɨ́d   v. To pull a liquid or a queue into a line; align. See: a-sɨɨ́d To pull into a line.

a-isionisíón   v. To walk hurriedly. Usage: colloquial. aisionisíón aɨŋataá ɨlmaŋáti To walk hurriedly away from the enemies. Syn: a-isiosíón To be in a hurry.

a-isíóŋ   v.prog. 1 • To suspend; hang.

2 • To let down.

a-isiorɔ́g   v. To dampen s.o's excitement about sth; demotivate, discourage. Ísíórɔ́gɨ́tà ɛnkɛ́ráí inó, tápàlà You are demotivating your child, leave it.

a-isiorɔgá   v.mid. To be timid, shy; demotivated.

a-ɨsɨpɨ́l   v. To isolate; make sth remain without companion.

a-ɨsɨpɨlá   v.mid. To stand alone; live alone.

a-ɨsɨpɨlʉ́   To bring sth on its own, without companion.

a-ɨsɨpɨlarí   To go alone.

a-ɨsɨráí   v. 1 • To feel remorse for; feel sorry for; This can also be used for confession in a church, where a person confess to God (before a priest). aɨsɨráí ɨntɔrrɔ̂k To feel sorry for the bad deeds.

2 • To feel or express a desire or hope concerning sth; wish. Káɨ́sɨ́ràì elótótó ɛ̀ Nairobi I have a desire for the journey to Nairobi. See: a-ŋúár To have a desire for.

a-ɨsɨrdɨɨ́d   [North]: a-ɨsʉrdɛɛ́d. v. 1 • To stretch into a line; lengthen.

2 • To pull apart.

I-siria Escarpment   n.prop. Isiria Escarpment. See: o-sírianí Siria Maasai person.

a-ɨsɨrɨkán   v. To hang meat for using later; dessicate ? See: sɨrɨkán Hung meat.

a-isirikanaá   v. To utilize sth little by little; carefull spending. aisirikanaá ɛndáà peê mésíókì aɨshʉnyɛ́ To use food little by littel so that it doesn't get finished soon.

a-ɨsɨrɨrɨ́   v.s. 1 • To be straight. Ɛshɔmɔ́ yíéyîô ɛmpárɛ̂t nɛ́yàʉ̀ olkíkwá ɔɨsɨrɨ́rɨ̀. My mother went to the farm and she brought a (long) straight sugar cane. (W). Kɛ́ɨ́sɨrɨ́rɨ̀. [kɛ́ysɪ́ɾɪ̀ɾɪ́] They are straight. (S). Eisíririu ɛlɛ́ shɛ́ta olêŋ. This tree will become straight. (W). Kɛ́gɨ́rà aisiririé. He is making it straight. See: a-itoriorí To be straight; a-shó To straighten, be straight.

2 • [North] To make straight, line up. Kéíksirirítò. He is making them straight. (S -K).

3 • To be mentally normal. Usage: Colloquial. Eyéwùò ɛnkɛráí nɛ́mɛ́ɨ́sɨ́rɨ́rɨ̀ aɨtanyamalɨshɔ́. The child that is abnormal has come to cause problems. (Pk).

a-ɨsɨrkɨ́ny   v. 1 • To cause an injury or damage by scouring the outer layer of sth using a rough or sharp object.

2 • To be slippery. See: a-kɨ́ny To peel off.

a-ɨsɨrkɨnyarí   v.pass. To slide or slip away. See: a-ɨsɨrkɨ́ny To slide; abrade.

a-isirŋáŋ   v. 1 • To cause temporal shock or inability to continue what one was doing before; hang in the air.

2 • To leave stranded; put ashore on a desolate place and abandon. aisirŋáŋ ɔltʉŋánì tè ntîm To leave s.o stranded in the bush.

a-isirŋaŋá   To be stranded. See: a-iŋasíá To worry.

a-ɨsɨrrɨsɨ́rr   v. To urinate drop by drop. Nɛ́ɨ́tɛ̀rʉ̀ enkítòk airút, nɛ́ɨ́tɛ̀rʉ̀ aɨsɨrɨsɨ́r ɨnkʉ́lák. The woman started panicking and she started urinating a bit at a time.

a-ɨsɨrɨsɨraá   To drop little by little; sprinkle. See: a-lʉ́t To urinate.

a-ɨsɨ́s   v. To express approval of, commend, exalt, glorify. Ɛgɨ́rà ɨnkɛ́râ áàɨ̀sɨ̀s ɛnkÁí áàrànyàkɨ̀. The children are glorifying God (by) singing. (Pk). Míntókì aɨsɨ́s kɛwɑ́n amʉ̂ mɨláŋ siî íyie ɨlkʉlɨ́kaɨ. Stop praising yourself because you are not better than others. (Pk). Áɨ́sɨ̀s. I will praise him/them. Áàɨ̀sɨ̀s. I will praise you (sg). Ɨ́sɨ̀s. You (sg) will praise him/them. Kɨ́sɨ̀s. You (sg) will praise me. Kɨ́sɨ̀s. He/They will praise you (sg). Ɛ́ɨ́sɨ̀s. He/They will praise. Áaɨsɨ́s. He/They will praise me. Ɛ́ɨ́sɨ̀s. He/They will praise him/them. Ɛ́ɨ́sɨ̀s ɨntáɨ́. He/They will praise you (pl). Kɨ́ɨsɨ́s. We will praise him/her/it/them. Kɨ́ɨsɨ́s iyíé. We will praise you (sg). Kɨ́ɨsɨ́s ɨntáɨ́. We will praise you (pl). Ɨ́sɨ́sɨ́sɨ̀. You (pl) will praise him/her/it/them. Kɨ́sɨ́sɨ́sɨ̀. You (pl) will praise me. Kɨ́sɨ̀s nɨ́ncɛ̀. They will praise you (sg). Áɨ́sɨ́sà. I praised (s.o.). Ááɨ́sɨ́sà. I praised you (sg). Áɨ́sɨ́sà ɨntáɨ́. I praised you (pl). Áɨ́sɨ́sà nɨncɛ́. I praised them. Ɨ́sɨ́sà. You (sg) praised him/them. Kɨ́sɨ́sà. (1) You (sg) praised me. (2) He praised you (sg). Kɨ́sɨ́sâ (1) They praised you (sg). (2) You (pl) praised me. Ɛ́ɨ́sɨ́sá He praised (s.o.). Ɛ́ɨ́sɨ́sâ They praised (s.o.). Ɛ́ɨ́sɨ́sâ iyíóók He/they praised us. Ɛ́ɨ́sɨ́sâ ɨntáɨ́ They praised you (pl). Ɛ́ɨ́sɨ́sá ɨntáɨ́ He praised you (pl). Kɨ́sɨsâ. We praised (s.o.). Ɨ́sɨ́sâ. You (pl) praised him/them. Ɨ́sɨ́sâ iyíóók. You (pl) praised us. Ɛɨsɨsɨ́. He/They will be praised. Áaɨsɨsakɨ́. I have been praised. Kɨ́sɨ́sákɨ̀. You (sg) have been praised. Ɛɨsɨsákɨ̀. He/they have been praised. Ɛɨsɨsákɨ̀ ɨntáɨ́. You (pl) have been praised. Áɨ́sɨ́sɨ́tà nɨnyɛ́. I am praising him/her. Áɨ́sɨ́sɨ́tà nɨncɛ́. I am praising them. Ááɨ́sɨ́sɨ́tà. I am praising you (sg). Áɨ́sɨ́sɨ́tà ɨntáɨ́. I am praising you (pl). Ɨ́sɨ́sɨ́tà nɨnyɛ́. You (sg) are praising him/her. Ɨ́sɨ́sɨ́tà iyíóók. You (sg) are praising us. Kɨ́sɨ́sɨ́tà. (i) You (sg) are praising me. (ii) She is praising you (sg). Ɛɨsɨsɨ́tà nɨnyɛ́. She is praising him. Ɛɨsɨsɨ́tà iyíóók. She is praising us. Áàɨ̀sɨ̀sɨ̀tà. Kɨ́sɨ́sɨ́tà nɨ́nyɛ̀. She is praising you (sg). Kɨ́sìsɨ̀tà. We are praising (s.o.). Kɨ́sɨ̀sɨ̀tà nɨncɛ́. We are praising them. Kɨ́sɨ̀sɨ̀tà iyíé. We are praising you (sg). Ɨ́sɨ́sɨ́tátà iyíóók. You (pl) are praising us. Kɨ́sɨ́sɨ́tátà. You (pl) are praising me. Ɨ́sɨ́sɨ́tátà nɨnchɛ́. You (pl) are praising them. Kɨ́sɨ́sɨ́tà nɨ́nchɛ̀. They are praising you (sg).

a-ɨsɨsá   v.mid. To be renowned. See: a-rrɛ́p To praise; a-sɛrɛ́m To worship, to adore.

a-ɨsɨsaá   v. To command a dog to run after s.o. or sth.

a-isísh   [Purko]: a-isíj. v. 1 • To coax; woo; use 'good' words to try to get s.o. to do sth. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛntásât aɨsɨ́sh enkíné mɛtɔ́nyɔ̀rà olkúò. The woman is coaxing the goat to like the kid. (Pk).

2 • To inflict pain on an animal to make it care for its young. This is done on the rare occasion that an animal despises its young. In S, the method varies by the animal as follows: for cows, air is blown into the the birth canal. For goats, their tail is shoved tightly into the birth canal, and perhaps a strap is tied tightly in the mouth. For sheep, the mouth is tied tighly with a strap, and the animal is tethered, and not allowed to graze for a day or so. In Pk, this is done by putting salt into the birth canal of a cow, or putting salt on the young of a sheep or goat. LING: For S, this word is more likely used for goats, sheep, or people, and a-ɨpɛ́k is more likely used for cows.

a-isishokí   To coax for. Syn: a-ɨpɛ́k coax a dispising mother.

a-isíú   v. 1 • To be empty. Kéísìù ɛnkájì The house is empty.

2 • To be open. Kéísiútà. It is open. (S).

a-isiuisíú   v. To have openings in many places (e.g. several doors and windows).

a-isiusíú   v. To blow wind. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɔ̂p aisiusíú amʉ̂ kétíi osiwúó ɛnkɔ̂p. The land is blowing wind. (lit: The land is blowing-wind because there is wind (in) the land.) (Pk). See: a-kʉ́t To blow wind.

a-isiwuokí   v. 1 • To eat some food in the morning prior to the right time of eating.

2 • [North] To sleep without eating food; fast.

a-ɨsogɛ́t [Chamus]   v. [Chamus] To cry. See: a-ɨCɨ́r To cry; a-isogisóg To sob.

a-isogisóg [North]   v. [North] To sob, cry with heavy breathing.

a-ɨsɔkɔrʉ́   v. To work to earn; work for. aɨsɔkɔrʉ́ ɛndáà To work to earn food. See: ɛ-sɔ́kɔ̀r Market; workplace; job.

a-ɨsɔ́m   Variant: a-ɨsʉ́m. v. 1 • To read. Kéyíólò pápâ aɨsɔ́mà mpálà. My father knows how to read papers/books. (SN).

2 • [North] To go to school. See: a-ɨsʉ́m To read.

a-ɨsɔmɨ́s   v. To be unfresh (as of milk). "Lɔ́ mʉrraní, ɛ́kʉlɛ́ naáropíl íyíéú anáà ɛ́kʉlɛ́ naáɨ́sɔmɨs? Oh warrior, do you want milk that is fresh, or milk that is unfresh?

a-ɨsɔmɨ́t   v. To be sour. Ɛɨsɔ́mɨ̀t kʉná lɛ̀. This milk is sour. (W).

a-ɨsɔmɨ́t   v.prog. To pester; harass. See: a-isorú To harass continually.

a-ɨsɔmpɨrá   v. To swim. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkáyíóní aɨsɔmpɨrá tɛ̀ nkárɛ̀. The boy is swimming in the water. (Pk). See: a-ár ɛnkárɛ́ To swim; a-sʉjarɛ́ To swim; a-pór ɛŋkárɛ́ To swim; a-lɔ́p (ɛŋkárɛ́) To swim.

a-isór   v. 1 • To poke about.

2 • To do a rough, incomplete job. This could apply to making a rungu for an impending fight that will be thrown away afterwards, but must be ready quickly, or even making a quick lunch before leaving the house.

3 • To clean up by removing what is not necessary or required. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlpáyìàn aisór ɨntaré agɛlʉ́ ɨnaamuêî. The man is removing the unhealthy (or sick) goats and sheep. (Pk). LING: Though the Motion-Away form occurs for this verb, the Ventive does not: *a-isorú.

a-isoroó   To leave the rest behind. This could be in a race, when chased, or in leaving a lame cow behind.

a-isorú   v. To pester. This can be done to a particular person or group of people. See: a-ɨsɔmɨ́t To pester.

a-ɨsɔsɨ́ɔ́ [North]   v.prog. 1 • [North] To make sth. complete, finish constructing. This could be a house, a calabash -- but only in finishing initial construction, not in repair.

2 • [North] To restore an animal that can't get up by bringing it food and water. Kɛ́ɨ́sɔsɨɔnɨ́tà. He is bringing grass for his cow. (S).

a-isosíón   v. 1 • To hurry up. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkáyíóní aisosíón aló ɨntaré. The boy is hurrying to go and look after the goats/sheep. (Pk).

2 • To be efficient (e.g. in work). ɔltʉŋánì oisósìòn i) an effecient person ii) a fast person. This refers to a long-term, permanent property. Ant: a-maaɨ́ To be docile, sluggish. See: a-isionisíón To walk hurriedly.

a-isót   v. To drink in sips; sip. aɨsɔ́t kʉlɛ́ To sip milk.

a-isotokí   To sip for (ahead of). This is usually done by warriors. When they get into a home, of a certain clan, the warrior of that clan will take upon himself to feed the rest. He will visit each house in the homestead to gather gourds of milk for the other warriors. For each gourd, a warrior who opens and take the first sip, aisotokí, passes it on to another who will drink the contents but leave just little, ɔl-mɔ́ŋɔ́, that will be taken back with the gourd.

a-isotíé   To drink along with; eat together with.

a-isotú   v. 1 • To sip.

2 • To take milk and other foods after a period of eating meat in the bush. See: a-ɨtashaló To take milk after a meat-eating period.

a-isuaayá   v. 1 • To splash about, "make a splash" Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɛráí aisuaayá ɛnkárɛ́ tɛ̀ bɔ́ɔ̀. The child is splashing out water outside the house. (Pk).

2 • To pour out violently (as when rinsing out a cup). See: a-isúák To splash; a-ibukoó To pour away.

a-isúák   v. To splash about, make a splash. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɛráí aisúák kʉlɛ́ tɛ̀ bɔ́ɔ̀. The child is splashing out milk outside the house. (Pk). See: a-isuaayá To splash about, "make a splash".

a-isudoó   v. 1 • To hide sth. physical. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɛráí asiudoó ɛmbúkù tɛ̀ nkɨ́lâ. The child is hiding the book in the cloth. (Pk).

2 • To put aside for safekeeping. Ɛgɨ́rà ɨnkɛ́rà asiudoó intótò ɛnyɛ̂. The children are putting aside their pebbles for safekeeping.(Pk).

a-isudoríé   To hide from s.o.

a-isudoró   To be hidden.

a-isudorí   To hide oneself. Néísudórì, nɛ́jɨ̀ŋ ɛnkɨtɨ́ gúmótó. It hid, it entered into a small hole. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɛráí nátaará ɛnkáɨ́ asiudorí. The child who beat the other is hiding. (Pk). Kéísudórì táatá. He/she is hiding now. Kéísudórí táatá. He/she will be hidden. (SN).

a-isudoriyíé   To use sth. as a hiding place for sth. else. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkáyíóní asidudoriyíé embúkù ɔlbɛ́nɛ́. The boy is hiding the book in the bag. (Pk).

a-isudokí   To hide sth. for s.o. See: a-nʉ́k To hide information.

a-ɨsʉgaá   v. To sniff; inhale. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛmpapá aaɨsʉgaá ɔlcaní. My father is trying to sniff the medicine. (W).

a-ɨsʉgʉ́m   v.prog. To coerce; cause s.o to do sth through pressure or necessity physically or emotionally. aɨsʉgʉ́m mɛ́ɨ́nɔsá ɛndáà nɛ́mɛ́nyɔ́r To coerce to eat food that he doesn't like. LING: This seems an old borrowing from Swahili.

a-ɨsʉgʉmakɨ́   To coerce to do sth.

a-ɨsʉgʉsʉ́g   v. 1 • To sob. Ɛɨsʉgʉ́sʉ̀g ɛnkɛráí teníarɨ. A child will sob when beaten.

2 • To pull in air audibly through the nose; sniff. Ɛgɨ́rà oldîâ aɨsʉgʉsʉ́g amʉ̂ eiŋúáyìè ɛndââ. The dog is sensing an odor of food by audibly inhaling through the nose. See: a-ɨsʉgaá To inhale.

a-ɨsʉ́ɨ́   v. 1 • To roast, singe, scorch, so as to be able to peel off an outer layer of skin or bark. Ɛ́ɨ́sʉ̀ɨ̀ ɨláyìòk ɛlʉ́kʉ́nyá é nkíní áànyà. The boys will singe/roast (CHECK) the goat's head for eating. The skin must be on the piece roasted (usually the head), but singeing is not necessarily done for the purpose of removing the skin. (S).

2 • [North] To warm up before singing and dancing, by jogging and shouting. In S, this is done in a straight line away from the group and back, one at a time. In K, the jogging is done in circles.

a-ɨsʉɨyá   To be singed. See: ɛn-aɨsʉɨ́ Burnt head.

a-ɨsʉɨshɔ́   v. To be sour (e.g. milk), bitter (e.g. unripe fruit). Ɛɨsʉɨ́shɔyú kʉ́lɛ̀ náɨ́rragâ ɨnkɔ́lɔ̀ŋɨ̀ kúmok. The milk that lays out for many days will become sour. Milk, when old, can be either a-ɨsuɨshɔ́ 'sour', or /a-dúá/ 'bitter'. Whether it becomes 'sour' or 'bitter' depends upon where the milk comes from. If it comes directly from the cow, then the milk turns 'sour', and its sour form is suitable for serving. However, if the milk comes out of a carton, then it is not considered fresh and as soon as it becomes old, it is no longer considered to be suitable for any sort of consumption. Órè ɔlŋanayíóì lɛɨtʉ́ ɛkʉ́ náà kɛ́ɨ́sʉ́ɨ̀shɔ̀. A fruit that is not ripe is sour. (Pk).

a-isuishíé, a-isuijíé   To make sour; make bitter. See: a-dúá; a-isiijó To be sour.

a-ɨsʉ́j   v. 1 • To wash sth. aɨsʉ́j ɨnkɨlání tɛ̀ nkárɛ̀ To wash clothes with water.

2 • To wash clothes.

a-ɨsʉjá   1 • To be washed.

2 • To wash self, take a bath, wash hands.

a-ɨsʉjayú   To be washable. See: a-itukó To wash. .

a-isukúd   v. To make s.o squat, crouch.

a-isukudó   v.mid. To squat; crouch.

a-ɨsʉkʉ́t   v.s. To be sour; salty. Ámaâ kɛ́kʉlɛ́ naárropîl íyíéú anáà kɛ́kʉlɛ́ nááɨ́sʉkʉ̂t? Do you like fresh milk, or unfresh milk? Tɔrrɔ̂k kʉ́lɛ̀ náaɨsʉkʉ̂t. The milk that is sour is not good. (W).

a-ɨsʉ́l1   v. 1 • To excel, be the best. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkáyíóní nányɔ̀k aɨsʉ́l inkulîê tɛ̀ sukúùl. The boy who works hard is excelling in the class. (Pk). ɔltʉŋánì ɔɨ́sʉ̀l a person who is the best/excells.

2 • For sth. to especially or particularly be the case. Nɛ́akʉ kéírímò ɔltʉŋánì ɛnkómòm nɛ́ɨ́sʉl inkúmèìshìn. Somebody will have a spotted face, and particularly the nose. (Pk).

a-ɨsʉ́l2   v.prog. 1 • To whistle (either through the teeth or the hands). Ɛ́ɨ́sʉ́lɨ́tà. He is whistling. (W). Ɛɨsʉ́lakɨ. He will whistle to him. (W).

2 • To whistle to. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlpáyìàn aɨsʉ́l inkíshú etií shoó. The man is whistling to the cows while herding the cows. (Pk).

a-ɨsʉ́m   v.prog. 1 • To read, study. Áɨ́sʉ́mɨ́tà embúkù sídáí. I'm reading a good book. Ɨ́sʉmá embólúnotó eoŋúán. You should study chapter four [e.g. for the exam]. (W). LING: The stem begins with ɨ-. But the singular imperative, which morphologically adds another ɨ-, does not result in a long initial syllable.

2 • To teach. Kɛ́gɨ́rà áàɨ̀sʉ̀mɨ̀ aké íyie subjects kúmòk olêŋ. They are teaching many subjects.

a-ɨsʉmɛ́   v.mid. To be educated, learnèd. ɔɨsʉ́mɛ̀ one who is educated, learnèd. See: a-ɨsɔ́m To read.

a-ɨsʉmásh   v.s. To be hungry. Áɨ́sʉ́masha olêŋ. I became very hungry. (W). Áɨ́sʉ́mashu. I will become hungry. (W). Mayíéú náló inkíshú táatá amʉ̂ àlò aɨsʉmásh. I don't want to go look after cows today because I will feel hungry. (W). See: ɛ-sʉ́màsh Hunger.

a-isunkúr   v. To pretend; be hipocritical. See: mákárr Pretend; a-itaakunó To pretend.

a-ɨsʉ́ŋ   v. To fill up to the brim. aɨsʉ́ŋ ɛnkárɛ́ tɔ̀ ltôô To fill up the barrel with water.

a-ɨsʉŋá   To be filled up.

a-ɨsʉŋʉsʉ́ŋ   v. 1 • To sound as if the nose is pinched.

2 • To speak through the nose or when you have a cold. See: a-ɨsʉ́ŋ To fill up.

a-isúr   v.prog. 1 • To poke, prod. aisúr olpááshíé metúpukú ɔlasʉráí To prod the fence so that the snake will get out. Áísúrítò. I am poking it. (Pk).

2 • To speak badly of s.o. or sth. aisúr ɔltʉŋánì peê mɛ́gɛ́lʉ́nɨ To speak badly about a person so that he/she is not elected. aisúr entíto peê mɛ́yámɨ́ To speak ill of a girl so that she does not get married (Pk). Áísúrìtò. I am speaking badly of/poking/combing sth. See: a-inórr To slander.

3 • To comb hair. aisúr ɨlpápɨ́t peê esidanú To comb the hair so that he/she looks nice (Pk).

4 • To stoke the fire to stop it from dying out.

5 • [North] To do sth. very early in the morning. Káísúr lotótò aló Nairóbì. I will go very early in the morning to Nairobi. (S).

a-isurokí   To poke into. Ant: a-rrɛ́p To praise, talk good about.

a-ɨsʉrbʉ́b   v. To draw in or away by the force of suction. aɨsʉrbʉ́b ɛnkárɛ́ To draw in water by suction.

a-ɨsʉrdɛɛ́d [North]   v. [North] To lengthen. See: a-ɨsɨrdɨɨ́d To lengthen.

a-ɨsʉrdɛɛ́ny   v. To treat with contempt; mock. aɨsʉrdɛɛ́ny ɔltʉŋánì To mock a person.

a-isureén   v. To cut up meat and dry it. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlpáyìàn aisureén inkírí. The man is cutting and drying meats. Órè táatá ɛlɛ̂ kíné oteyiayaki naa oloisureeni. Today this slaughtered castrated he-goat's meat is going to be cut up and dried. (Pk). See: a-sureén To cut up meat.

a-isurokí [North]   v. 1 • [North] To walk quickly.

2 • To slip or slide into. See: a-pɨ́k To put into.

a-isus   v. To fry or roast fermented corn over an open fire, until it is all brown in color.

a-ɨsʉsʉnkát   v. To have a quick intelligence; be active; be smart.

a-ɨsʉ́sh [North]   v. [North] To make/command a dog to run after s.o./sth.

a-ɨsʉ́sh   v. 1 • To clean a calabash.

2 • To annihilate; wipe out.

a-ɨsʉshá   v.mid. To be cleaned as in calabash.

a-isuujinó   v. 1 • To be cowardly.

2 • To have social weaknesses (e.g. to not interact well, be unable to argue out one's opinions and concerns, be unable fight). See: o-suují Coward.

a-isuutó   v. To be unhappy, dull.

a-ɨ́sh   v.prog. 1 • To finish; end; be complete. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkígùràn aɨ́sh ɛ́ɨ́tʉ̂ kɨ́dɔ̂l pɔɔkɨ́. The play is ending before we see it all. (Pk). Kótoyó alɛ́ ránki lapatín aré oóɨshâ. This paint dried two months ago. (SN). See: a-ɨdɨ́p To finish; a-itíŋ To finish.

2 • To die; vanish. LING: In S, a person cannot be the subject of this verb. Ɛ́ɨ̀sh ɛlɛ́ tʉ́ŋání. This man will die. (He is ill and in the process of dying.). Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlkúóô ómùèì aɨ́sh. The sick kid is dying. (Pk). Ɛ́ɨ́shá. He is dead. See: a-yɛ́ To die; a-itianyá To die; a-ishú To be alive.

a-ɨshaá   1 • To take away everything.

2 • To fit.

a-ishíé   To bring it to an end; finish.

a-ɨshʉ́   v.dir. In some suffixed forms: ɨshʉn. To finish sth; complete. LING: This form of the verb is transitive. Assuming that the -ʉ(n) ending is etymologically the Ventive directional suffix, this is a rare transitivizing use of a directional. Ɛɨ́shʉ̀ ɛnkárɛ́. He will finish the water. Ɛ́gɨ́rà ɛnkɛráí aɨshʉ́ kʉlɛ́ naátií enkúkúrí. The child is finishing the milk that is in the calabash. (Pk). Náɨ́shʉ̀ ɨlarín aárè. I finished two years [in school]. (C). Níkìpùò áàɨ̀shʉ̀ táatá iwíkií uní. We will go and stay [there] for (to complete) three weeks. (C). Áíshua ŋolé. I finished it yesterday. Ɛɨshúá ɔlápúrróní ɛnkɛɛnɛ́ ɛnyɛ́. The thief completed his jail term. (Pk). See: a-ɨdɨ́p To finish sth.

a-ɨshʉnyɛ́   v.dir v.mid. To be finished. Ɛɨshʉ́nyɛ̀. ~ Ɛ́ɨ́shʉ́nyɛ̀. It is finished (e.g. the work, the sugar). (K). Nɛ́ɨshʉ́nyɛ̀ ɛnkátiní âî téínê. [ɛnkátiní àì] My story ends there. Kɛ́ɨshʉ́nyɛ̀ ɛsʉ́kàrì. The sugar is finished. Káaɨshʉ́nyɛ̀ ɔlkásî. My work is finished.

a-ɨshakɨ́   1 • To do everything possible vis-à-vis s.o. Áɨ́shákà. i) I have filled it. ii) I have said it all. iii) I have given it all to him. Ɛ́tányá ɔlpáyìàn ɛpalɨkɨ́ enkitók ɛnyɛ́ hɔ́ɔ́ nɛ́ɨshaká ɛsáyíátá ɛnyɛ́ pɔɔkɨ́. The man has refused to forgive his wife even though she has done all the desperate pleading for it with him that she can. (Pk).

2 • To give the whole of; give fully. aɨshakɨ́ inkíshú To give all the cows. Káaishakínè ncân. The whole rain has rained on me (and I am completely wet.) (S).

a-ɨsharí   1 • To disappear entirely, pour out wholly.

2 • To die, be dead. Ɛgɨ́rà Jôn adɛmʉ́ ŋótónyé naɨshárɨ̀. Jon is remembering his mother who has passed away (i.e. died). (W).

a-ishakenú   v. To testify. Kélóítò aɨshakenú tɛ̀ nkígùànà táatá. He is going to testify in the meeting. (Pk).

a-ishakenokí   To be a witness to.

a-ishakenoó   To testify (publicly). Éntolíkí ɨltʉ́ŋáná méítokí áàpùò áàìshàkènòò imónkò tɔɔ́ nkíguɛnaritín. Tell the people to stop testifying lies in meetings. (Pk). See: shákénìshò Testimoney.

a-ɨshál   v. 1 • To be wet. Usage: clothes, people. Kɛ́yshàl. It is wet. (S).

2 • To be alive. Usage: trees. Kɛ́yshàl. It is alive. (S).

a-ɨshám   [North]: a-ɨcamɨcám, a-ɨshamɨshám. v. 1 • To taste (without swallowing). nɨ́ákʉ́ enduarán kʉ́lɛ oo nkíshú áinéí tɛ̀ nɨ́ncham. and the milk of my cows be bitter if you taste.

2 • [North] To smell.

a-ɨshamɨ́shám   [àyʃìāmǐʃíám.] To taste sth. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkáyíárání aɨshamɨ́shám ɛndáà. The cook is tasting the food. (Pk). See: a-ɨnyɔrɨnyɔ́r To taste.

a-ɨshankár   v. To argue, haggle. Nélò aɨshankár ɨlɔmɔ́n nɛ́laikinôî áàtòlìkì ɛsɨ́pátá. He argued until he could not be told the truth. (lit: He goes to argue talk and he was failed to (be) told the truth.) (Pk). See: a-ɨlɛpɨlɛ́p To make noise; a-ɨtanyamál To bother.

a-ishankíl   v. To loiter; wander. See: ɔl-cánkílí Loitering donkey.

a-ɨshankúl   v. To splash, stir up water. See: shankúl The sound made by an object that dips into water.

a-ishiaá   v. To be iconic; have a form that directly indicates function; worth. Kéíshíàà peê eitobiríékì ingumót. It is obvious (visually clear) that the function of this is to make holes [referring to a knife].

a-ishiarí   To develop properly. oshî aké náashiárì that always go properly (C). See: a-ishiaakinó To coincide with; be appropriate; a-narɛ́ To be suitable; a-iririkí To be suitable; a-nyɔrɛ́ To be suitable; ɨ-lálá lɛ́ kishiaá Upper front teeth.

a-ishiaakinó   v. 1 • To be appropriate, suitable, proper. Kéíshiaakíno níkinyotótò áàpùò ɛnkají ɔɔ́ Kent It is appropriate that we begin going to the house of Kent. Órè ɔlpayíán ɔ́ enkitók ɛnyɛ́ náà osésèn obô nɛ́akʉ kéíshiaakíno nɛ́nyɔrra. A husband and his wife are one body and they should love one another. Kéíshiaakíno nɛ́yà intóiwúó naata ɛnkɨ́dɨ́mátá ɨnkɛ́rà sukúùl. Parents with the ability should take their children to school. (Pk). Ɛgɨ́rà ɛná báɛ̂ aishiaakinó peê ɛ́ɨ́dɨ́pɨ̂ tené. It is suitable for this matter to be settled here. (Pk).

2 • To coincide with.

3 • To be suitable. Kéíshíáákínò. It is suitable. (S).

4 • To be directly opposite, or directly in line with sth.; aligned. For example, as when two people sit face to face.

a-ishiaakinoré   1 • To correspond to; be in line with. Éíshíáákínòrè olcánì ɛŋápɛ́. The tree is in line with the house-pole. (Pk). Kéíshiaakínoré. It is in line with it/him/her.

2 • To be opposite.

3 • To concide with.

a-ishiaakɨ́   1 • To do sth right, correctly. Kéíshɨááká enkítíbíràtà enkají. He has made the house in the right way. (S). Káɨshɨááká lomón latílíkà. The information I have given is right. (S).

2 • To attach or position securely; direct unwaveringly toward; put something where it belongs (e.g. directly in the center).

a-ishiaakinoré   v tr. 1 • To coincide with spatially, be in line with, be opposite to. Eishiaakínoré olcánì ɛŋápé. The tree is in line with the house-pole. (Pk).

2 • To coincide with temporally, correspond to. Eéwùò ɛnkɔ́jɔŋánì aishiaakinoré ɛrɨ́shátá ɛ́ncan. The coming of mosquito has come to correspond to the rainy season. (Pk). See: a-narɛ́ To be suitable; a-iririkinó To be suitable; a-nyɔrɛ́ To be suitable; ɛ-naishíà What is required.

a-ishiaát   v. To be fit; beautiful. See: shíáát To be fit; beautiful.

a-ishíák   v. 1 • To find, come upon.

2 • To be opposite.

a-ishíám   v. To taste.

a-ishiamishám   To taste sth. See: ɔl-cháméí Taste.

a-ɨshɨ́m   v.prog. 1 • To chew and suck juice out of sth. (e.g. from bones, leaves, sugar cane). Áɨ́shɨ́mɨ́tà olkikúá. I am chewing the sugar cane. (W).

2 • Pierce. Ɨ́ncɨmɨshɨmákɨ̀ aɨtɛrʉ́ ɔlkɨdɔŋɔ́ɨ̀ ɔmɛshɔ́mɔ̀ aɨpáŋ tɛ̀ lʉkʉnyá. Pierce me starting from the tail upto the end of the head.

a-ɨshɨ́r   v.prog itr. 1 • To weep, cry. Nkɛ́ráí narɔnyɨ́táɨ́ náɨ́shɨ̀rɨ̀tà. It is the child who is being shaved that is crying. Nélò aɨshɨ́r mɛ́ɨ́shɔ̀rɨ̀ enkitók ɛnyɛ́ bótór. He went to cry to be given back his senior wife.. Káɨ́shɨ́rù erététò táatá. I will cry for help today.

2 • To make a high pitched noise, such as metal striking metal. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔltualá lé sekenkêî aɨshɨ́r. The metalic bell is making a high-pitched sound.

3 • To complain, with expectation of sympathy. Eyéwùò olmórûô ɔ́àtà esílè aɨshɨ́r metúduŋokiní. The debtor has come to complain so that he may have the debt reduced.

a-ɨshɨrakɨ́   1 • To cry for.

2 • To appeal; beg.

a-ɨshɨrrɨshɨ́r   1 • To whimper. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɛráí kɨ́tɨ̀ aɨshɨrrɨshɨ́r. The little child is whimpering. (Pk).

2 • [North] To cry many times. See: a-ɨshɨrʉ́ To seek help from.

a-ɨshɨrtɨ́t   v. 1 • To be slick. Kɛ́ɨ́shɨ́rtɨ̀t ɛná mártî This cliff is slick.

2 • To slide. Ágɨ́ra aɨshɨrtɨ́t tɛ̀ márti. I am sliding from the cliff. Syn: a-ɨdɛkɛ́t To be slick.

a-ɨshɨrʉ́ [North]   v. [North] To seek help or aid from. Eishírúá ɛnkɛráí ŋɔ́tɔ́nyɛ́ The child has gone to seek help from her mother. Kɛ́ɨ́shɨ́ɛ́rʉ̀à. He has come for help. (S). Kɛ́ɨ́shɨ́rɨ́tʉ́à. They have come for help. (S). Káaɨshɨrákà. He has come to me for help. (S).

a-ɨshɨrrɨshɨ́r   See: a-ɨshɨ́r To weep.

a-ishíú   In some suffixed forms: ishiun. v itr. To recover from illness, heal; be well. Kɛ́jɨŋ aké némueyu pɛ́nyɔ̀ néíshiu. It just enters him and he becomes a bit sick and he recovers. Áíshíúwúó dúóó. I recovered today. Eishíutúò ɨntárè. The sheep have recovered. Kéíshíúà lkɨ́rɔ́bɨ̂. He has recovered from cold. (S).

a-ishiunyé   v tr. To cause s.o. recover from illness; heal, cure. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛlɛ́ shánì ŋejúk aishiunyé iltámùèìyìà. The new medicine has cured the sick. (Pk). Eishíúnyie ɔltʉŋánì ɨlɔ̂ shánì. The person has gotten healed using that medicine. Eishíúnyie olábáání ɛnkɛ́ráí. The treater has healed the child.

a-ishuyíé   To live because of; depend on sth or s.o to live. See: a-itomwáí To cure; a-apatɛ́ To cure; a-bák To treat; a-ɨtɔpɔ́k To give health; a-itagól To make strong.

a-ishó   [For at least some speakers: [àyshíó] (K)]  PF: toíshe [toíshie]. v.apass. 1 • To give birth, bear offspring. LING: This verb is the antipassive form of a-iú(n) 'to bear (offspring)'. Néjî, etoíshe ɛnapá tɔmɔnɔnɨ́. It is reported that the woman who was pregnant has given birth. (K). Kétoíshè She gave birth. (Pk W). Kétiíshè. She gave birth. (S). Etoíshe, nélàù. She has given birth, and lost (the child; i.e. the child died). Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɨ́tɛ̀ŋ aishó tì aúlùò. The cow is giving birth outside the kraal. (Pk).

2 • To bear fruit. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlcánì aishó ayíú ɨlŋanayíó kúmòk. The tree is bearing many fruits. (Pk) (lit: The tree is bearing [intransitive] to bear [transitive] many fruits.). See: a-iú To give birth.

a-ɨshɔ́   [North]: a-ɨcɔ́. In some suffix forms: a-ɨshɔ́r. v.prog. 1 • To give, deliver, bestow, donate, furnish. Náà kɛ́ɨ́shɔ ɔláyíóní entíto inkíshú. And the boy will give cows to the girl. (W). Ɛɨshɔ́ ɔlpáyìàn ɔlmʉ́rránì inkíshú. The old man will give the warrior cows. (W). Áaɨshɔɔ́ náají ɔlashʉmpáí ɛntarubínì ɛnyɛ̂ maɨŋórìè ɨltɔmíá oókìtò ɛnkárɛ́. The European gave me his binoculars to observe elephants drinking water. (Pk). Káaɨshɔɔ́. He gave it to me. (S). LING: [káàyʃɔ̀ɔ́]. Áaɨshɔɔkɨ́ oltúpà lápɨ́k ɔlcaní. I have been given a bottle that I will keep (my) medicine in. (Pk). Áɨ́shɔ́ɔ̀ Nkɛ́ppɛ́n ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ. I gave the cow to Nkeppen. (W). Áíshóóyìè ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ. I gave a cow. (W). Áaɨshɔɔkɨ́ oltúpà lápɨ́k ɔlcaní. I have been given a bottle that I will keep (my) medicine in. (Pk). Áɨ́shɔ́ɔ́yɔ ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ. I am giving a cow. (W). Áàɨ̀shɔ̀rɨ̀tà oldîâ. She is giving me the dog. (W). Kɨ́ncɔ́rɨ́tà oldîâ. You are giving me the dog. (W). Ɨ́ncɔ́rɨ́tà oldîâ nɨnyɛ́. You are giving the dog to him. (W). Ááɨ́shɔ́rɨ́tà oldîâ. I am giving the dog to you. (W). Áɨ́shɔ́rɨ́tà ɔlpayíán ́ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ. I am giving the cow to the man. (W). Shɔ́mɔ̀ íyaʉ́ enteré peê eidoŋíékì isekétèk lɨ́kɨ́ncɔ́rɨ̀. Go and bring a mortar for the grinding of traditional medicine that will be given to you. (Pk). Ómò apá enkêr náíshooyiokí. The sheep that was given away was light brown.

2 • To emit, cite. Nɨ́kɨ̀ncɔ̀rʉ̀ iróreí lɔɔ́ lMáásâɨ̂. We will give you Maasai words [to respond to].

3 • To perform, do.

4 • To let, allow, permit. LING: As a matrix verb 'to let, allow, permit', a-ɨshɔ́ requires its complement clause to be in a modal or subjunctive form. Nɛ́ɨ́shɔ̀ aké peê élô. And he let him go. Náà ɛ́mɨncɔ́ táatá ɨlashɔ́ epúó ɛndâ sɛ́dɛ̀r. And don't let the calves go to that side (of the hill) today. (Pk). Órè nɛ́nâ lɛ́ nɨ́ncɔ̀ ekú. That milk, you let it coagulate. (KS). Tɔ́bɔ̀là ɨ́nâ kíné peê ɛ̀ɨ̀shɔ̀rʉ̀ mɛ́tànàà olkúó. Hold that goat by mouth so that it can allow its kid to suckle. (Pk). aɨshɔ́ ɛnkɛ́ráí mɛshɔ́mɔ̀ ɔ́pɛ̀ny to let the child go alone. Ɛ́tɔ́n doí mɛ́ɨ́shɔ́ ɛncalán é tómónìshò ɨ́nâ kitók epukú tiájì. The weakness of the postpartum stage does not allow that woman to come out of the house. (Pk). Kɛ́ya ɔláshɛ̂ ɛnɛ̂ kerretí mmɛɨshɔ́ élô. The lamb is sick at the two protruding hoof-like pieces of flesh on the hooves so it cannot walk. (Pk). Nɛ́ɨ́shɔɔ́shɔ̀ ɔlpáyìàn ɔlmʉ́rránì inkíshú. The old man gave cattle bit by bit to the warrior (i.e. a few at a time, over a long period of time). (W). LING: The morphological reflexive meaning is not possible with this verb form. Rathe Áɨ́shɔ́ɔ̀ kɛwán. I have given it to myself.

a-ɨshɔɔ́ síádí   To leave sth. behind. Áɨ́shɔ́ɔ̀ síádí ɨmbáà tɔrrɔ̂k. I have left bad things behind. (lit: I have given my backside to bad things.).

a-ɨshɔɔyɔ́   To give away. See: áà-ìshòrò To give one another.

a-ɨshɔ́ ɔlmʉmáî   To give an oath. This is the first stage in a marriage engagement process.

a-ɨshɔrʉ́   To hand in; give out towards point of reference.

a-ishoró   v.mid. 1 • v.mid. To be in good/happy moods. Usage: slang. Mɛárɨshɔ olpáyìàn amʉ̂ kéíshorúno dúóó táatá. The man will not beat/fight because he is in good moods today.

2 • v.mid.pl. To give sth. to one another. Ɛgɨ́rà ɨlcɔ́rɛ̀tà áàìshòrò ɨnkashó. The friends are giving to one another a heifer. (Pk).

a-ishorunó   1 • To have been given this way.

2 • To be allowed; lawful.

3 • To be in good moods. See: a-ishoró To be in good moods; a-irúk To permit; a-nyɔrraá To permit.

-ɨ́shɔ́   [North]: -ɨcɔ. PF: -íshìè. In some suffixed forms: -ɨ́shɔ́r. 1 • voi. Antipassive verb suffix, typically indicating ability or habitual action. Disallows expression of the Object of an otherwise transitive root. ɔltʉŋánì ɔyɛ́kɨshɔ a person who is troublesome. Káyíéú náítókì aasishoré Mɛɨpɔnyɨ́. I want to work with Meiponyi. (Pk). Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlpayíánì aitarruó esíáì ɛ́ màshò aarɨshɔ́. The man is ruining the ceremony by fighting people. (Pk). Kéríco rrárràt ɛ́ ltupá. Pieces of a broken bottle do hurt. (SN). LING: From K-e-ar-ico DSCN-3-kill-APASS. Néduŋishó ɔláyíóní tɛ̀ ntîm. The boy was cutting in the forest. (W). Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlpáyìàn aɨtɨpɨ́j ɔlayíónì lɛnyɛ́ peê ɛɨrɨshɨ́shɔ̀. The man is inspiring his son to fight back. (Pk). Ɛtamíshìè. He ate. Ɛnyáɨ́shó olkónòì. [ɛ̀nyɛ́ɪ́shɔ́] The olkónòì eats (people). (W).

2 • nmlz. Nominalizer. LING: As a verb suffix, the Antipassive occurs on normally transitive verb roots, to derive an intransitive verb. At least some speakers are unable to add it to ditransitive verbs, whether basic ditransitive roots (a-ɨshɔ́ 'give'), or derived (a-ramat-akɨ́ 'tend (cattle) on behalf of'). It is (rarely) attested on intransitive verb roots.

a-ishók   v. To herd; take care of. aishók inkíshú To herd cows.

a-ishokú   To herd in order to get sth in return. aishokú entíto To herd in order to be given a girl. This is normally done by a young man (mostly after graduating from warriorhood) who want to get married. So, he will herd someone else livestock for a number of years and in return will be given a girl to marry. He will not be compensated in any other form, except marrying a girl from that family. Herding might stop immediately after marriage, although some families might request the newly-married man to "help" them, but not "required" to. See: shoó Herding.

enk-ishón   n. 1 • Life.

2 • Luck. See: enk-íshúí Life.

a-ɨshɔŋɨshɔ́ŋ   v. 1 • To slope down.

2 • To get close to the end of sth.

a-ɨshɔɔbɔ́ [North]   v.mid. [North] To be naked. See: sɨpátì Being naked.

a-ɨshɔɔbɔkinó [North]   n. [North] To do something without being prepared for it.

a-ishóp   [North]: a-ishopó, a-icopó. v.prog. To dress; wear; put on. Néíshop ɨlkɨláni. They wear robes (made of skin). Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɛráí aishóp ɛnkɨlâ ɛnyɛ́ sídáí. The child is wearing his best shirt. (Pk). Néíshóp ɨnkɨ́laní ɛ́nyɛ̀. Their clothes are too big for him. (lit: Their clothes will wear him/her.). Kákè ɛshɛ́tà áàɨ̀tɔ̀bɨ̀ràkɨ̀ intukutukí náàishòpìtò ɛlɛ̂ mʉrraní. The concave shoes that this warrior are wearing are well made. (Pk). Éshóp kɛwɔ́n. He will dress himself (e.g. with effort) (W).

a-ishopó   v.mid. To be dressed, get dressed, dress self. Kéíshíópo nángà. He will put the coat on. (S). Íncopó ɛnkɨlá ɛ́síàì Put on the work clothes.

a-ishopokí   To dress someone. Eishopokíní oshî ilmerégeshi olconí peê mɛ́ɨ́tɨ́ámákɨ́ ɨntarɛ́. The rams are dressed with skin aprons so they don't mate with the sheep.

a-ishoró   v.mid. 1 • v.mid. To be in good/happy moods. Usage: slang. Mɛárɨshɔ olpáyìàn amʉ̂ kéíshorúno dúóó táatá. The man will not beat/fight because he is in good moods today.

2 • v.mid.pl. To give sth. to one another. Ɛgɨ́rà ɨlcɔ́rɛ̀tà áàìshòrò ɨnkashó. The friends are giving to one another a heifer. (Pk).

áà-ìshòrò olesére   To say goodbye.

a-ishú   [West]: a-ishíú. [North]: a-icú. v.s. 1 • To live, be alive. Eishú. He is alive. Kéíshú ɔltʉ́ŋání pɔ́ɔkɨ ɔ́ɨ́rɔ̀. Every person that speaks is alive. (Pk). Íncù. You are alive. (S). Kéícù. [kéytʃù] He is alive. (S). Eshú. It is alive. (W).

2 • To be a good person in everything.

a-ishuushú   To be alive but at the point of death.

a-ɨshʉ́   To finish sth. See: a-ɨ́sh To finish; die.

a-ishúɛ́l   v. To beat with a stick. See: shuɛl The sound made by a stick.

enk-íshúí   n. Life, breath of life. Enkishaákɛ̀ Life is good. See: a-ishú To live.

enk-íshúí intárasí   Eternal life. Usage: Christian. See: enk-ishón Life.

a-ishukushukoó   v. To throw sth. away. See: a-ɨtʉraá To throw away.

a-ishukuún   v.prog. To participate in eating meat one has not participated in contributing. aishukuún ɨlmʉ́rràn To participate in eating meat that belongs to warriors.

a-ishulugó [North]   v.mid. [North] To be isolated. See: a-liyíó To be isolated.

a-ɨshʉnɛ́t   v. To give thanks and honour. See: ɛn-cʉ́nɛ́t Thanks.

a-ishúr   v.s. To go without hurt; be saved. Áíshùr. I will be saved. Áíshúrò tɛ̀ súkùùl. (i) I was successful in school. (W) (ii) I was saved in school (lk)