O - o

(i)nk-akúyiaâ [Purko]   Nom sg: ɔl-ákúyiaâ. Acc pl: ɨl-akúyiaâ. Nom pl: ɨl-ákúyiaâ. [Purko] Nom sg: (i)nk-ákúyiaâ. [West] Acc sg: ɔl-ákùyìàà. [West] Nom sg: ɔl-ákúyìàà. [West] Acc pl: ɨl-ákúí; ɨl-akuyianí. [West] Nom pl: ɨl-ákuyianí. n. 1 • Very old man, grandfather. Ɔlɛ́ ntɨ́pàt âŋ amʉ̂ órè nkakúyiaâ nkakúyiaâ lɛnyɛ́ nɛ́ŋàr kɨ́nà nkákuyiaâ nkakúyiaâ làŋ. He is of our lineage because his great great grandfather was a brother to our great great grandfather. (Pk). Epérítò ɔlákúyìà lâî tɔ̀ lóíp. My grandfather is sleeping under the shade. (W). Éló olákúyìà. The old man will go. (W). Épúó ɨlákuyianí. The old men will go. (W). See: kakúyiaâ Grandfather.

2 • Male grandchild. ɛldɛ́ ákùyìàà that grandson (W). A man may use this word for his grandson, but a woman would not use it for her grandson. A grandchild of either sex may use the word for his or her grandfather. LING: The singular may be used vocatively or referentially. LING: Some speakers use a plural form to refer to a singular referent; others use the plural to refer to ancestors generally. LING: Some speakers do not have the plural prefixed form and use lɔɔ́ kakúyiaâ for 'grandfathers' (K), or ɨlɔɔ́ nkakúyiaâ (Pk)/ ɨlɔ́ɔ nkakúyiaâ.

(ɛ)nk-akúyiaâ   1 • Grandfather.

2 • Granddaughter.

3 • Grandparent (of either gender).

4 • Grandchild (of either gender). See: ɔl-akúí Ancestor; kakúyìà Grandchild (voc).

ɔl-cáŋító [Purko]   Nom sg: ɔl-caŋitó. Acc pl: ɨl-cáŋìt. Nom pl: ɨl-cáŋît. [South] Acc sg: ol-cáŋitó. n. Wild animal (unspecified). Ɛ́ɨ́nɔ́sá dúó ɔlcaŋitó ɔláshê. Some wild animal ate the calf. (Pk). Etym: Proto-Teso-Lotuko-Maa *-tiaŋ- 'animal' (Vossen 1982:326). However, Ehret (p.c.) suggests the stem as found in Maa may be a direct borrowing from South Kalenjin (in particular, from a dialect closely related to Akiee) tɨaaŋ(ta) < tɨɔɔŋ 'wild animal' + ɨt "secondary suffix"; this morpheme combination must have been borrowed as a whole.. See: e-ŋûɛ̂s Animal; ol-owuarú Animal.

ɔl-cargúg [Purko]   Nom sg: ɔl-cárkùk. Acc pl: il-carkukîn. Nom pl: il-cárkùkìn. n. Giraffe. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlcárkúk anyá imbénék ó lcaní. The giraffe is eating leaves of a tree. (Pk). See: e-márà Giraffe; ɔl-mɛʉ́t Giraffe; ɔl-ɔ́ɔ́dɔ́ kɨrragát Giraffe; ɔl-ɔ́ɔ́dɔ́ kɨrragatá Giraffe; shukú lɛrá Giraffe.

ɔ-yɛ́kɛny [Purko]   Nom sg: ɔ-ɛ́kɛ̂ny. Acc pl: ɨ-ekényi. Nom pl: i-ékenyí. [Purko] Nom sg: ɔ-yɛ́kɛ̂ny. n. Baboon. Ɛnapɨ́tà ɔyɛ́kɛ̂ny ɛnkiyîô ɛnyɛ́. The baboon is carrying his baby. (Pk). See: ɔl-tʉ́làl Baboon; [South] ol-kima Baboon; [North] l-ótìm Baboon; [Camus] l-désí Baboon; lɛ́nkʉ́rbàny Baboon.

ol-kúíkúí [Purko]   Nom sg: ol-kuyukúy. Acc pl: il-kuyúkùyì. Nom pl: il-kúyukuyí. n. Puppy, dog. Eguɛnyɨ́tà olkuyukúy olóìtò. The dog is tearing meat off the bone.

en-kuyúkúy   Puppy. See: ol-dîâ Dog.

ɔl-mármàli [Purko]2   Nom sg: ɔl-málmàlì. Acc pl: ɨl-malmálin. Nom pl: ɨl-málmalín. n. Wayward person. See: a-ɨmalɨmál To fool around.

ɔ   Letter representing the Maa mid back non-advanced tongue root vowel /ɔ/.

o   Letter representing the Maa mid back advanced tongue root vowel /o/.

ɔ   Variant: o. conj. Clitic which preceedes time adverbials or the subjunctive m-, to indicate that the main clause event continues until the time or situation indicated by the time adverbial of subjunctive clause event. odúóó until today. ɔ tɛnákatá up until now. Nɛ́mɨr aké ɔmɛ́ɨnɛpʉ. He chased him until he caught up with him. Ɛgɨ́rà arrɛtɛ́n omeéù doí nabô olôŋ néípòtò lɛ́lɔ̂ apʉták. He continued preparing until the day came (that) he called those in-laws.

ɔ̀   prt. Emphatic. Órè siî ɔ̀ nánʉ́ nɛ́mayieu ɨ̀nà álánó. I also do not want that ineptitude. (Pk). LING: The effect of adding ɔ̀ is to emphasize or stress an idea. This sentence is also perfectly grammatical without ɔ̀.

-ô   asp. Plural perfect(ive) aspect suffix. Enkiní mɛ́nɛ́ŋaní ɛnyɛ̂ kítuputô naárrɨ̀ áàɨ̀tàà ɔlaigúɛ́nànì. It was his young man (corpse) that we annointed those days to be the age-set leader. (KS). See: -^ Plural; -a(k) Perfect(ive) aspect.

-o(k)   asp. Allomorph of perfect(ive) aspect suffix. See: -a(k).

   In some suffixed forms: -ɔr. dir. 1 • dir. Motion-away verb suffix.

2 • asp. Distributive aspect. See: -a Away directional.

a-ó   v. 1 • To bleed. Tɛ́ɛ̀nà enetuduŋó ɛnkalɛ́m méítokí awó. Put a bandage on the area that the knife has cut so that it won't keep bleeding. (Pk). Eô táatá. It will bleed (or leak) today. Kéò enkínè. The goat will bleed. Kágɨ́rà aó. I am bleeding. Káɨ́táò ɛnkíné I will make the goat bleed. Kéitáói enkíné. The goat will be made to bleed. Etawê. He has bled.

2 • To leak. Ínyíóò tʉ́mʉ̀rà ɛnkají méítokí awó. Get up and plaster the roof of the house so it won't keep leaking. (Pk).

3 • Blood clot. LING: Some of the inflectional and derivational forms of awó 'to bleed', aokú 'to ripen', and aók 'to drink' are highly alike, if not homophonous. Compare e(w)ó 'He/she will bleed' and eó 'It is ripe'; Kéókù 'It will ripen' and Kéokú 'She will draw (water).'. LING: TM have -wo.

a-woú   To make bleed, tap (a vein). Níwóù ɔsárgɛ́ láí, You tap my blood. (KS). See: a-okú To ripen; a-ok To drink.

e-ó(k)   PL: e-ótò. v. 1 • It is ripe. Eó táatá. It is ripe today. (Pk). Ewó ɛlɛ̂ ŋánayíóî amʉ̂ ɛ́tɔ́dɔ́rɔ́. This fruit has ripened because it is red. Kékù olŋánayíóì The fruit will ripen. (K Pk). Kéókù orŋánayíóî. The fruit will ripen. (-K Pk). Káítòk orŋanayíóî. I will make the fruit ripen. Kéítokí olŋanayíóì. The fruit will be made to ripen.

2 • It is be ready to eat (i.e. fully cooked). Kɛ́wɔ̀. The food is ready. (S). Íntoó ɛndáà. Cook the food until ready. LING: This verb is irregula (i) It inflects only for third person. (ii) The infinitive is akú. Compare: ?ɛgɨ́rà ɛndáâ aó 'The food will bleed' vs. ɛgɨ́rà ɛndáâ akú 'The food is ready' (NOT: 'The food will be ready').

3 • It is fermented, coagulated. Usage: milk. Eótò nɛnâ lɛ̂. That milk is fermented. (W). Órè eotô, ɨ́mpɔshá amʉ̂ kɛ́jɨŋ ɛɨlatá. When it coagulates, shake it because fat will be formed. (KS). The milk is nicely ready to drink; not spoiled. This verb cannot be applied to beer.

4 • It is ready. Usage: bees. Eótò ɨlɔ́tɔ̀rɔ̀k. The bees are ready (to be harvested for honey). (W).

a-okú   To ripen. See: a-kú; a-okú To ripen.

ɔ́1   Nom sg: ɔ́. Acc pl: ɔɔ́. Nom pl: ɔ́ɔ̀. [South] Acc sg: á. psr.prt. 1 • Possessive particle indicating that a following noun is masculine, singular, and the possessor of the immediately preceding noun; of. The possessive (genitive) form codes a range of semantic relations, including ownership, part-whole composing substance, type, partitive... Ɛnɔ́ rkɨ́tɛ́ŋ ɛnâ kɛ́ɛ̀nɛ̀. This leather strap (normal size) belongs to the ox. (Pk). nkâŋ ɔ́ ŋùèsì game reserve (lit: home of beasts). ɛnkɔŋʉ́ ó sitímà Bulb of a torch. emúá tɔrrɔ́nɔ̂ ɔ́ lcaní bad type of tree. ɛmpɔ́lɔ̀s ɔ́ ltʉŋánì the middle (waist) of the person. entíto ɔ́ lpayíán a girl of the man (i.e. the man's daughter).

2 • The possessive particle expresses the relation between a nominalized transitive verb and its object. ɛyɨɛratá ó loshoró cooking of porrige. enturoré ɔ́ ngumót digging of holes. LING: If the preceding possessed item is masculine, the particle is prefixed with l-. ɨlpápɨ́t ló lmelíl hair of the neck. See: Paradigms at; ɛ́ Feminine singular possessive particle; ɔ́ Associative.

ɔ-1   Nom sg: ɔ́-. [West] Acc sg: a-. pn.b rel. Masculine singular relativizer; who. Mɨ́ncɔ̀ kɨ́lɛ́jɨ́, amʉ̂ mɛátà ɔltʉŋánì oyíólò ajó etubúlua dúóó. Do not let anyone deceive you because there is no one who knows when he grows. Lmʉ́rránì otupútuakɨ́ alɛ́. This is the warrior who was woken up. Éíniniŋó ɔlɔɨrɔrɨ́tà. Listen to the one who is speaking. (W). Éíniniŋó ɔlɔɨrɔ́. Listen to the one who is going to speak/who always speaks. (W). ɔldóínyó ɔ́ɨ́bɔrr the white mountain (Mt. Kilimanjaro). Álɔ̂ taá ayíónì áadorú? Which of the (two or more boys) [is the one] who will be taller? (W). See: n- Feminine relativizer; ɔɔ́- Masculine plural relativizer.

ɔ́2   Variant: . prep. 1 • And. Nɛ́yá inkíshú ɛnyɛ̂ ó isirkôn. He took their cows and donkies. Neiriamari nabô ɔlɔ́ŋ ɔlpáyìàn (i)nkíshú ɔ́ esiankíkì ɛnyɛ́. One day, an old man and his newly-wedded bride went to graze cattle. Mmeyíéúní esúnkúrèìshò tiátùà ɛrámátàrɛ̀ ɔ́ ɛ́mbɔ́ɨ́tà. Guile is not wanted in living and working together. (Pk). LING: As the following show, W may shift the High tone of ɔ́ rightward onto a following vowel: kʉnâ tapʉ́kà aré ɔ ɛ́ndà moríjóí these two flowers and that pink one (W). ɨntapʉ́kà aré sapúki olêŋ ɔ ɛ́nkɨtɨ́ nabô two very big flowers and one small one (W). ɨntapʉ́kà aré sikíto sapúki ɔ ɛ́nkɨtɨ́ olêŋ two big yellow flowers and a very small one (W). entíto ɔ́ lpayíán a girl and a man.

2 • Associatve, along with. Ɛshɔmɔ́ ɨlmʉ́rrân áàsòtù ɨmbáà tè wúéjî nɛ́taararɛ̂ ɔ́ lmaŋáti ŋolé. The warriors have gone to collect arrows from where they fought with the enemies yesterday. LING: There is no structural difference between ɔ́ as a 'coordinating conjunction' (Sense 1), and ɔ́ as an 'associative preposition' (Sense 2). LING: ɔ́ often cliticizes to the beginning of any following vowel-initial word. It is always followed by an item in the accusative case. It thus patterns much like the masculine singular possessor particle ɔ́. See: náà And; ɔ́ Masculine possessor.

ɔ-2   Variant: o-. pn.b. North Maa (Samburu) variant of the third person bound pronominal prefix, occurring before stems with back stem-initial vowels; he, she, they. Kóròn nkíshù anapârr. The cows will go without water today. (SN). Kópuonú. They will come. (SN). Kɔ́pʉ́dárɛ́ nanká lpʉrankétì. The cloth/bed sheet is together with the blanket. (SN). See: ɛ- Third person bound pronominal prefix.

ɔ aashʉ̂   conj. Alternative conjunction; or. See: aashʉ̂ Or.

ɔ m-   conj. Adverbial subordinate conjunction indicating extent; until. Kéruk ɨlMaasáɨ́ ɛntálɨ́pá ɛ papaí linó o menóto ewúéjì neiŋúaa apá Maasai scrutinize the historical background of your father until they find the place he was from. (KS).

ɔárè   [ɔáárè] num. Two (Masculine). ɨltʉ́ŋánák ɔárè two people. See: aárè Two (Masculine).

obô   Nom sg: óbo. 1 • num. One (masculine). Eyéwùò dúóó oltúkútùk ónàpɨ̀tà ɔlpayíán obô. A motor-cycle that was carrying one man came. (Pk).

2 • pn. One (masculine). Ádɔ́lɨ́tà kʉlɔ̂ payianí ɔárè tasáti ɔ́ ɛ́ldɛ̀ obô. I see these two old men and that one. (W).

nabô   One (feminine).

k-ɔ́bɔ́ɨ́tà ɔ́ŋʉ̀ [North]   adj. [North] Polite word to refer to a person who uses only one eye after the other one has been damaged or removed. Usage: euphemistic. See: a-boitá To be with; ɔl-ɔkúrtò ɔ́ŋʉ̀ Person with damaged eye; ɛnk-ɔŋʉ́ Eye.

l-obolkíìk [North]   n. [North] Dung-beetle.

l-obolkík [North]   n. [North] Beetle.

ɔl-ɔbɔrʉ́ ɛn-kɛɛnɛ́   Nom sg: ɔl-ɔ́bɔrʉ́ ɛn-kɛɛnɛ́. [North] Acc sg: l-abarʉ́ nkɛɛnɛ́. n. Leader; s.o. who unifies a group. The ɔl-ɔbɔrʉ́ ɛn-kɛɛnɛ́ is chosen prior to the e-únótó ceremony and is honored with a knotted leather strap that symbolizes his age set. By the end of warriorhood, this knot will be untied to free the warriors from their isolated world and enable them to do things independently without other age mates. See: ol-otunó Age-group leader.

ɔl-ɔbɔrʉ́ ŋɔtɔnyɛ́   n. One who is cunning. Táàrà ɔlɔbɔrʉ́ ŋɔtɔnyɛ́. Dodge it cunningly/Fight using your imagination. (lit: Fight (like) one who is mother-carved.). Even if one is not as strong as someone else, by using his brain he may still win. The expression ɔlɔbɔrʉ́ ŋɔtɔnyɛ́ is perhaps most likely to be used when there is some opposition. The opposition need not be physical, but is one where one needs to use his mind. See: a-bɔ́r To cut; ŋɔ́tɔ́nyɛ́ Mother.

a-óC   v. To beat, hit. See: a-ósh.

ol-ódí   Nom sg: ol-ódi. n. Plastic bungle put on the wrist of the arm and also be broken to fit into the earlobe. Kényokíé olódi ɔaata enkáyíóní té nkíok The bungle the boy has on his ear is red. See: bánkílì.

l-odidíóí [North]   n. [North] Barbet.

l-ɔdɔ́ [North]   n. [North] Blood. Etym: Internal reconstruction and a-dɔ́-rʊ̀ for Lokoya (Vossen 1982ː411) suggests earlier *dɔr, though Vossen gives Proto-Lotuko-Maa *-dɔ- 'be red' (Vossen 1982:411).. See: ɔ-sárgɛ́ Blood; a-adɔ́ To be red.

ɔl-ɔdɔ́(r)   n. 1 • The one (masc) that is red.

2 • Tea without milk.

l-ɔ́dɔ̀ [North]   n. [North] Type of song sang by old men. See synonyms at: See: [North] l-aparasíyíó Type of song sung by somen.

ɔl-ɔdɔ́ lɛ́ nkɔ̀p   n. 1 • The abyss; endless pit believed to exist at the furthest point under the earth.

2 • The place one talks about sending an item when it has died or when one is fed-up with it. Usage: derog. See: e-úlulû Bottomless pit, valley.

ɔl-ɔdɔ́ nk-ajijík   Place where one can drink alcoholic beverages.

l-ɔ́dɔ́ŋɨ́dɔ́ŋ   Nom sg: l-ɔdɔŋɨdɔ́ŋ. Acc pl: l-odoŋidoŋí. Nom pl: l-ódoŋidoŋí. n. Wooden bell for goats. See: ol-túálá Bell.

ol-odoo   n. Noise. See: o-róréí Word; ɔ-lɔlɛpɨlɛpɨ́ Noise; l-oilɛmɨlɛmɨ́ [North] Noise; ol-buaá Harrangue.

ol-odúá   n. 1 • Bile; bodypart. Náà ɨ́nâ mueyíán apá náàwá ɨltʉ́ŋáná kúmòk olêŋ aláŋ olodúá ó làmèyù. ... and that was the disease that killed many people, more than rinderpest and drought.

2 • Rinderpest.

ol-ogól   n. 1 • Main fire log used to sustain a fire; log cut to length for burning.

2 • Branches for closing the gate. See: ol-tím Branches for closing the gate; leŋótì Main fire log.

ol-ogól tîm   [òlòɡól tìm] n. Species of tree with very hard branches; used to close the gate for cows.

ɛnk-ogó́ŋì   n. Being easily angered.

l-ɔɨbákunóì [North]   Nom sg: l-ɔ́ɨ́bákunóì. n. [North] Jealousy, envy. See: o-lôm Jealousy.

ol-oibónì   Nom sg: ol-óíbònì. Variant: ol-óíbóní. Acc pl: il-oibónòk. Nom pl: il-óíbònòk. Variant: ɔibónɨ̀; aibónì. n. 1 • Ritual expert, medicine man, prophet, diviner who has the highest rank in Maasai society. Ɛshɔmɔ́ ɨlmʉ́rrán oloibónì mɛtámayɨanɨ. The warriors have gone to the fortune-teller to be blessed. Eibónítò olóíbònì ɔlárràbàl. The diviner is divining the war. (W). An oloibónì is a man of about fifty years of age who has the highest rank in society because he is believed to have supernatural powers to heal, bless, undo witchcraft, and to mediate between God and man. The main functions of an ol-oibónì are: 1. Making predictions; 2. Advising and blessing warriors with regards to the success of their battles; 3. Concocting and undoing curses: If someone is cursed, ol-oibónì can figure out who made the curse, and what action the person should take to undo it, or he can give out medicine to cure the curse; 4. Searching for the cause of diseases that are especially challenging. He ascribes his position from his deceased father and will maintain it until he passes it on to his eldest son just before his death. The Maasai may have only one or two oloibónì at a time, and every section of the Maasai will visit him at certain days of the month. Ol-oibónì is no longer very powerful, but in previous years he was the most prominent person in Maasai society. Still nowadays, warriors will not go to war without first consulting with ol-oibónì. Also, other people will go to see ol-oibónì: If someone cannot understand the cause for something that has happened, or wants to know what might happen in the future, he will go to ol-oibónì, who will give him magic/explanation, or ɛn-áíbón. Ol-oibónì can explain why there is a problem, or who placed a curse on the individual (ɛn-áíbón). He can also possibly explain why another person placed a curse on that individual, and what the person should do to get the curser to undo his curse. He is also known to curse if consulted to do so. He will only be able to perform his duties under the influence of alcohol. His consultation fee is always paid in form of cows (usually 49). In traditional Maasai society there have been and still are famous ink-oibónòk, as for instance Sekenan, who lived near Magadi. Il-oibónòk use en-kidoŋ (calabashes) to carry small objects used in divination.

enk-oibónì   Prophetess. Li oibónì! O ritual expert! See: a-ibón To exercise the office of ritual expert; en-kídòŋ Calabash; ɔl-abáànì Healer; ol-kuyantiki Self-proclaimed healer.

ol-óíbòrr   n. European. This is lexicalized to refer specifically to skin-color (hence, ethnicity), and not for white objects generally.

ɔl-ɔ́ɨ́bɔ́rr árɛ̀   Acc pl: ɨl-ɔ́ɨ́bɔ́rr aríák. n. A month in the Maasai calendar (around August?) during which the rain water is mostly clear and has foam. Tɔlápá apá lólóíbórr árɛ̀ apá ɛtɔɨ́shɔ̀tɛ̀ intaré âŋ. It was in the month of August??? that our sheep and goats gave birth. (Pk).

ɔl-ɔ́ɨ́bɔ́rr-benek   n. Species of tree with white leaves, whose underside are a pale, silvery colour. croton megalocarpus.

ɔl-ɔ́ɨ́bɔ́rr-bukushi   Acc pl: ɨl-ooiborr-bukushin. n. Knee-bone.

ɔl-ɔ́ɨ́bɔ́rr-kɨdɔŋɔɨ   n. dog.ACC.

1 • Wild dog, hunting dog. lycaon pictus.

2 • White-tailed mongoose. ichneumia albicauda.

ɔl-ɔ́ɨbɔ́rr-kínèjì   n. Samburu person. See: il-pusi-kineji Samburu people.

ɔl-ɔ́ɨ́bɔ́rr-kɨpa   n. Type of grass which contains a whitish milky substance.

ɔl-ɔ́ɨ́bɔ́rr-kume   n. Donkey.

l-ɔ́ɨ́bɔ́rr-kʉ́rʉ̀m [North]   Nom sg: l-ɔ́ɨ́bɔ́r-kʉ́rɨ̀m. Acc pl: l-ɔɔ́ɨ́bɔ́r-kúrúmì. Nom pl: l-ɔ́ɔ́ɨ́bɔ́r-kúrúmî. n. [North] Type of zebra. See: ol-óítíkó Zebra; ɔl-kánká Type of zebra.

ɔl-ɔ́ɨ́bɔ́rr-kʉtʉk   n. Roan antelope. hippotragus equinus.

ɔl-ɔɨbɔrr-lʉ́kʉ́nyá   n. 1 • White-crowned shrike. eurocephalus rueppelli.

2 • Old man; a white- or gray-haired person. See: ol-oiborlʉ́kʉ́nyá White-crowned shrike.

ɔl-ɔ́ɨ́bɔ́rr-murt   n. Fish-eagle; species of bird. cuncuma vocifer.

ɔl-ɔ́ɨ́bɔ́rr-nyaalati   n. Type of meat.

ɛnk-ɔ́ɨ́bɔ́rr-siadí   Nom sg: ɛnk-ɔɨbɔ́rr-siadí. Acc pl: ɨnk-ɔɔ́ɨ́bɔ́rr-siadín. Nom pl: ɨnk-ɔ́ɔɨbɔ́rr-siadín. n. Antelope species. gazella grantii. Syn: enk-olií antelope.

ɔl-ɔ́ɨ́bɔ́rr-tuli   n. Thomson gazelle. gazella thomsonii.

ɛnk-ɔɨbɔtɨ́   Nom sg: ɛnk-ɔ́ɨ́bɔtɨ́. Acc pl: ɨnk-ɔɨbɔtɨ̂n. Nom pl: ɨnk-ɔ́ɨ́bɔtɨ̂n. n. 1 • White soil.

2 • Dam. See: l-págàs White soil.

ɔl-ɔɨbúrukúshì   Nom sg: ɔl-ɔ́ɨ́búrukúshì. Acc pl: ɨl-ɔɨbúrukúsh. Nom pl: ɨl-ɔ́ɨ́búrukúsh. n. Knee cap. See: em-bukushi knee cap; ɛn-kʉ́ŋʉ́ knee.

ɔl-ɔɨdɛ́ɛ̀m   n. Illness marked by fever, flu, or cold-like symptoms.

ɔl-ɔɨdɨ́   Nom sg: ɔl-ɔ́ɨdɨ́. Acc pl: ɨl-ɔɔ́ɨ̀dɨ̀. Nom pl: ɨl-ɔ́ɔ̀ɨ̀dɨ̀. n. High jump. Ɛɨdɨ́ ɔlɔɨdɨ́ tɛ̀ súkuúl. A high-jump is jumped in school. Mɛ́ɨ́dɨ̀m ɔltʉ́ŋání ómùèì aɨ́dà ɔlɔɨdɨ́. A sick person can not be able to jump over a high-jump. See: a-ɨ́d To jump over.

ol-oidikidíkoré   n. Pointing finger; toe next to big toe.

ol-oidólokî [South]   Variant: ol-aidólòkì. Nom sg: ol-óídólokî. Acc pl: il-oidólòk. Nom pl: il-óídolók. [North] Acc sg: l-oidólokî. n. 1 • [South] One of the two protruding bony structures on each side of a human beings ankle.

2 • [South] Elbow. Syn: ol-ouré kokóyò. See: e-múrt ɛ́ŋ-kɛ̀jʉ̀ Ankle; ɛ-rʉbatá ɛ́n-kɛ̀jʉ̀ Ankle; [North] l-aibeláì Ankle; ɔl-ɔpɨ́ lɛ́ ntákùlè Elbow.

ol-oidólol   Nom: ol-óídolól. Nom sg: ol-óídòlòl. PL: il-oidololí. Nom pl: il-óídololí. [Purko] Acc sg: ol-óídólùl. n. Elbow. Káayá ɛntákúlè mmɛ̂ ilkímojìk anáà olóídolól. My forearm hurts, not the fingers or the elbow. (Pk). See: ɔl-aidólokî Elbow; ɔ-lɛ́ sáɨ́nká Elbow; en-kikokúá Elbow; ɛn-tákùlè Elbow; rʉbát Elbow.

l-ɔɨgʉyʉgʉyárì [North]   Nom sg: l-ɔ́ɨ́gʉyʉgʉyárì. Acc pl: l-ɔɔ́ɨ́gʉyʉgʉyárì. Nom pl: l-ɔ́ɔɨgʉyʉgʉyárì. n. [North] Tortoise. See: ol-óíkúmá Tortoise; a-ɨgʉyʉgʉyarí To move slowly.

óíjìè   The stage of a female animal or woman just after they have given birth; maybe as long as a month. See: en-tómónisho Postpartum stage.

ɔl-ɔɨjɨ́lɨ́lɨ́   Nom sg: ɔl-ɔɨjɨlɨlɨ́. n. Drop of liquid.

l-óíjùk [North]   Nom sg: l-oijúk. n. [North] Small fire lit beside the normal big fire for roasting meat. See: ɛn-kɨ́má fire.

l-oikár [North]   n. [North] Meat eating place for warriors.

ɨl-ɔ́ɨ́kɔ̀p   Nom pl: ɨl-ɔ́ɨ́kɔ̂p. n.pl. 1 • Guilt of murder; the result of a-sesekúán. Kɛátà ɨlɔ́ɨ́kɔ̀p. He is guilty of murder. LING: ɨl-ɔ́ɨ́kɔ̀p is plural because the responsibility for paying for a murder belongs to a whole clan. Normally, 49 cows are to be paid to the family of a murdered individual. This crime can only occur between Maasai or perhaps even Maa-speakers. Only when a Maasai kills another Maasai do they speak of murder.

2 • Death.

3 • Taboo. aata lɔ́ɨ́kɔ̀p to have committed murder to be in a state of guilt or taboo on account of murder. Aitayio lɔ́ɨ́kɔ̀p I committed murder. alák ɨlɔ́ɨ́kɔ̀p to pay for a crime, to compensate for a crime. Syn: ɨn-kɨrrɔ́. See: a-ɨkɔ́p To touch, hit, hurt; ɔl-ɔ́ɨ́kɔ́paní Murderer; in-kíshú ɔɔ́ n-kɨrrɔ́ Cows given in compensation for murder.

ɔl-ɔ́ɨ́kɔ́paní   n. Murderer. See: ɔl-áɨ́kɔ́paní ???; a-ɨkɔ́p To hurt, harm.

ɔl-ɔ́ɨ́kʉ́lʉ́   Nom sg: ɔl-ɔɨkʉlʉ́. n. Part of meat from the chest (between the front legs of) an animal after it has been cooked. It is usually eaten by boys. See: en-kiyíéú Part of animal between the front legs.

ol-oikúlùò   Nom sg: ol-óíkùlùò. n. Vapor that appears on the ground surface when the sun is hot. See: lɛ-kɨ́mà Vapor.

ol-óíkúmá   Nom sg: ol-oikumá. Acc pl: il-oikúmaishi. Nom pl: il-óíkumaishí. n. Tortoise. See: [North] l-ɔɨgʉyʉgʉyárì Tortoise.

ɔl-ɔɨlɛ́lɛɛ̂   Nom sg: ɔl-ɔ́ɨ́lɛ́lɛɛ̂. Acc pl: ɨl-ɔɨlɛ́lɛ̀k. Nom pl: ɨl-ɔ́ɨ́lɛ̀lɛ̀k. [West] Acc sg: ɔl-ɔɨlɛ́lɛ̀ɛ̀. Variant: ɔl-ɔ́ɨ́lɛ́lɛɛ before full stop; ɔl-ɔ́ɨ́lɛ́lɛɛ́ non-phrase final (W). [North] Acc sg: l-ailéleê. n. The lower part of an animal leg, between hoof or foot and first joint; first part of animal that normally emerges during birth; foreleg. Usage: four-legged animal. Mɛ́ɛ̀ sídáí ɔlɔ́ɨ́lɛ́lɛɛ́ lɛ́ nkɨ́tɛ́ŋ. [ɱɛ́ɛ̀ sídáí ɔ̀lɔ́ɪ́lɛ́lɛ̀ɛ́ lɛ́ŋkɪ̀tɛ̀ŋ] The foreleg of the cow is not good. (W). See: ol-oisónkoróì Hoof; l-wuatán lɛ́ nkɛjʉ́ [North] Lower part of the leg; l-ailéleê [North] Foreleg.

enk-óíléló   Nom sg: enk-oileló. Acc pl: ink-óílèlò. Nom pl: in-óílélò. n. Oval bead, about 3 mm. long. Ádɔ́lɨ́tà ɛndá óíléó. I see that oval bead. (W).

l-oilɛmɨlɛmɨ́ [North]   [Chamus] Acc sg: kɨlɛ́mɨ́lɛ̀m. n. [North] Spoken "noise" See: n-kɨlɛ́mɨ́lɛ̀m [Chamus] Noise; o-róréí Word, noise; ɔl-ɔlɛpɨlɛpɨ́ Noise; ol-odoo Noise; ol-buaá Noise.

l-oiliâî [North]   n. [North] Wild species of euphobia, found in northern Kenya. This plant excretes a poisonous milky sap, and is commonly used for hedges.

enk-oilií   Nom sg: enk-óílií. Acc pl: ink-oiliîn. Nom pl: ink-óíliîn. n. Gazelle. Ɛgɨ́rà enkóílií apɛrá tanáktá. The gazelle is pronking right now. (PK). For km, enkóílií could be either Grant's or Thompson's gazelle.

ɔl-ɔɨlɨ́lâî   Nom sg: ɔl-ɔ́ɨ́lɨlâɨ̂. Acc pl: ɨl-ɔɨlɨ́la. Nom pl: ɨl-ɔ́ɨ́lɨlá. n. Shoulder. See: o-rôny Shoulder.

ol-óílólé   Nom sg: ol-oilólé. n. 1 • Bustle.

2 • Business.

ɔl-ɔinyaŋɨ́   n. Market. See: ɔl-mʉnándà Marketplace.

ol-oiŋáŋɛ̀   Nom sg: ol-óíŋàŋɛ̀. n.sg. Sky; heaven. Mɛ́shâ amʉ̂ metíi ɨnkátàmpò oloiŋáŋɛ̀. It will not rain because the clouds are not in the sky. See: a-ɨŋáŋ To feint.

ol-oiŋaránɛ̀   n. 1 • Person who is stranded.

2 • An isolated place. See: a-ɨŋaraná To be stranded.

ɔl-ɔɨŋɔ́nɨ̀   [Sometimes pronounced with two moras on first stem syllable.]  Nom sg: ɔl-ɔ́ɨ́ŋɔ́nɨ́. Acc pl: ɨl-ɔɨŋɔ́k. Nom pl: ɨl-ɔɨŋɔ́k. [West] Acc pl: ɨl-oiŋkók. [North] Acc sg: l-aɨŋɔ́nɨ̀. [Chamus] Acc sg: aiŋónì. n. 1 • Bull. Ɛɛ́ta ɔlɔ́ɨ́ŋɔ́nɨ́ ɨmɔ́wúárák sapúki. The bull has big horns. Ɛ́tʉ́pʉ́shá ɛlɛ́ ɔ́ɨ́ŋɔ́nɨ́; ɛgɨ́rà aitiamakɨ́ inkíshú. This bull has been rutting; it is mounting on cows. (Pk). Nɛ́mɨ̀r ɨ̀lɔ̀ lɨkáɨ ɔɨŋɔ́nɨ̀ básì nélótú aɨtɔrɛ́ inkíshú. He (a bull) chased that other bull, then he came to rule the cows. (W).

2 • Powerful person.

3 • [North] Deceased warrior.

4 • Charm.

ɛnk-ɔɨŋɔ́nɨ̀   Bullock. See: il-móŋí Oxen; ɔl-kɨ́tɛ́ŋ Ox; ɛnk-óíŋónó Powerfulness; being bull-like; ɛ-masáɨtâ Dead man.

l-ɔɨŋɔ́nɨ̀ lɛ́ nkárɛ́ [North]   Nom sg: l-ɔ́ɨ́ŋɔ́nɨ́ lɛ́ nkáré. n. [North] Leading edge of flowing water. See: ɛnk-árɛ́ Water; ɛn-dʉkʉ́yà ɛ́ nkárɛ́ Leading front of flowing water.

ɛnk-óíŋónó   n. 1 • Powerfulness; quality of being bull-like.

2 • Constructiveness, rationality. Níákú óre ɨnkɛ́ra ɔɔ́ lMáásâɨ̂, eymáá ɨmbáa kúmok énkishón; iné mármálisho ɔ́ nɛ́ nkoiŋono. So Maasai children, do pass through many things in their lives, both careless and constructive (or rational). See: ol-oiŋónì Bull.

ol-óìp   Nom sg: ol-óîp. Variant: ol-óíp. [three moras [òlóíp]]  Acc pl: ɨl-oípi. Nom pl: ɨl-óipí. n. 1 • Shadow, shade. Epérítò ɔlákúíyìà lâî tɔ̀ lóíp. My grandfather is sleeping under the shade. (W).

2 • Politeness.

ɔl-ɔɨpaŋɨ́   Nom sg: ɔl-ɔ́ɨ́paŋɨ́. Acc pl: ɨl-ɔɔ́ɨ́pàŋɨ̀. Nom pl: ɨl-ɔ́ɔ̀ɨ̀pàŋɨ̀. n. Up-hill. See: ɛnk-ɔ́shɔ̀kɛ̀ Hill side.

ɛnk-ɔ́ɨ́pɨ́láí   Nom sg: ɛnk-ɔɨpɨláí. Acc pl: ɨnk-ɔɨpɨlaní. Nom pl: ɨnk-ɔ́ɨ́pɨlaní. n.pl. Ornament of beads sewn in thin threads and coiled together in groups of four, worn by warriors across their bodies, hanging from one shoulder to the hip on the other side of the body. See: a-ɨpɨ́l To twist; en-kerî Beads ornament.

ol-óíríén   Nom sg: ol-oiríén. Acc pl: il-óíríénìtò. Nom pl: il-oiríénìtò. n. 1 • Olive tree; the wood resembles that of ebony; found in the Olóíríén region.

2 • Highly vegetated and rocky region located in southeastern Maasailand, historically occupied by the Il-Kaputiei section but also used for grazing by the Il-Kisonko, Il-Matapato, and Il-Kankere, particularly during periods of drought. In 1995 this region was named the "Makueni division" by the Kenyan government. See: [North] l-ŋérríyíóí Olive tree.

ɔl-ɔɨrírua   Acc pl: il-oiriruaní. Nom pl: il-óíriruaní. [West] Acc sg: ol-óírirúá. n. 1 • Devil (just one single one); not a traditional Maasai concept as an "individual". NOT the same as "Satan". But an evil influence.

2 • Evil spirit; jin. Ɛɨbʉ́ŋá Jôn olóírirúá, nériki enetíi ɔláɨ́tɔ́bɨ́rání peê epúéí áàɨ̀tɔ̀bɨ̀r. Jon became mad (crazy); then he was taken to the healer so that he could be healed. (W). Ɛɨbʉ́ŋà ɨnkɛ́rà ilóíriruaní. The children became mad. (W). Kɛ́ɛ́tà oloirírua. He has an evil spirit (he is possessed). He has gone mad (insane). LING: An individual always has a singular ɔl-ɔɨrírua. Also, one "has" ol-oirúrua. Some Maasai believe that when someone is "mad", there is an evil spirit. Others say that one who behaves psychotically might or might not have ɔl-ɔɨrírua. See: ɔl-mɛ́nɛ́ŋaní Ghost, spirit; milika Ghost.

ɔl-ɔɨrɔ́bɨ̀   Nom sg: ɔl-ɔ́ɨ́rɔ̀bɨ̀. n.sg. Common cold. See: a-ɨrɔbɨ́ To be cold; ɔl-kɨ́rɔ́bɨ̂ Common cold.

enk-oirujúrujî   Nom sg: enk-óírújúrujî. Acc pl: ink-oirujurujiní. Nom pl: ink-óírujurujiní. [West] Acc sg: enk-oirujúrùj. n. 1 • Drizzles.

2 • Short rains. See: nk-atipítipî Drizzles.

ɔl-ɔɨrʉjʉ́rrʉ̀j   n. Short rains; drizzle?

ɔl-ɔɨrrág lɛ nkarɛ2   Nom sg: ɔlɔ́ɨ́rrâg lɛ́ nkárɛ́. n. Flood. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlɔ́ɨ́rrâg lɛ́ nkárɛ́ amitikí ɨltʉ́ŋáná ɛɨ́m enkusérò. The floods are preventing people from passing the plains. (Pk). See: a-ɨrrág To lie down; ɛnk-érɛ́ Water, river.

oirraga   n. Type of tree.

ol-oirrírrì   n. Lizard. See: ɔl-mɔkúà Lizard; ɛm-pɨ̀rr Lizard; n-karipô Lizard; l-mɛlɛlɛ Lizard.

l-oisápà [North]   n.pl. [North] Type of star(s)?; constellation? See: ɔl-ákɨ́rá Star; enk-ókúáí The Pleiades.

ol-oisónkorói   Nom sg: ol-óísónkorói. Acc pl: il-oisónkoró. Nom pl: il-óísónkoró. n. Hoof. oloisónkoróí lɛ́ mbarta the hoof of a horse. oloisónkorói lɛ́ nkɨtɛŋ hoof of a cow.

enk-oisónkorói   Small hoof. Usage: (contemptuous). See: ol-oisótoô Fingernail.

ol-oisótoô   Nom sg: ol-óísótoô. Acc pl: ɨl-oisótòk. Nom pl: ɨl-óísòtòk. [North] Acc sg: l-aisótòk. [North] Acc sg: ais'ótòô. n. 1 • Hard material which grows at the ends of digits (fingers, toes), or for an animal on the end of the leg; claw, nail, hoof. Étúdúŋó ŋɔtɔnyɛ́ ɛnkɛráí iloisótòk. The mother has trimmed the child's fingernails. Órè pɔɔkɨ́ kimojínò nɛ́ɛ̀tà oloisótoô. Every finger/toe has a nail. (Pk).

enk-oisótoô   Small fingernail. Usage: (contemptuous). See: ol-oisónkoróì Hoof.

ɔl-ɔɔsʉ́ɨ́sʉ̀ɨ̀   [North] Acc sg: l-oisúisúì. [North] Acc sg: sʉ́súì. [Chamus] Acc sg: asʉ́ʉ̀sʉ̀ɨ̀. n. Soldier-ant, black ant. See: l-pʉrá Red ant.

oisuki   n. Type of plant, found in the Olóíríén region.

l-oisúsúì [North]   [North] Acc pl: l-oisúsù. [North] Nom pl: l-óísùsù. n. [North] Fleas. See: ɨl-pɨ́dɨlá Fleas.

l-ɔɨshámunóì [North]   n. [North] Sincere love. Kɛ́átà lɔɨshámunóì. He/she is lovable. (S). See: a-shám To love; a-nyɔ́r To love; ɛ-nyɔ́rrátá Love.

ɔl-ɔɨshɨmɨ́   Nom sg: ɔl-ɔ́ɨ́shɨmɨ́. Acc pl: ɨl-ɔɔ́ɨ́shɨ̀mɨ̀. Nom pl: ɨl-ɔ́ɔ̀ɨ̀shɨ̀mɨ̀. [North] Acc sg: l-aɨshɨmɨ́. n. 1 • [West] Part of a bone (e.g. hip bone) that, when cooked, is chewable. Kétii ɔlɔɨshɨmɨ́ entolít nányɔ̀r ɨnkáyìòk áàtànyààl. In the hip-bone there is marrow that boys like to chew.

2 • [West] Sugarcane.

3 • [West] Type(s) of tree with leaves or young branches that people chew and chew.

4 • [North] Tree whose stem is used to make containers, e.g. gourds for milk. See: ɔl-aɨshɨmɨ́ Bone part.

ɔl-ɔɨshɔ́rʉ̀ ɛnkárná ólpórrôr ɔ́lají   n. The one who gives out the name to the rest of the age group. This individual always comes from the Kisongo in Tanzania. He is selected and travels to all other areas of Maasai land to announce the name, after the last unification ceremony for the age set [half-age set?].

ol-oishúnyìè   n.r. Deceased person; one who has passed away.

ol-Óítáí   Nom sg: ol-oitaí. Acc pl: il-óítàì. Nom pl: il-óítáì. n.prop. 1 • Member of the Loita Maasai. The il-óítàì are one of the il-oshôn 'sections' of the Maasai in Kenya.

enk-Óítáí   Woman from il-óítàì section.

il-Óítàì li óŋátá   n.prop. Loita Maasai of the plain.

il-Óítàì lo supuko   n.prop. Loita Maasai of the highland.

nk-óítéí [North]   n. [North] Path. See: enk-óítóí Path.

ol-óítíkó   Nom sg: ol-oitikó. Acc pl: il-oitíkoishi. Variant: il-oitíkoishî. Nom pl: il-óítikoishí. n. Zebra. equus grevyi, equus burchelli. The meat of the zebra is oily and may have a nauseating effect. iloitíkoishi ɔáárè two zebras (W). Ayíéú iloitíkoishi ɛatáɨ isirkôn? Do I want zebras while there are donkeys? Nérukúnyìè aké ilóítikoishí Zebras just came out.

nk-otiko   Acc pl: nk-otikoshi. Female zebra. See: [North] l-ɔ́ɨ́bɔ́rr-kʉ́rʉ̀m Type of zebra; ɔl-kánká Type of zebra.

nk-óítìŋ [North]   Nom sg: nk-óítîŋ. Acc pl: nk-óítiŋí. Nom pl: nk-óitiŋí. [North] Gourd made of wood for milking.

ol-óìtò [Purko]   Nom sg: ol-oitó. Acc pl: il-óìk. Nom pl: il-óîk. n. 1 • Bone. Kɛ́nyɔ́r oldíà ainɔ́sà ilóík oótoitô A dog likes eating dry bones. Etútúró ɨ́ná kítòk ɛnkʉ́rárɛ̀ aitayú ilóìk peê èyà aló asakutushoré. That woman has dug the grave to remove the bones to use them to do witchcraft. (W).

enk-óito   1 • Small bone.

2 • Emaciated cow; worthless cow. Usage: contemptuous.

l-óìk lɛ́ nkóríóŋ   Backbone, bones of the back.

enk-óítóí   Nom sg: enk-oitóí. Acc pl: ɨnk-óítoí. Nom pl: ɨnk-óítoí. [North] Acc sg: nk-oitéí. n. 1 • Path. Máapé elótótó (safari) enkóítóí, népúó aké, népúó aké, népúó aké,.... Let's go for a journey, path, they went, they went, they went,.... Ɨ́mbʉŋá ɛnâ óítóí amʉ̂ nɨnyɛ́ nékírík enetií ilótòròk. Follow this path because it leads you to where the bees are. (W).

2 • Road, way, route. Órè taá amʉ̂ ɛ́kɨpɨ́k embénéyíó enkóítóí. Because we are going to put a leaf on the route [you will be able to follow us].

3 • Means or way of achieving something. Káɨ́ŋɔ́rʉ̀ enkóítóí nátúmíé iropiyianí. I will look for a way to get the money. See: o-rrékíé Path; ɔl-bárɨ́bárà Road; munyororo Road.

oitokitoki   n.pl. Name of a Maasai section; often referred to as Loitokitok. See: ol-oshô Section.

oitoríórì   adj. Truthful. ɔltʉŋánì oitoríórì person who tells the truth, speaks straight. See: aɨsɨ́pànì Truthful; a-dʉ́pà To be reliable.

ol-oitútùò   [North] Acc sg: l-ɔɨtʉ́tɔ̀. n. Down-hill.

ol-óíyìòtè   n. Last tooth (teeth) to errupt, at about age 18; wisdom tooth. This erruption is very painful.

a-ój   v. 1 • To rub.

2 • To scratch. A-ój could be used for scratching an itch. See: a-jút To rub; a-sɨ́k To rub; a-mún To scratch.

ojé   Nom sg: ójé. Acc pl: oóje. adj. A certain one (masc). Tenémetíi ɔsɨratá ló ltóíló ojé... If there is no mark of a certain sound (tone)... Kélotú ɔltʉ́ŋání ójé aɨtajéú apá tɛ̀ moitíé. A certain person is coming to save them forever. (KS).

najé   Certain (fem). Acc pl: naáje ???. Nom pl: Certain ones (fem). entíto najé a certain girl. intóyíé naáje Certain girls.

e-ojét   Nom sg: e-ójet. Acc pl: i-ojétà. Nom pl: i-ójètà. n. 1 • Comb.

2 • Scratcher. See: a-ój scratch.

l-ɔjɛ́tà [North]   n. [North] Corner, bend. See: a-lɔ́j To create a corner no a house, road, etc..

ojî   n. The one who is named, known as (something). LING: If it is indeed the passive morpheme here, then in this case the phonology is different than with adding the passive to other vowel-final verb roots. E.g. ɛlɔ́ɨ́ 'It is spread'. See: a-jó To say.

ɔl-ɔjɔŋánì   Nom sg: ɔl-ɔ́jɔ́ŋání. Acc pl: ɨl-ɔjɔŋá(k). Nom pl: ɨl-ɔ́jɔ̀ŋà(k). [West] Acc sg: ɔl-ɔjɔŋɔni. [North] Acc sg: l-ajɨŋá. [Chamus] Acc sg: l-ɔjɔŋɔ́nì. n. Fly.

ɛnk-ɔjɔŋánì   Nom sg: ɛnk-ɔ́jɔ́ŋání. Acc pl: ɨnk-ɔjɔŋá(k). Nom pl: ɨnk-ɔ́jɔ̀ŋà(k).

kajɨŋánɨ̀ [North]  

kɔjɔŋɔ́nì [North]   1 • Mosquito.

2 • Malaria. .

a-ók   v.prog. 1 • To drink (liquid). Éók ɨnkɛ́rá kʉlɛ́ Children drink milk. Kéók ɛntasât ɛnkárɛ́. The woman will drink the water. (Pk). Áyieu náok kʉlɛ́. I want to drink milk. Íyieu níok kʉlɛ́. You want to drink milk. Eyíéú néòk kʉlɛ́. He wants to drink milk. Kíiyíéú níkìòk kʉlɛ́. We want to drink milk. Áaɨshɔɔ́ náají ɔlashʉmpáí ɛntarubínì ɛnyɛ́ maɨŋórìè ɨltɔmíá oóòkìtò ɛnkárɛ́. The European gave me his binoculars to observe elephants drinking water. Ɨncɔɔ́kɨ̀ ɛndâ kɨlásì matoókìè ɛnkárɛ́. Give me that glass that I may drink water with it. Olkékún lâŋ táatá peê eokishó inkíshù olinyî táaisérè. It is our turn today for our cows to drink (water) and tomorrow is yours. Inkó tóòkò kʉlɔ̂ keék peê ínciu. Take these medicines and drink so that you can heal. (lit: Take drink these trees so that you heal/get well.). Tóòkò! Drink it!

2 • To smoke (pipe, cigarette). aók osigárà/olmotí to smoke a cigarette/pipe. LING: The perfect(ive)/subjunctive form for this Class I verb is irregular in not taking the suffix -a(k): Ɛ́ɨ́dɨ́pá aké ilMáʉwanɨ́ áàtòòk kʉlɛ́. The il-Mauwani have just finished the taking-of-milk ceremony. (lit: The il-Mauwani have just finished drinking milk.).

a-okoó   1 • To keep on drinking, e.g one liquid after another.

2 • To drink as someone is moving away.

a-okokí   To draw for/into.

a-okú   1 • To draw liquid. Kéokú ɛntásât ɛnkárɛ́. The woman will draw water. Etoókuo ɛntásât ɛnkárɛ́. The woman drew the water. Káítóoku ɛntásàt ɛnkárɛ́. I will make the woman draw the water.

2 • To drink as somebody is coming. See: a-okú To become ripe; e-ókótó The drinking; a-mát To drink.

-ok   nmlz. Plural number suffix in agent nominalizations for Advanced Tongue Root stems; variant of -ak.

a-ók kʉlɛ́   v.phrase. To drink milk, referring specifically to a minor ceremony following the eúnótó celebration, after which a man is free to marry. Kéló ɔlmʉrraní aók kʉlɛ́ tɛnɛ́ɨ́dɨpáyù eunotó. A warrior will go to drink milk after the Eunoto ceremony.

okelel   n. Circle. ɨ́lɔ̂ okelel i) that circle ii) that steering wheel. LING: Irregular variant of ekelel that occurs after the masculine demonstrative ending in ɔ. See: ol-ekelel Circle.

ol-okérdiŋáí   n. Very painful thorns used for fencing of a kraal. This may be the "wait-a-bit" plant.

ɔkɛrɛ́ [North]   [Chamus] Acc sg: ɛkɛrɨ́. n. [North] Garden. See: ɔl-ɔkɛrɨ́ Cultivated Field.

ɔl-ɔkɛrɨ́   Nom sg: ɔl-ɔkɛ́rí. Acc pl: ɨl-ɔɔ́kɛ̀rɨ̀. Nom pl: ɨl-ɔ́ɔ̀kɛ̀rɨ̀. [North] Acc sg: ɔkɛrɛ́. [Chamus] Acc sg: ɛkɛrɨ́. n. 1 • Personal restricted land.

2 • Grazing field set apart for calves; pasturage. See: See synonyms and usage note at fv Þ ɛn-kɔ́p Land, field; págà Communal restricted land; ɔl-álɨ́lɨ́ Grazing field set apart for calves; pasturage.

ɔl-ɔ́kɛ́sɛ́nà   Nom sg: ɔl-ɔkɛsɛ́na. Acc pl: ɨl-ɔkɛsɛnaní. Nom pl: ɨl-ɔ́kɛsɛnaní. [North] Acc sg: l-ɔ́gɛ́sɛnà. n. Traditional lower garment made of sheep leather, fastened with a leather belt; sarong, skirt, loincloth. Errotíán inkítuaak ɨlɔkɛsɛnaní Women put on skirts that are blue in color. See: ɛn-kílâ Clothing; a-kɛsɛ́n To tie on a sarong; n-capukúrr [North] Skin-skirt; a-rrotíán To (en)girdle.

-oki   In some suffixed forms: -okin. appl. Dative applicative suffix with range of meanings covering benefactive and goal; for, to. See: -akɨ Dative applicative.

ol-okídoŋôî   Nom sg: ol-ókídóŋôî. Acc pl: il-okídoŋó. Nom pl: il-ókídoŋó. [Chamus] Acc sg: okúdoŋóì. n. 1 • Mud formed from rain and old cow dung; common in the wet season, found in animal pens and kraals.

2 • Mud. See: ɛ-sarŋáb Mud; o-sordó Silt; m-parpár Mud; in-kíík Dung.

ol-ókírráí   n. Rainbow. Syn: siomô Rainbow.

okishí   adj. Motherless child.

ɔl-ɔ́kɨ̀tɛ̀ŋ   Nom sg: ɔl-ɔ́kɨ́tɛ̀ŋ. n. Male warthog. Syn: ol-bítír warthog. See: ol-bítír Warthog.

a-okokí   v. 1 • To draw for, draw into.

enk-okórdè   n. 1 • Side. Néur enkokórdè ɛ́kʉ́tʉ́k ají aréú atúà. He broke one of the sides of the door, pushing it inside.

2 • Side of the house where rooms for baby goats, lambs, calves are.

e-ókótó ɛ-kʉ́lɛ̀   n. Milk ceremony.

ɛ-ókótó ɛnk-árɛ́ pʉ̂s   n. Drinking of milky-water. This, along with bathing, cleanses one who has carried a corpse.

a-okú(n)1   v. To draw water. Kéokúni ɛnkárɛ́. The water will be drawn. (Pk). Ɛshɔmɔ́ intóyíê áàòkù ɛnkárɛ́ tɔ̀ lcɔ́rrɔ̂. The girls have gone to get water from a well. (Pk). Ɛshɔmɔ́ enkítòk aokunyíé oltóò ɛnkárɛ́ tɔɔrkɛ́jʉ̀. The woman went to fetch water with a barrel at the river. (Pk). See: a-ók To drink.

a-okú2   v. To ripen. See: a-kú To ripen.

ol-ókúáí   Acc pl: il-ókùà. n.

okúnì   Nom pl: ókuni. num. Three (masculine items). ɨlapaitín okúnì three months.

ɔl-ɔkúrtò ɔ́ŋʉ̀   n. Polite word to refer to a person who uses only one eye after the other one has been damaged or removed. See: a-kúrt To scoop, gouge out; k-ɔ́-bɔ́ɨ́tà ɔ́ŋʉ̀ One-eyed person.

ókúrúóí   Acc pl: ókúrúòn. n. Ash-white color. ɛntɛ́rɨ́t ókúrúóí Ash-white dust. inkúrúòn okúrúòn Ash-white ashes. LING: Noun from a relative-clause formation?? If so, does it take an extra ol- ever? See: en-kúrúóní Ash.

Ol-okurro2   n.prop. Place name. See: a-kúr To scratch, to brush off, to paw the ground.

ol-okurro ɛ-lʉkʉnya1   n. Baldheaded man; baldy. See: a-kúr To scratch, brush off, paw the ground.

ɔl-   [Purko] Acc sg: ɔr-. gen. Masculine singular gender prefix on nouns. LING: The gender prefixes may occur on roots which are not inherently nominal so as to derive nominals: Ɛtámúíyíá ŋolé oloshî áɨ́tɛ́rrání lɛ́ sɔkɔ́nì nɛ́ɨ́tɛ̀rrɛ̀ isáaí aré. The usual market fainter (i.e. person who always faints in the market) because sick yesterday and fainted for two hours. (W). ɔrpááshé fence. Ɔlɛ́nkɨtɛŋ ɛlɛ̂ kɛ́ɛ̀nɛ̀. This big leather strap belongs to the cow. Ɛshɔmɔ́ enkítòk aokunyíé oltóò ɛnkárɛ́ tɔrkɛ́jʉ̀. The woman went to fetch water with a barrel at the river. (Pk). LING: The /l/ is deleted before sonorant consonants. The vowel of the prefix agrees in ATR with following vowels.

ol-olá   Nom sg: ol-óla. Acc pl: il-olân. Nom pl: il-ólàn. [Purko] Acc pl: íl-ólân. n. 1 • Thing to be carried or transported (may include milk in containers, but not water); basket-full, package, baggage, luggage. Táretokokí ɛnkɛ́ráí ololá. Help the child with the baggage. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛntásât aɨtʉ́ ilolân tò síkírìà. The woman is unloading the donkey.

2 • Burden, responsibility. Ɛ́táá ɛná ájì ololá aitúkù ánàà aké. This house has become a burden, to clean it every day. Káátà ololá sápʉ̀k lɔlmárei lâŋ. I have a big burden for my family (the pressure of needing to provide for them; the aspiration to work hard to improve their living standards, achieve a particular goal, etc.).

ɛnk-olá   Small package; small burden.

ɛnk-ɔ́làt   Nom sg: ɛnk-ɔ́lât. Acc pl: ɨnk-ɔ́latí. Nom pl: ɨnk-ɔ́latí. n. Needs, requirements.

ɔ́lɛ̂   Nom sg: ɔlɛ́. Acc pl: ɨ́lɛ̂. Nom pl: ɨlɛ̂. psr.prt. 1 • Title preceding the name of a (male) junior elder or elder; indicates 'son of'. LING: The title apparently lacks a plural counterpart.

2 • One belonging to a masculine possessor. entíto ɔ́lɛ̀ Ronkei daughter of Ronkei. Ɔ́lɛ̂ ŋáɨ́ ɛlɛ́ kɨ́tɛ̀ŋ. [ɔ̀lɛ̀ ŋáɨ́] Who's bull is this? Ɔ́lɛ̂ Kɛ́swɛ̂ ɛlɛ́ ɔ́ɨ́ŋɔ́nɨ́. [ɔ̀lɛ̀ kɛ̀swɛ̀ ɛ̀lɛ́ ɔ̀ɪ̀ŋɔ̀nɪ̀] This bull belongs to Keswe. (Pk). Ɔlɔ́lkɨtɛŋ ɛlɛ́ tualá. This bell belongs to the ox. ɔlayíónì ɔ́ ɔ́lɛ̀ Ronkei [ɔ̀làyyónì ɔ́lɛ̀ ɾòŋkèy] the boy and Ole-Ronkei. See: ɛ́nɛ̂ Of a feminine referent.

ɔ̀lɛ̀ kʉ́lɛ̀   Nom sg: ɔlɛ́ kʉlɛ́. Acc pl: ɨlɔɔ́ lɛ̀ kʉ́lɛ̀. Nom pl: ɨlɔ́ɔ̀ lɛ̀ kʉ́lɛ̀. n. 1 • Type of edible roots.

2 • Throat. See: ol-gisóyiaî Type of edible root; ɔl-cakʉ́lɛ̀t White milky tuber.

ɔ́lɛ́ɛ́   Masculine question word. ɔ́lɛ́ɛ́ káyíólò sá ínê? I know that?

olêŋ   adv. Very, well. Nɛ́ɨ́kɨrɨ́kɨ́rá enkɔ́p olêŋ o mɛtáa kéjó enkáji áúrori. The earth shook very much until the house is about to fall. Órè ɛlɛ̂ mʉ́rranì, náà kɛ́pɨ apá olêŋ. Now this warrior was very brave. Tɛ́rɛkɨ́ dɛɨ́ lɔmɔ́n metínìŋò olêŋ. Stress/emphasize the words so that she may hear well.

naléŋ   Ɛgɨ́ráɨ́ áàìpùsìè ɔlmʉ́rránì olêŋ ɛnkáɨ́ná. The generous warrior is having his hand made blue by twisting blue beads on it.

ɔl-ɔlɛpɨlɛpɨ́   Nom sg: ɔl-ɔ́lɛpɨlɛpɨ́. Acc pl: ɨl-ɔɔ́lɛ̀pɨ̀lɛ̀pɨ̀. Nom pl: ɨl-ɔ́ɔ̀lɛ̀pɨ̀lɛ̀pɨ̀. n. Noise. See: o-róréí Noise; ol-odoo Noise; l-oilɛmɨlɛmɨ́ Noise; l-buaá Noise.

ɔl-ɔlɛpɨlɛpɨ́   Nom sg: ɔl-ɔ́lɛpɨlɛpɨ́. n.sg. Shouting. Éítorrónô ɔlɔ́lɛpɨlɛpɨ́ etiíkì entúmò Shouting is bad when people are in a meeting. See: o-róréí Word; ol-odoo Noise; [North] l-oilɛmɨlɛmɨ́ Noise; [North] l-buaá Noise; a-ɨlɛpɨlɛ́p To shout; a-ŋʉyaná To make noise.

enk-ólépó   Nom sg: enk-olepó. [North] Acc sg: nk-óílépó. n. Hawk.

olesérè   greeting. Goodbye, bye. Olesérè amʉ̂ ɛ́táa kárɛʉ. Goodbye, because I am going to drive them (the animals) away. See: áyia Allright.

ɔl-ɔ́lɨ́lɨ́   Nom sg: ɔl-ɔ́lɨ̀lɨ̀. Acc pl: ɨl-ɔɔ́lɨ̀lɨ̀. Nom pl: ɨl-ɔ́ɔ̀lɨ̀lɨ̀. n. 1 • Enclosure outside the homestead for calves to graze in.

2 • [North] Grass that grows on ground that was formerly occupied by a home. This type of grass can not be consumed by cows because of its smell. See: ɔl-ɔkɛrɨ́ Enclosure for grazing outside the homestead; ol-pérésí Type of grass that is long and thin; ɛn-aimúrrúàì; nk-amúrruakî Star grass; ɔl-gʉ́rmɛ́ Bumper grass; ɛn-kʉ́jɨ́tá Grass; l-áráá Type of grass on banks of a river; n-dálankúánì Type of grass on sides of hills; símí Grass that grows on deserted homestead.

nk-ólíóóntóí [North]   Nom sg: nk-olioontóí. Acc pl: nk-olíòòntò. Nom pl: nk-olioontó. n. 1 • [North] Girl. Ɛshɔmɔ́ nkolioontóí pʉnʉka. The girl has gone to the market. (S).

2 • [North] Term of address to a girl by a boy. See: súrméléí Girl.

olipí   adj. Barren, sterile. See: olupí Barren, sterile.

a-olól   v. 1 • To bend sth. flexible that can resume its shape again. Tóòlòlo emúrt ɛ́ nkɨ́tɛ́ŋ máíshòò ɔlcaní. Bend the cow's neck so we can give it medicine. (W). Syn: a-kɔrɨ́ny To bend.

2 • To transform sth.

a-ololó   v.mid. 1 • To be bent.

2 • To be transformed. See: a-kɔrɨ́ny To bend; a-ɨrrúg To bend down; a-shúk To bend.

ɛnk-ɔlɔ́ŋ   Nom sg: ɛnk-ɔ́lɔ̀ŋ. Acc pl: ink-ólòŋì. Nom pl: ink-ólóŋì. n. 1 • Sun. ɛndâ ɔlɔ́ŋ that sun (W).

2 • A 24 hour period; day. Inkólòŋì naápìshànà oshî nátií ewíkì. There are seven days in a week. (Pk). Neiriamari nabô ɔlɔ́ŋ ɔlpáyìàn (i)nkíshú ɔ́ esiankíkì ɛnyɛ́. One day, an old man and his newly-wedded bride went to graze cattle. Kɛ́ɨ́dɨ̀m ɛntámɨ̂s atɔtɔ́nà inkólòŋì tɔ̀mɔ̀n o óŋùàn ɛ̀ɨ̀tʉ̀ èòk ɛnkárɛ́. A camel can stay for fourteen days without water. (Pk).

3 • Drought, famine, hunger. nápá ɔlɔ́ŋ that hunger of long ago.

ɛnk-áɨ́ ɔlɔ́ŋ   Distal past, including the day-before-yesterday, in many years past.

́ídîâ ɔlɔ́ŋ   Distal future, including day-after-tomorrow and in many years to come. LING: This can be contracted to [idialɔ́ŋ]. See: lɨkáɨ́ kekun Distal past, day-before-yesterday; nk-áɨ́ párrî Distal past, day-before-yesterday; n-dámà Sun, day; ɛn-dáma o ɛn-kɛwaríé Day; m-párr Day; e-súmàsh Hunger; ɔl-áméyú Hunger.

ɔlɔɔ́(-)   See: ɔɔ́ of plural item; ɛnɔɔ́-.

enk-olópà   Nom sg: enk-ólòpà. Acc pl: ɨnk-olopaní. Nom pl: ink-ólopaní. n. Poisonous centipede.

ol-olúbò   Nom sg: ol-ólubó. Acc pl: il-oólubó. Nom pl: il-óolubó. n. Glutton. See: a-lubó To be hungry.

ɔl-ɔlʉlʉ́ŋà   n. 1 • The whole.

2 • [North] A barricade.

ɔl-ɔlʉ́lʉ́ŋà   n.prop. Ololulunga; place name north of Narok Town, Narok District, Kenya. For an account of the Ololulunga Massacre in 1918 see: Sanford, G.R., An Administrative and Political History of the Maasai Reserve, 1919, pp. 77-80 (Sanford writes the word 'Ol Alunga'); Elspeth Huxley, White Man's Country, Vol. II, pp. 39-49. LING: Mol says that the root for this word is 'lʉlʉŋ,' but the most basic form attested in his dictionary is 'lʉlʉŋa.'. See: a-lʉlʉŋá To be round, whole, complete, without defect.

ɛnk-ɔlʉ́pà   Nom sg: ɛnk-ɔ́lʉ̀pà. n. Centipede. See: ɛn-dénkél Centipede.

olupí   Nom sg: ólúpí. Acc pl: olupénò. Nom pl: olúpenò. adj. 1 • Barren, sterile. Ɨncɔɔ́ ɛwalaá ɛnâ kɨ́tɛ́ŋ olupí aɨnyiaŋʉ́ áɨ́. Let him exchange this barren cow with another one by buying. (Pk).

ɔl-ɔmɛn kɛwán   n. Diffident person (one who despises himself).

l-Omisi [North]   n. [North] Samburu(?) clan. Known to be cheaters and have witchcraft.

ómò   Acc pl: ómòì. Nom pl: ómóì. adj. Light-brown color, specifically of sheep. intaré ómòì aké esíókì ɔltʉ́ŋání ayiolóú. It is light-brown sheep that one recognizes easily. ímîêt apá táatá ilkúuó ómóì óotoiwuokí. The light-brown lambs born this time are five. Ómò apá enkêrr náíshooyiokí. The ram that was given away was light brown.

enk-omóm1   Nom sg: enk-ómòm. Acc pl: ɨnk-ómòmì. Nom pl: ɨnk-ómómì. n. 1 • Forehead.

2 • Face. ɛndâ omóm that face.

ó-síkíráì lɛ́ nkomám   Forehead.

ɔl-pʉrâ lɛ́ nkomóm   Forehead.

ɛn-cílí é nkomóm   See: en-kirribó Forehead; ɛn-kɨ́dɨ́mátá Forehead; ɛ-mʉnyánî Forehead.

omóm2   n. Favor, fortune. ɔltʉŋánì ɔátà omóm a person who is lucky/fortunate (lit: a person who has favor/fortune).

a-omón   v. 1 • To request, ask for something. See: a-ɨtɔɔmɔ́n To welcome.

2 • To beg (e.g. for money on the street).

3 • To pray, worship (to God).

a-omonú   To ask for. Átóómónùò. I have asked for it. (K). Átóómónùà. I have asked for it. (SN).

a-omonishó   To beg (food, money).

a-omón ɛnkáí   1 • To pray to God. Usage: lit.

2 • To give birth. Usage: polite. See: a-sáí To plead.

ɨl-ɔmɔ́n   Nom pl: ɨl-ɔ́mòn. n.pl. 1 • Speech, talk, address, news, information. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlpáyìàn aturú ɨlɔmɔ́n lɔɔ́rpúrishó ɔɔ́waitâ inkíshú. The man is finding out information about the thieves who stole cows.

4 • Conversation. Ɛnâ taá ɛntɔnatá ɔ́ɔ lɔmɔ́n ncɛ́rɛ̀ mátayookinotó tenê. This is the conclusion of the conversation, that we meet in the morning right here. See: n-kɨrɔ́rɔ́tɔ́ Conversation; ɛn-dɛrát Conversation.

ɔl-ɔmɔ́nɨ̀   Nom sg: ɔl-ɔ́mɔ̀nɨ̀. Acc pl: ɨl-ɔmɔ́n. Nom pl: ɨl-ɔ́mɔ̀n. n. 1 • Stranger.

2 • Visitor, guest.

3 • Word. Nélìmù siî nɨ́nyɛ̀ Elija ɔlɔmɔ́nɨ̀ obô. Elija will also say one word.

enk-omonó   Nom sg: enk-ómonó. n. 1 • Form of prayer. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔltʉ́ŋání asinyunyé ɛnkomonó naomón. The person is becoming holy through the prayer he made to God.

2 • Form of worship. See: a-omón To request, pray.

a-omonú   [North]: a-munó. [Chamus]: a-omonʉ́. v. To ask for.

l-ómúncú [North]   n. [North] Type of beetle. See: ol-kérdòì Type of beetle.

ink-onítò oó nkíyìàà   Nom pl: ink-ónìtò óò nkíyìàà. n.pl. Big, leather beaded earrings worn by married women only. Kɛ́átà enkítòk inkonítò oó nkíyìàà. The woman has leather beaded earrings. See: en-cónì Hide.

ol-ónítóí   Acc pl: il-onítò. Nom pl: il-ónìtò. n.pl. Hides, skins; used on beds, etc. Órè oshî táatá nɛ́taá intáirí eishopí imeékúré áâ ɨnamʉ́kà oólonítò ánàà apá. These days people wear tire sandals, not leather sandals like before. (Pk).

ink-onítò   Small pieces of skin. See: ol-coní Hide.

ɔ́nɔ̂m   [Chamus] Acc sg: ɔnɔ̂m. num. Fifty. Etym: < Proto-Kalenjin/Proto-Southern-Nilotic *kɔnɔm < Proto-Baz *konom 'fifty' (Heine, Rottland & Vossen 1979:85).

a-ɔnɔ́r   v. To break through (a fence,etc.), bulldoze.

a-ɔ́ny   v.prog. To bite; tear with one's teeth. aɔ́ny enkiriŋó tɔɔ́ lalá to bite meat with teeth. Áɔ́nyɨ́tà. I am biting it [fruit, meat, etc.] (W). Etym: Proto-Ongamo-Maa *-ɔɲ, 'bite (v.)' (Vossen 1989:195) from Proto-Teso-Lotuko-Maa *-kɔɲ- 'bite (v.)' (Vossen 1982:334).

a-ɔnyɨɔ́ny   1 • To bite constantly.

2 • To be muddy. Ɛtɔwɔnyɨ́wɔ̀nyɔ̀ dúóó ɛnkɔ̂p amû ɛ́ɨ́pʉ́tá ɛsárŋàb. The ground is sticky because it is full of mud. (Pk). See: ɛ-ɔ́nyátá Biting.

ɨnk-ɔnyɛ́k   n.pl. Eyes. See: ɛnk-ɔŋʉ́ Eye.

a-ɔnyɨɔ́ny   v. 1 • To bite repeatedly. aɔnyɨɔ́ny ɛndââ To bite food repeatedly.

2 • To be muddy. Kɛ́ɔnyɨɔny ɛnkɔ̂p The ground is muddy. See: e-onyiónyì Muddy.

ɛ-ɔnyɨɔ́nyɨ̀   Nom sg: ɛ-ɔ́nyɨɔ́nyɨ̀. adj. Muddy. See: a-ɔnyɨɔ́ny To be muddy.

ol-ónyókíé   n. Day of the full moon; "red" day of the moon. See: ol-onyorri Day before the full moon.

ɔl-ɔnyɔ́rɨ   n.m. The day before the full moon; the "green" day of the moon. Tɔ̀ lɔ́nyɔrɨ lɔ́lápà kɛnyá kíntúpúkúnì. During the green days of the moon you will undergo the ritual of enkútúpúkúnotó. (Pk). See: ol-ónyókíé Day of the full-moon.

ɛnk-ɔnyɔ́rɨ̀   n. One of the stomachs of a goat or sheep. Tápálà ɛnkɔnyɔ́rɨ̀ mɨ́nyá amʉ̂ ɛnɔɔ́ ntasátì. Leave alone the stomach (of the goat/sheep), don't eat it, because it is for women. See: ɛm-pʉ́nʉ́ká One of the stomachs of a cow; ɛnk-ayá Stomach, intestines.

ɔŋán [Chamus]   n. [Chamus] Daytime. See: ɛn-dámà Daytime; [North] m-parkéjì Daytime.

ɔl-ɔŋaríé kɨ́nà   Nom sg: ɔl-ɔ́ŋàrìè kɨ́nà. n. His brother, of the same mother. See: ɔl-áŋáríé kɨ́nà My brother; a-ŋár To share.

ɔ́ŋátá1   Acc pl: ɔŋát. n. 1 • Plain, flat open country, wilderness. Képúó dúóó áàtùmò tɨ̀ ɔŋatá. They were going to meet ??? See: áŋátá Plain, desert, flat country.

ɔ́ŋátà2   [South] Acc sg: ɔ́ŋátá. adv. Outside. Néípaŋíékì ɔladúóó tʉŋánì, nɛ́yaɨ naá ɔ́ŋátà. That person is made to go outside, he is taken outside.

Ɔ́́ŋátá Barrikóì   n.prop. Place name in Trans-Mara, Kenya, 20 km. south of Lolgorien, on the border with Tanzania.

l-Oŋeli [North]   n.prop. [North] Samburu clan that keeps mostly white cattle. Members of this clan are politicians.

ɔŋɔ́n   Nom sg: ɔ́ŋɔ̀n. n. Light. See: ɛ-waŋán light.

ɛnk-ɔŋʉ́1   Nom sg: ɛnk-ɔ́ŋʉ̀. Acc pl: ɨnk-ɔnyɛ́k. Nom pl: ɨnk-ɔnyɛ́k. n. 1 • Eye. ɨlpápɨ́t lɔɔ́ nkɔnyɛ́k eye lashes, eye brows (lit: hairs of the eyes). enconí ɛ́ nkɔŋʉ́ eyelid (lit: skin of the eye). Eímúá ɛnkɔŋʉ́ ilkíyìò. Tears dropped from the eye.

2 • Socket. LING: This can refer to various sorts of sockets (hip socket, etc).

3 • Spring of water, pool. ɛnkɔŋʉ́ ɛ́ nkárɛ́ a source of water. ɛnkɔŋʉ́ ɛ́ mʉny (spring of the rhino) is the name of the town, Ngong. The word ɛnkɔŋʉ́ has been anglicised to Ngong.

4 • bulb of a torch. ɛnkɔŋʉ́ ó sitímà Bulb of a torch.

kɨ́mà ɔ́ŋʉ̀   Bushbaby.

a-gól ɔ́ŋʉ̀   To be disobedient.

a-gɨ́l ɛnk-ɔŋʉ́   To squint.

a-dány ɛnk-ɔŋʉ́   1 • To poke in the eye.

2 • To give a small piece of whatever you are eating to somebody (mostly a child) who is looking at you.

a-lɛ́j ɨnk-ɔnyɛ́k   To pretend.

a-ɨbɔ́r ɔnyɛ́k   To be promiscuous.

a-rɔ́k ɔnyɛ́k   To be unable to identify people easily.

eniɔŋʉ́   Amazement; grimmace.

e-netoníé ɛnkɔ́ŋʉ̀   Eye socket.

ɛnk-ɔŋʉ́ ó loúdò   The socket of the hip.

ɛ-náɨ́mɨ̀n ɛ nárɔ́k ɔ́ŋʉ̀   Total darkness.

ɛnk-ɔŋʉ́ ŋirô   Sick eye.

ɛ-nɛ́rɔ́k ɛ́ nk-ɔŋʉ́   Pupil.

ɛ-nɛ́ɨ́bɔ́rr ɛ́ nk-ɔŋʉ́   Conjunctiva.

ɔl-pʉ̂s lɛ́ nk-ɔŋʉ́   Iris (of any color, including brown).

áà-rɨ̀pà ɨnk-ɔnyɛ́k   Blind. See: ol-obóítà ɔ́ŋʉ̀ One eyed person; a-ɨrrɨapíé ɛnkɔŋʉ́ To blink.

ɔl-ɔŋʉ́5   Nom sg: ɔl-ɔ́ŋʉ̀. Acc pl: ɨl-ɔnyɛ́k. Nom pl: ɨl-ɔ́nyɛ̀k. n. 1 • Spring, source. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkárɛ̀ aɨtɨ́r amʉ̂ etudúŋè ɛnkɔ́ŋʉ̀ ɛ́ ncɔ́rrɔ̀. The water (flow) has broken because the source has been cut. (Pk).

2 • Big eye. Usage: rare.

3 • Pain in the muscles.

4 • Decorative pattern, especially one that is not repeated, made on a garment or a shield.

5 • [North] Window; hole in the house for peeping through and for light. Usage: figurative. See: el-lusyét Window; e-naudotó Window.

ɛnk-ɔŋʉ́ ɛ mʉ̂ny   n.prop. Ngong town; name of town southwest of Nairobi. This place is also known as just ɛnk-ɔŋʉ́ and the anglicized version Ngong is derived from this. The place is also known as ɛn-cɔ́rrɔ̀ ɛ mɑ̀ny 'Spring of the rhino.'. A puddle or a spring is often called ɛnk-ɔŋʉ́ 'eye.'. See: ɛn-cɔ́rrɔ̀ ɛ́ mɨ̀ny Ngong town.

oŋúán   [oŋwán]  Nom sg: óŋùàn. Nom pl: oóŋùàn. num. Four. imbolunót oŋúán four chapters (W). Náajokí ɨ́sʉmá embolúnotó eoŋúán. He told me to read Chapter Four. (W). Kégól embolúnotó éóŋuan olêŋ. Chapter Four is very hard. (W). Ɛshɔmɔ́ pɔ́kʉ́rà oóŋùàn anapárr All four (of them) have gone today. (SN). Kɛ́ɨ́dɨ̀m ɛntámɨ̂s atɔtɔ́nà inkólòŋì tɔ̀mɔ̀n o óŋùàn ɛ̀ɨ̀tʉ̀ èòk ɛnkárɛ́. A camel can stay for fourteen days without water. (lit: A camel can stay ten and four days without drinking water.) (Pk). LING: The plural forms suggest that ŋuan derives from a verb, as the prefixes are isomorphic to the Nominative and Accusative Relative clause prefixes for plural head nouns.

ol-óŋúí   Nom sg: ol-oŋúí. Acc pl: il-ooŋû. Nom pl: il-óòŋù. n. Stinker; nickname used by the Maasai to designate the Kamba people. Usage: derogatory. See: a-ŋú To stink; ol-áíkámpáí Kamba tribesman.

óó   interj. Particle which begins a response. Néjokí, "Papâ!" "óó. Kájì doí íŋúaa?" He said to him, "Papâ!" [The old man replied,] "óó, Where do you come from?". See: hoé Yes.

-óò   dir. 1 • Advanced tongue root variant of -áà, motion away, iterative, and distributive aspect suffix. See: -áà.

ɔɔ́   Variant: oó. Nom pl: ɔ́ɔ, ɔ́ɔ̀. 1 • Possessor particle, which preceeds a plural possessor noun within a possessed noun phrase. LING: Tone varies for accusative versus nominative case of the preceding possessed noun. Órè ɛnkáŋ oó motónyi nɛ́akunyé eúnótó ɨ́nâ. The (ceremonial) home-of-birds becomes the installation-home-for-warriors just like that. tɛ̀ mʉrátà ɔ́ɔ̀ nkayîôk in the circumcision of boys. LING: If the preceding possessed noun is masculine, the particle carries the prefix l-. ɨlkɨdɔŋɔ́ lɔɔ́ isirkôn the donkies' tails. Kádɔ́l ɨlcɔrɛ́ta lɔɔ́ laiyôk. I will see the friends of the boys. Épúó ɨlcɔ́rɛ̀tà lɔ́ɔ laiyôk. The friends of the boys will go. Átɔ́dúàà apá ɔltɔ́mɛ́ tɔlalɛ́ lɔ́ɔ̀ ŋúésì. I saw an elephant in the game park (reserve). (Pk). Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlpáyìàn aitó ɛnkáŋ oó nkíshú. The man is going back to his home where cows are. (lit: The man is going back home of the cows.) (Pk). LING: ɔɔ́ may be preceded by a gender prefix to give a free-standing word form: e.g. ɨlɔɔ́, ɨnɔɔ́ 'those of' (a plural item); ɔlɔɔ́ 'the one of (a plural item): Nétií ɔlɔ́ɔ̀ nkuukuní. 'There is one who is of wild animals. (e.g. likes talking about wild animals, fell victim of wild animals, etc.)' (W). ɔlɔɔ́ nkuukuuní 'sth. of the wild animals (e.g. a hill where they reside, a story about them, etc.)' (W). Ɛsʉ́lárɛ̀ tɛ̀ nɛ́akʉ mmɛŋasákɨ̀ ɨnkɛ́râ ɨlɔɔ́ mɛ́nyɛ̀. It is an embarrassment when children do not greet the fathers.' (Pk). Órè intɨ́pátɨ́ inónó náà imólelîân ɨ́lmɔ́kɛsɛ́n ɨltáárrosérò amʉ̂ nɨncɛ́ oyíú ɨnɔɔ́ nkakúí inónò. 'Your lineage is imólelîân, ɨ́lmɔ́kɛsɛ́n, and ɨltáárrosérò because they are the sub-clans of your grandparents (lit: because they are the ones your grandparents gave birth to).' (Pk).

2 • Partitive ?? when combined with the oblique preposition tɛ̀; of. Nɛ́manáà tɔɔ́ aŋitíé asotú ɨmálàsìn ɔmɛ́ɨ́dɨpá. He goes around (at) the homes to collect (beer) gourds until he finishes. See: Paradigms at Þ ; ɛ́ Feminine singular possessive particle.

ɔɔ́-   Variant: ɔɔ- before Falling tone. Nom pl: ɔ́ɔ-. pn.b. Relative clause prefix for masculine third person plural head noun. Ɨlpayianí ɔɔ́ramatɨ́shɔ̀ óòtùm inkíshú kúmòk olêŋ. It is the men that take care of their livestock that get more cows. Lmʉ́rràn ɔɔ́tɛrrɛpakɨ́ ɔ́ɔshɔmɔ́ njóré. It is the warriors that have been praised that have gone for a raid. (SN). Lmaŋátí ɔ́ɔ̀ràsàkɨ̀tà iyióó táatá. It is the enemies who are attacking us now. (SN). Lpáeg óotií lbɛ́nɛ́. It is maize (pl) that is in the bag. (SN). LING: The relative clause prefix harmonizes in ATR to the vowel of the following root. LING: The prefix ɔɔ́- is preceded by ɔl-, or by a demonstrative plus l-, if it is a "free standing" relative clause (TM 1955): ɨlɔɔmʉ̂k ɛnáíshíó those that brew beer. Ádɔ́tɨ́tà kʉldɔ̂ loólubó. I am seeing/looking at those gluttons. (W).

ɔl-ɔ́ɔ́dɔ́ kɨrragatá [West]   Variant: ɔl-ɔ́dɔ́ kɨ́rrágátá; ɔadɔ́ kɨ́rrágátá. n. Giraffe. Ɔlɔ́ɔ́dɔ́ kɨrragatá ɛlɛ́. This is a giraffe. See: a-adɔ́ To be long, tall; a-ɨrrág To lie, lie down; ɔl-carkúk Giraffe.

ɔl-ɔ́ɔ́dɔ́ kɨrragatá   Nom sg: ɔl-ɔ́ɔ̀dɔ̀ kɨrragatá. n. Giraffe. Imbénék oó lkeék oshî ɛ́nyá ɔlɔ́ɔ̀dɔ̀ kɨrragatá. A giraffe feeds on leaves from trees. See: ɔl-carkúk Giraffe.

oodokilani   n.pl. Name of a Maasai section. See: ol-oshô Section.

oodwa   n. Type of plant, found in the Olóíríén region.

ɨl-oogólalá   n.prop. Remnants of an original section of the Maasai who now live around Inkorika, east of Kajiado Town, Kajiado District, Kenya. For further details, see: Jan Voshaar, Tracing God's Walking-Stick, pp. 20-21. See: a-gól To be hard; ɔl-álàɨ̀ Tooth, tusk.

óóí   interj. Oh. See: áuuî Help!.

l-ɔɔɨ́bɔr kínèjì   n.pl. Herders. See: ɨl-páràkùò Cattle keepers.

Ol-oololo   n.prop. 1 • Name of a hill on the Isiria Escarpment; sometimes this name is applied to the whole escarpment.

2 • Isiria Escarpment. See: a-looló To go round, bend, saunter.

ɨl-ɔ́ɔ̀m   n.pl. Rafters. See: ol-óómí Rafter.

ol-óómí   Nom sg: ol-oomí. Acc pl: ɨl-ɔ́ɔ̀m. Nom pl: ɨl-ɔ́ɔ̂m. [North] Acc pl: l-óòm. n. Rafter in ceiling, made from long slender branches about the diameter of two fingers. Rafters are laid horizonally around ɛmbókishii during the construction of houses, to make the initial roof. Where they overlap, they are tied together. Grass is then put on to fill in the spaces, after which cow dung is spread to make the final roof. See: em-bókíshìì Vertical construction posts; ɛ-ŋápɛ́ Supports; ɛ-rɨ́shɨ̀nà Soof sticks; enk-opitó String.

n-ɔɔ́nkɔ́shùà [North]   Nom sg: n-ɔ́ɔnkɔ́shùà. n. [North] Stomach upsets experienced by women at their first two or three months of pregnancy; nausea, morning-sickness.

ɔl-ɔɔ́ntaléŋò   Nom sg: ɔlɔ́ɔntaléŋò. n. Third finger. See: ŋotó-kílintâ.

ɔl-ɔɔ́saên   Nom sg: ɔl-ɔ́ɔsaên. n. The East.

ɔl-ɔɔsɨ́   n. Work. Syn: e-síáàì Work.

ɔl-ɔɔ́tɛrɛ́gɛ̀   n. Deceased boy; between the ages of birth and pre-adolescence. See: ol-terégelî Testicle; ɛn-dɔ́rrɔ́p sésên Deceased uncircumcised girl.

ɔɔ́tɨ̀   n. Young.

óotú   v.imp.pl. Imperative plural of a-lotú 'come'. Óotú ɛ́ntasotú ɨmálàsìn. Come and collect beer gourds. See: a-lotú(n) To come (sg); áà-pùònù(n) To come (pl).

l-oowa [North]   Acc pl: l-owaan. n. [North] Mountain.

ɔpá   adv. Long ago. See: apá; apá Long ago.

ɔl-ɔpɛ́ny   Nom sg: ɔl-ɔ́pɛ̀ny. Nom pl: ɨl-ɔ́ɔpɛ̂ny. n. Owner. Ekébikóò intókìtìn pɔ́ɔ̀kɨ̀ náaramát ɨlɔ́ɔpɛ̂ny. All things that their owners care for last long. (Pk).

ɔl-ɔpɛ́ny olórìkà   Chairman. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlɔ́pɛ̀ny olórìkà aɨtashé aŋór olórìkà lɛnyɛ́. The chairman is contesting again to defend his seat. (Pk).

ɔ́pɛ̀ny   [North]: ápɛ̀ny. [Chamus]: ɔpɛ́ny. adv. Alone. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔltʉ́ŋání ógògòŋ akɛlɛlarí aló ɔ́pɛ̀ny. The antisocial person is going alone. (Pk). Ɛátà ɨ́nâ kítòk léwáíshò amʉ̂ nɨnyɛ́ náɨ́tòrɛ̀ ɛnkáŋ ɔ́pɛ̀ny. That woman has (the responsibilities of) manhood because she takes care of the family all alone. (W). See: a-kɛparí To stay alone.

ɔl-ɔpɨ́ [North]   n. [North] Type of club which has a rounded head and which tapers down to a point at the opposite end. This kind of club is used by newly circumcised boys. It usually has one pointed end with wax on it. See: en-júlúl Club with pointed end.

ɔl-ɔpɨ́ lɛ́ ntákùlè [South]   Nom sg: ɔl-ɔ́pɨ̀ lɛ́ ntákùlè. Acc pl: ɨl-ɔɔpɨ̂ lɔɔ́ ntakúlèn. Nom pl: ɨl-ɔ́ɔ̀pɨ̀ lɔ́ɔ̀ ntakúlèn. n. [South] Elbow. .

ol-opide   n. Clitoris; removed during female initiation.

enk-ópíró   Variant: opíro. Acc pl: ink-opír. n. 1 • Feather. Kɛ́atà emótonyî inkopír aré naáadɔ̀ tɛ̀ siadí A bird has two feathers that are long on its tail.

2 • Rank-and-file.

ol-ópíró   n. Lengthy heavy rain. See: ɛn-cán Rain.

a-ɔpɨshɔ́   v.mid. To be dangerous.

enk-opitó   Nom sg: enk-ópitó. Acc pl: ɨnk-opít. Nom pl: ink-opít. -kar. [North] Acc sg: nk-opíto. n. 1 • Cord, string, bark string, e.g. used in making a house.

2 • Gummy substance on the inside of a freshly removed piece of bark. Ɛɨnɔsɨ́tà náají Náísíaɨ́ enkopito. Naisiai was chewing the gum from the inside of a piece of bark. (Pk). Órè teníntáyu enkabobókì tíórìòŋ ɔlcaní náà éísídáɨ́ teníkinyú enkopitó. When you remove a piece of bark froma tree, it is good to remove the white inner side of it. (Pk). See: ɛnk-abobókì Bark; m-balátì Bark.

enk-opíyìà   Nom sg: enk-ópìyìà. Acc pl: ink-opiyianí. Nom pl: ink-ópiyianí. [West] Acc sg: en-kopíyìà. [Chamus] Acc sg: kopɨ́yà. n. Hat. Ɛtɨ́pɨ́ká ɛndâ opíyìà enkúé áí. They have put that hat on my head. See: en-karandá Cap, hat; siógà Hat.

ol-opolólì   n. Grazing field or pasture set apart for calves. See: Synonyms and usage note at fv Þ ɛn-kɔ́p Land, field.

ɔl-ɔpɔlɔ́sɨ̀ ɔl-kɨ́tɛ́ŋ   n. The one who gives an ox for sacrifice. Chief of a group of boys who are about to be initiated. This individual is chosen just prior to the en-kipaata ceremony, and is to carry all the sins of his age group. See: ɛn-kɨ́páátá Pre-circumcision ceremony.

l-opúpóì [North]   Nom sg: l-opupóì. Acc pl: l-opúpò. Nom pl: l-ópùpò. n. [North] Tse-tse fly.

ɔl-ɔpʉrpʉránà   n.prop. Alternative Maa name for the town of Kajiado. See: ɔl-Kɛjʉ́adɔ Kajiado.

a-ór   [Purko]: ɔ́rr. [North]: wórr. [Chamus]: wór. v.prog. To sweep, brush. Áórítò ɛnkɔ́p. I am sweeping the floor/ground. Áóróò inkulukúók tɛ̀ nkɔ̂p. I will sweep dirt from the floor.

a-oroó   To sweep away.

a-orokí inkulukúók   To weed (lit: 'to sweep the soil'). See: a-sɛmpɛ́r To weed; a-kúrr To scrape.

a-ɔ́r   [Chamus] Acc sg: ór. v. To divide. Ɛ́ɔ́r. He will divide it. Ɛɔrʉ́nyɛ̀. He will separate himself from ......... Ɛɔ́rʉ́nyɛ̀. It will be divided. (W). Ɛlɛ̂ bótór ɔ́ɔrɨkɨ́. It is this older one that will sub-divide for them. Étóóshô ɨnkɛ́râ olkerérì peê étúmí áatɔɔrɨkɨ́ ɛndáà. The children have made a queue so that the food can be served to them. (Pk).

a-ɔrɔɔ́   To feed an orphaned young animal. See: ɛ-nɛɔ́rɔrɛ Boundary; a-rɨ́sh To divide.

órè   conj. 1 • Discourse conjunction used to introduce an adverbial clause which sets a time frame for a following clause or paragraph. The adverbial clause may indicate some degree of discontinuity between ideas or sequences of events: then, while, and now etc. Néjò: "Órè taá enikinkô?" They said, "Now what are we going to do?". LING: Órè may be prefixed with the discourse connective k-. Kórè peê ɛ́dɔ́l iyioó lósowuaní nɛ́arárì áàɨ̀sɨ̀g. When the buffalo saw us, they ran away fleeing. (SN). Kórè ɛdaá nɛ́baʉ. When she is eating, he will arrive. (W).

2 • Indicator of conceptual realization: previously one did not know but suddenly comes to know. Cf: Nɛ́kɛnyʉ́ kíâs ɛntɛ́mátá. Nájádɔ́l kórè imbáà kúmòk, néíŋúàà embólúnotó eoŋwúán. Then the following morning we did the exam. I tried to see and realised that a lot of questions came from chapter four. Nɛ́kɛnyʉ́ kíâs ɛntɛ́mátá. Nájádɔ́l imbáà kúmòk, néíŋúàà embólúnotó eoŋwúán. Then the following morning we did the exam. I tried to see whether a lot of questions came from chapter four. LING: With órè, a statement may sound more polite, while the otherwise-same statement but without órè may sound insisting, as if the speaker is drilling the hearer on some fact. Compare: Órè ɛnâ áshê náà ɛ̀nà âŋ. This heifer is ours. [The assertion is simply presented as new information in an on-going conversation.]. Ɛnâ áshê náà ɛ̀nà âŋ. This heifer is ours. [Implication: the hearer had better realize whose heifer it is, and not forget it.]. See: peê So that.

-órè   nmlz. Variant of the Action nominalizer -árɛ̀. ɛnâ ríkórè ɔɔ́ lashʉmpá this leadership of the white people.

órè peê   conj. after; after.

1 • After. Órè peê kɨbarnʉ́ ɨlpápɨ́t lo lmelíl, níkìdùŋùdùŋ. When (i.e., after) we shave hair from the neck, we shall cut it into pieces.

2 • When, while. Órè peê ɛnap náà ɛnkɔrɨ́ɔ́ŋ etíi . 'When he carried it [honey], it was on the back [of the elephant]'.

3 • In order to. Órè peê kɨndɨ́m áàtààs ɨ́nâ báɛ̀... So that we can do these things... LING: Note that English when often has the meaning of temporally subsequent event, or 'after'.

ol-órèrè   Nom sg: ol-órérè. Acc pl: il-oréren. Nom pl: il-órerén. n. 1 • People. Ɛ́ɛ̀là apá ɨlMaasáɨ́ ilorérén ɔɔ́tɨ̀mɨ̀rà. The Maasai assimilated the people they defeated in war. (Pk). Auui, loorere enyioto amʉ̂ ewaki ntare inyi! Help! People, wake up! somebody has stolen your sheep! Nɛ́nyà apá ɛnâ kúkuû olórèrè. This animal ate people.

2 • Community.

3 • Tribe, people group. Órè apá peê áâ ɔlɛ́ɨ́lɔ̀ órèrè náà mɛ́nyɛ́ apá oyarárotó. He became of that people because his father went into captivity. (Pk). See: ol-oshô Tribe; en-tipat Tribe.

ol-órìkà   Nom sg: ol-óríka. Acc pl: il-oríkan. Nom pl: il-órikán. [South] Acc sg: ɔl-órìkà. n. 1 • Seat, chair. olórìkà ɛldɛ́. That is a chair. iloríkan ɔáárè two chairs. Emúá tɔrrɔ́nɔ̂ ɔ́ lcaní oleléshua tenéítobiríékì iloríkan. Oleleshua is a bad type of tree from which to make chairs. Nɛ́tɔ̀n táatá tɛ̀ nkaɨná ɛ́ tátɛ́nɛ́ ó lórìkà lé nkítóó ɛ ɛ́nkAi He sat today at the right hand of the seat of authority (throne) of God.

2 • Position. olórìkà lɛ́ ríkórè a political, leadership seat.

l-órika lɛ́ nkùè   a small chair-like tool for supporting ones head while lying down (as a pillow).

ol-órika lɔɔ́ nkɛjɛk oŋuan   Backless four-legged stool.

a-ɔrɨkɨ́   v. To divide. See: a-ɔ́r To divide.

enk-orínì   Nom sg: enk-órìnì. Acc pl: ink-orîn. Nom pl: ink-órìn. n. Thin wire for sewing beads.

oríóŋ1   n.r. Behind, spatially in back of. Etíí oríóŋ ají. He is at the back of (i.e., outside and behind) the house. (Pk).

tɛ̀ órìòŋ   1 • Behind.

2 • On the outside of. See: kʉ́rʉ̀m Behind; síádí Behind.

enk-oríóŋ2   Nom sg: enk-órìòŋ. Acc pl: ink-órìòŋì. n. 1 • Back; the part of a person's or animal's body that is on the opposite side from the chest, and which goes from the neck to the bottom of the spine or tail. Mɛdɔl ɔltʉ́ŋání entókì natíí enkoríóŋ. A person can not see what is on his back.

2 • The back side of sth.; e.g. opposite side of a house from where the entrance is.

3 • Non-palm side of hand, non-sole side of foot. orióŋ ɛ́ nkáíná Back of hand. Ɛ́tápéjó olconí liorióŋ ɛnkáɨ́ná ɛnkɨ́mà. The fire has burned the skin of the back of her hand. (Pk). orióŋ ɛ́ nkɛjʉ́ Top of foot.

4 • Outer part of something.

5 • Hilltop.

l-óìk lɛ́ nk-oríóŋ   Backbone, bones of the back.

lákʉ́nyá lɛ́ nk-oríóŋ   Spinal cord.

enk-oríóŋ ilomón   Literal or surface meaning of one's words. See: atûâ Inside; ɛnk-ɔ́shɔ̀kɛ̀ Stomach; hillside; a-jɨ́ŋ enkoríóŋ To stand behind, give support to someone; ɛ-siadí Back.

l-órísé [North]   Nom sg: l-orisé. n. 1 • [North] Tool for removing hair from hide or skin.

2 • [North] Tool for curving wooden calabashes. See: a-kít To remove hair from skin/hide.

áà-ɔ̀rɔ̀   v.mid.pl. To be divided, separated, split. See: a-ɔ́r To divide.

ɔl-ɔ́rɔ̀1   Nom sg: ɔl-ɔ́rɔ̂. Acc pl: ɨl-óròì. Nom pl: ɨl-óróì. n. He-goat, billy-goat. See: ɛn-tʉ́dɛ́ Male goat.

ɛ-ɔ́rɔ̀2   n. Division. ɨlarrábálí ɔ́ ɛɔ́rɔ̀ conflicts and division. See: a-ɔ́r To divide.

ol-orôk   n. Shin. ɔlɔrôk lɛ́nkɛjʉ́ shin.

ɔl-ɔ́rɔ́k   n. Black person.

ɔl-ɔ́rɔ́k kʉ́tʉ́k   n. 1 • Donkey.

2 • Stick with charcoal point, used by women to clean calabashes.

Orokucu   [North] Acc sg: l-Orokucu. n.prop. [North] Samburu clan that keeps mostly black cattle.

a-ɔrɔɔ́   v. To feed a young orphaned young animal. Ɨncɔɔ́kɨ̀ esiɔrɔ́g náórórie elɛ̂ áshê. Give me a (leather) funnel to use for feeding this calf. (Pk).

l-orórà [North]   Nom sg: l-órorá. Acc pl: l-ororaní. Nom pl: l-óroraní. [Chamus] Acc sg: ɔrʉ́rà. n. 1 • [North] Village.

2 • [North] Large manyata constructed by the clan, mostly for the circumcision of boys, but also for other ceremonies. Etowúákɨ̀ lɔrɔ́rá tɛ̀ márlàl. A manyata has been constructed at Marlal.

3 • Home for special ceremony.

l-ɔrɔ́ra lɛ́ nkárná   A manyata for the name.

l-ɔrɔ́ra lɛ́ lɔɨŋɔ́nɨ̀   A manyata for the bull. See: ɛnk-áŋ Home, kraal; ɛ-mányátá Warrior's village.

ol-orórà   n. 1 • Big gathering of people.

2 • Big migration. See: ɛn-aɨdʉ́rrà Migration.

a-ororí   v. To move right away.

ɔl-ɔrɔrɔ́m [Purko]   n. Bridge of nose. See: ɔl-ɔsɔsíóm Bridge of nose.

a-orú   v. 1 • To rob, deprive of. Tɔ́bɔ̀bɔ̀là tɔ́ɔrʉ́ ɨ́lɔ̂ mʉrʉ́nyà. Wrestle him and snatch away that razor blade. (Pk).

e-órr   Nom sg: e-ôrr. Acc pl: i-orró. Nom pl: i-órrò. n. Open spot; bare place; perched place.

l-orréshò [North]   [North] Nom sg: l-órresho. n. [North] Bridge. See: ɔ-sagám Bridge.

l-orríán [North]   [North] Nom sg: l-órríàn. [North] Acc pl: l-orrianí. [North] Nom pl: l-órrianí. n. [North] Swamp. See: ol-buáá Swamp.

ɔl-ɔ́rrɨshɛ́t   Nom sg: ɔl-ɔ́rrɨshɛ́t. Acc pl: ɨl-ɔrrɨshɛ́tà. Nom pl: ɨl-ɔ́rrɨshɛ́tà. [North] Acc sg: rrɨcɛ́t. n. The lower part of the leg below the knee.

ɛnk-ɔ́rrɨshɛ́t   Small lower part of the leg. Usage: contemptuous. See: l-kúndùd lɛ́ nkɛjʉ́ Calf; ol-orrôk Shin; l-ailéleê Lower part of the leg; l-wuatán lɛ́ nkɛjʉ́ Lower part of the leg; en-kúpès Thigh.

áà-òrrò   v.pl. To fight each other over sth.; quarrel over sth. LING: No singular infinitive exits for this verb, nor does the simple root-form orr occur.

a-orroré   To fight each other over something.

e-órrò   Nom sg: e-órrô. n. A quarrel.

ol-orrôk   Nom sg: ol-órròk. Acc pl: il-orrókì. Nom pl: il-órrokí. n. Front of the leg between knee and ankle; shin. olorrôk lɛ́ nkɛjʉ́ Shin.

enk-orrôk   1 • The real thing; self. enkorrôk ɛ́ mbàɛ̀ The real issue (as opposed to a false issue, pretense, beating-around-the-bush); "heart of the matter".

2 • Small shin. See: ɔl-ɔ́rrɨshɛ́t Lower part of the leg; l-kúndùd (lɛ́ nkɛjʉ́) Calf; part of the leg.

enk-orrôk   Nom sg: enk-órròk. Acc pl: ink-orrókì. Nom pl: ink-órrokí. n. 1 • The real essence, "heart of the matter"

2 • Personality, nature of a person.

ol-órrondô   Nom sg: ol-órrondô. Acc pl: il-orróndòn. Nom pl: il-órrondón. n. Type of plant.

l-ɔrrɔɔ́sh [North]   [North] Nom sg: l-ɔ́rrɔɔ́sh. n. [North] Bateleur eagle. See: l-mógíró Eagle.

a-orrorré   v. 1 • To compete.

2 • To quarrel over.

l-órrúwúó [North]   n. [North] Kwashiorkor.

ɔl-ɔsáɨ̀   [North] Acc sg: asáì. n. Termite. See: o-rírí Termite.

ɔl-ɔsɛ́k   Acc pl: il-osekîn. n. Act of outsmarting, trick; craftiness, intrigue. Nɛ́akʉ táatá ɛtagolíkio doí iyíóók naá aké amʉ̂ ɛtarákɨ̀ ɛlɛ̂ kúààk oiterúnòrè ɛnkɛ́ráí peê ɛŋamʉ́ ayiolóú ilosekîn lɛ́ mórúáó ... naá ɨnâ mɛtáà kɛ́bʉlʉ́ aké ɛnkɛráí néméyíólò enkishón é mórúáó So, nevertheless, we are troubled because the behavior [practice] that begins a child has been abolished so that he comes to know the wangles of elderhood ... and that is how the child will just grow not knowing the life of adulthood. See: a-ɛsɛ́k To outwit.

ɔl-ɔsɨkɨ́   Variant: ol-osiki ?. n. Snail. Usage: slang. See: sampʉ́lálɨ́ Snail; ol-bíkít Snail; l-cíŋèì [North] Snail; ɔ-sɨkɨrâɨ̂ Snail; ɔl-arʉ́kâî Snail.

ɔl-ɔsɨnkɔ́   n. Centre of a home.

ɔl-ɔsɨ́rà   Nom sg: ɔl-ɔ́sɨ̀rà. Acc pl: ɨl-ɔɔ́sɨrá. Nom pl: ɨl-ɔ́ɔsɨrá. n. 1 • [North] Giraffe.

2 • The one that is dotted. See: ɔl-carkúk Giraffe; ɔl-mɛʉ́t Giraffe.

ol-ósòkùàn   Nom sg: ol-ósókùàn. Acc pl: il-osókuani. Nom pl: il-ósokuaní. n. Buffalo.

enk-ósòkùàn   1 • Female buffalo.

2 • Cow. Usage: pejorative.

ɔsɔm   [North] Acc sg: osom. num. Thirty. See: tomoni uní Thirty.

ɔl-ɔsɔsíóm   Nom sg: ɔl-ɔ́sɔsíóm ??. Acc pl: ɨl-ɔɔ́sɔ̀sìòm. Nom pl: ɨl-ɔ́ɔ̀sɔ̀sìòm. n. Bridge of the nose. See: ɔl-ɔrɔrɔ́m Bridge of nose; en-kumé Nose.

ol-ósòwùàn   Nom sg: ol-ósówùàn. Acc pl: il-osówùànì. Nom pl: il-ósowuaní. n. Buffalo. See: ol-ósòkùàn Buffalo.

ol-ósòwùàn   Nom sg: ol-ósówùàn. Acc pl: il-osówuani. Nom pl: il-ósowuaní. n. Buffalo. Átódúáà apá olósòwùàn tɛ̀ Maasai Mara. I have seen a buffalo at Maasai Mara. Kórè peê ɛ́dɔ̂l iyíóók lósowuaní nɛ́arárì áàɨ̀sɨ̀g. When the buffalos saw us, they ran away fleeing. Etym: Proto-Ongamo-Maa *-ko-sokwan 'buffalo' (Vossen 1989:196), from Proto-Teso-Lotuko-Maa *-ko-sokuan 'buffalo' (Vossen 1982:341). Syn: ol-ósòkùàn Buffalo; [North] l-máàcà Buffalo. See: árrɔ̀ With downward pointing horns.

ol-osujú   n. Any one of the two fingers between the pointing and little fingers or toes.

l-ɔ́sʉ́rmɛ́ [North]   n. [North] Cobra.

a-ósh   v.prog. To beat, hit, slap with an intention to cause pain or injury. aósh ɛnkɛ́ráí naitarrúóyìè to beat a child who has erred. This is more gentle than a-ilúg. Ncɔɔ́kɨ̀ ɛnyúntù náóshórie ɛlɛ̂ mushumáà. Give me a hammer that I can use to drive this nail. a-ósh oltúálá To ring the bell (lit: to hit the bell). Kítóóshò. You hit me. Syn: a-ɨdɔ́ŋ To beat. See: a-ár To beat, kill; a-dám To slap; a-idóŋ To beat; a-ikúm To hit; a-ilúg To hit; a-náŋ To hit; a-ɨpɔ́ny To hit. Usage: a-ɨpɔ́ny would not be used for hitting s.o. with a fist, while a-ósh could be used in that instance. Both a-ɨpɔ́ny and a-ósh could be used when a car runs into sth..

a-ósh ɛnkɔ́lɔ̀ŋ   To shine upon. Kéoshítò ɛnkɔ́lɔ̀ŋ Karen. The sun is shinning upon Karen. Eóshisho ɛnkɔ́lɔ̀ŋ. The sun shines (upon things).

a-oshú ɛnkɔlɔ́ŋ   To shine upon. Ɛ́ɨ́sápʉ̀k enkíròwùàj ɛ́ táatá amʉ̂ etoóshuo ɛnkɔlɔ́ŋ. The heat is so great today because it is sunny (lit: it [non-referential?] has hit the sun towards [us]). Etoóshuo ositímà. He [referential] has lit the torch as he comes. Only a directional light source can be the object, which restricts this expression to the sun as the object, or to something like a torch.

a-ósh ɛngárrì   To drive a car.

a-ósh inkíshú   To drive off the cows (lit: To beat the cows).

a-ósh esímù   To make a telephone call.

a-ósh emówúó/endúlé/ɛmáàlò   To blow a horn/a flute/kudu-horn.

a-ósh píshìà   To take a photograph.

a-ósh ripótì   To give a report.

a-ósh olbísìŋ   To blow off the lid, burst.

a-ósh enkídòŋ   To prophecy.

a-ósh olkerérì   To make a queue. Étóóshô ɨnkɛ́râ olkerérì peê étúmí áatɔɔrɨkɨ́ ɛndáà. The children have made a queue so that the food can be served to them. (Pk).

a-ósh enkúkúó   To cast lots, vote.

a-ósh olkiú sápʉ̀k   To hold a big meeting. Néoshi olkiú sápʉ̀k. They held a big meeting. (lit: They hit a big hill.).

a-oshokí   To spray with force (e.g. medicine or pesticide on grain). Páà kéoshókì olówùàrù inkík ɛnkɨ́má. Then the beast sprayed faeces on the fire.

áà-òsh en-kúkúó   v.phrase. To play a guessing-game using a single charcoal piece hidden in the hand; players guess which hand it is in.

oshî   adv. 1 • adv. Always, usually, normally. Kɛ́ɨ́bɔ̀rr oshî intápùkà óltèpèsì. The flowers of an acacia tree are white. (Pk). Emísímís entîm oshî. The forest is usually dark. (W). Ɛtabáutúa dúóó nóòshì pálâ nɨ́kɨ̀ànyɨ̀tà. The papers that we have been waiting for/expecting have arrived. (SN). Ɛtabáutûâ dúóó inooshî pálâ níkìànyɨ̀tà. The papers that we have been waiting for have arrived. (PK). Ɛɨságánya oshî aké. He always squats. (W). Kórè oshî ɛnkapʉtɨ́ ɔɔ́ lMáásâɨ̂... So, normally, Maasai engagements... (W).

2 • adj.quant. Usual. Néŋòr enoshî ŋɔ́ny He pierced (it) at the usual vein [to draw blood from an animal].

oshî aké   Always. Éjúŋ iláyìòk oshî aké inkíshú ɔɔ́ mɛ́nyɛ̀. Boys always inherit cows from their fathers. (W).

oshí táatá  

en-oshî   n. Usually. Néjò kuík kuík, enoshî kátá éjô ɛdʉmʉ́nyɛ... While rising to stand he farted loudly...

ol-oshô1   DIALECT: K Pk W C. Nom: ol-óshô. Acc pl: ɨl-óshon. Nom.Pl: ɨl-oshón. n. 1 • n. Tribal section or quasi-political unit; one of the original major units of the Maasai people. Lists of the traditional Maasai ɨl-óshon names vary from one source to another. TM list the following ('TZ' indicates Tanzania, while the others are primarily located in Kenya): Il-dalalekutuk, Il-damat, Il-keekonyokie, Il-purko, Il-loitai, Il-kaputiei, I-siria, Il-oodokilani, Il-matapato, Ilwuasinkishu, Il-kisongo (TZ), I-sikirari (TZ). In addition to the preceding, other lists have included the following as sections: Il-kankere, Il-moitanik, Il-oitokitoki (according to TM this is an area of southern Kenya into which the Il-kisongo section extends from Tanzania), Il-arusa, Kore (TZ), Parakuyu (or Baraguyu; TZ). Il-Aiser.

2 • n. Nation. Entuun olosho! Plant/establish the nation! Entonyor olosho! Love the nation! Entanap olosho! Carry/support the nation! Taa ngoto iloshon! Be the mother of nations! [good wish expressed to a young bride at her marriage].

3 • n. Society. Kɛ́nyɔ́r olóshô ɔltʉŋánì pɔɔkɨ́ súpàt. The society cherishes someone who is good. Ɔlcaní obô apáké étóóshô olóshô nɨ́kɨ́ntááɨ́ ɔlaigúénànì. The society held only one meeting and you were made a chief.

4 • n. Country.

5 • n. Plateau, flat area. Máapé ɛldɛ osho! Let us go to that place!

6 • n. Tribe.

7 • n.prop. Place near Mashura, Kajiado District, Kenya.

Olosho loo l-Aiser   n.prop. 1 • Plateau of the il-aiser section.

2 • Placename: near Ilmilili, on the Mau, Narok District, Kenya.

Olosho oibor   1 • n. Plateau which is white.

2 • n.prop. Place north of Torosei, Kajiado District, Kenya.

Olosho onyokie   n. 1 • n. Plateau which is red.

2 • n.prop. Placename: near Loitokitok, Kajiado District, Kenya. See: ol-órèrè Tribe; en-tipat Tribe.

ol-Osho loo l-Aiser2   n. 1 • Plateau of the Il-Aiser section.

2 • placename near Ilmilili, on the Mau, Narok District, Kenya.

ɛnk-ɔ́shɔ̀kɛ̀   Nom sg: ɛnk-ɔ́shɔ́kɛ̀. Acc pl: ɨnk-ɨ́ɨ́shùàà. [Purko] Acc pl: ɨnk-ɔ́shùàk. [Purko] Nom pl: ɨnk-ɔ́ɨ́shúàà. Variant: ink-óíshùà. [North] Acc sg: kɔ́cɛ̀kɛ̀. n. 1 • Stomach, belly. Kɛ́yá ɛnkɛ́ráí ɛnkɔ́shɔ̀kɛ̀. The child has a stomach-ache (lit: The stomach takes the child.).

2 • intestines.ACC. Usage: plural.

a • Intestines.

b • The mass of organs which are removed from the belly of a slaughtered animal (intestines, stomach, etc.).

c • Space left when the intestines and other belly-contents are removed from a slaughtered animal.

3 • Slope of a hill or mountain; protruding side parts of a hill or mountain. ɛnkɔ́shɔ̀kɛ̀ sápùk a big hill (stomach, etc.).

4 • The space inside a container such as a cup, pot. ɛnkɔ́shɔ̀kɛ̀ ɛ́ motí The inside space or cavity of a pot.

5 • The inside bottom of a container; floor. Kákè sapúkí isóìtò otií ɛnkɔ́shɔ̀kɛ̀ ɔ́ lkɛjʉ́. But the rocks that were on the floor of the river were so big. (lit: But the rocks that were on the stomach of the leg were big.) (Pk).

6 • Underside. ɛnkɔ́shɔ́kɛ̀ ɛ́ ngárrì The underside of a car; chasis. This is metaphorically based on the "animal" model, as the underside of a car is analogous to the underside/stomack of a four-legged animal. See: atûâ ɛ́ ngárrì The inside of a car (where the seats are).

ɛnk-ɔ́shɔ̀kɛ̀ ɛ́ n-kɛ́ráɨ́   Uterus. Usage: colloquial?. A woman is colloquially said to have two stomachs: one for food, and one for a child.

ɛnk-ɔ́shɔ̀kɛ̀ ɔ́ láláɨ́   Inside surface of the front teeth; grinding surface of premolars and molars.

o-rióŋ ó láláɨ́   1 • Externally-facing surface of the front or back teeth.

2 • Part of the face close to the soft cheek or lip tissues.

a-atá ɛnk-ɔ́shɔ̀kɛ̀   To be a glutton.

a-ló ɛnk-ɔ́shɔ̀kɛ̀   To have diarrhoea. LING: In the following expressions of human personality traits, 'stomach' is in the Nominative.

a-ɨbɔ́r ɔ́shɔ́kɛ̀   To be kind.

a-rɔ́k ɔ́shɔ́kɛ̀   To be unkind, mean.

a-naná ɔ́shɔ́kɛ̀   To be compassionate, loving, kind.

a-gól ɔ́shɔ́kɛ̀   To be courageous.

ɛnabɔ́shɔ́kɛ̀   Heart. Syn: ɔl-áróí Stomach. See: ɛm-pɔ́lɔ̀s Belly; ɛnk-ayá Stomach, intestines; ɛm-búlátí Stomach, intestines; ɨ-mányɨ́t Intestines. Usage: ɛnk-ɔ́shɔ́kɛ̀ is the most commonly-used word for stomach..

ɔl-ɔshɔmɔ́   n.r. Deceased person; one who has passed away.

ɨl-óshon   n.pl. Traditional Maasai political section or division. See: ɔl-oshô Section.

a-oshoó   v. 1 • To drive away.

2 • To "borrow" in absence of owner.

ol-oshoró   Nom sg: ol-óshoró. Acc pl: il-oshôr. Nom pl: il-óshòr. n. Porridge.

ol-óshóróí   n. Senior warrior.

oshoto   Nom sg: oshotó. n. Beating. Míntókì aɨtabúák oldíá tɛ̀ woshotó ɛ́pɛ́shɔ̀. Stop causing the dog to bark by unnecessary beating. (Pk).

-ot   asp. Perfect(ive) or subjunctive plural; variant of -at, used with middle-form verbs. nɨ́mɨ́kɨ́ncɔ̂ aké nɨnyɛ́ méínepunotó. We do not let them meet each other.

-ót   nmlz. Variant of -at, plural nominalizer for active verbs. See: -at.

a-ɔ́t   v. To scoop out.

-ótè   Variant: -étè. In some suffixed forms: -ótèk. voi. Middle perfect(ive) plural suffix. Kénotótekí áànyɔ̀rràkìnò People met together to agree.

ɔtɨ́1   Nom sg: ɔ́tɨ̀. Acc pl: ɔɔ́tɨ. Nom pl: ɔ́ɔtɨ́. [Purko] Nom sg: ɔ́tɨ̂. adj n.r. 1 • Young in age (masc). Ɛgɨ́rà ɔláyíóní ɔ́tɨ̂ ajúŋ olbótór otúá. The junior boy is inheriting from the senior boy who is dead. (Pk). ɔlcaní ɔtɨ́ a young tree. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlɔ́ɨ́ŋɔ́nɨ́ ɔ́tɨ̀ apʉ́sh aɨrɨ́sh ɨlkʉlɨ́kaɨ. The young bull is getting aroused to fight the others. (Pk). Ɛ́ntɛrɛʉ́ ɨlashɔ́ ɛndâ wúâs peê ɨdɔlɨdɔ́lɔ̀ ɨlɔɔ́tɨ tɛ̀ nɛ́ɨ́rag. [ɛ̀ndá wwàs] You all take the calves to that plain so that you can see when the small ones rest. (Pk). Ɔtɨ́ ɔláyíóní kákè ḿmɛ̀ kinyí. The boy is young but not small. (W). Syn: kɨtɨ́ Small. See: kinyí Small.

2 • New. Enótokí ɔlɔtɨ́ túmùrèt lɛ́mɛ̂ siî dúóó ɛncán ɛ̀ tókì. We have gotten some early, short, sporadic rain, not really significant. (Pk). Usage: ɔtɨ́ could not be applied to items like cars.. See: ŋéjúk New.

ɔl-ɔtɨ́2   n. n. Relatively long, slender gourd, either on or off the plant, not yet prepared for holding a liquid.

2 • n. Gourd prepared for liquid, typically used for fresh milk. In size, larger than en-kúkúrí.

ɛnk-ɔtɨ́   Gourd, smaller than en-kúkúrí. See: en-kúkúrí Calabash.

a-otikí   v v.aux+simple-infinitive. To do sth. intentionally; to do on purpose.

l-ótìm [North]   Nom sg: l-ótîm. Acc pl: l-ótimí. Nom pl: l-otímí. Acc pl: l-otími. Nom pl: l-ótimí. n. Baboon. See: ɔ-ɛ́kɛ̀ny Baboon; ol-túlàl Baboon; ol-kima Baboon; l-désí Baboon.

ol-otíròì   n. Wound that does not heal.

-oto   nmlz. Variant of -ata Nominalizer used in +ATR contexts. inkínyíáŋúnotó buying.

e-otô   v.pf. 1 • Perfect(ive) of a-ó(k); ripe, ready (e.g. to eat), done. Eótò kʉlɔ́ nyɛ́nyâ olɛ̂ŋ. These tomatos are overripe. (W). Eyáwúá ŋolé nɨ́nɨ́ oltulét olotó ailísh aɨtáá enkúkúrí. Yesterday my mother brought a gourd in its natural state so as to make a usable gourd out of it. (Pk).

2 • To be curdled (of milk). See: a-ó To be ripe.

ôl-otonu   n. Hyena. See: ɔl-nɔjɨ́nɛ̀ Hyena; ol-konóì Hyena; nɛmɛlɨl Hyena; l-ŋirô Hyena.

ol-otóròì   [òlòtóɾòy]  [North] Acc sg: l-otóróì. Nom sg: ol-ótoróí. Acc pl: il-otóròk. Nom pl: il-ótòròk. Variant: ʉtʉ́rʉ̀kì. n. Bee, honey-bee. Áataŋoró olótoróí. The bee stung me. (W). Etym: Proto-Ongamo-Maa *-ko-toroi 'bee' (Vossen 1989:195), from Proto-Lotuko-Maa *-ko-tor- 'bee' (Vossen 1982:331). See: ol-otórokî Bee; mús Swarm of bees.

ol-otórokî   Nom sg: ol-ótórokî. Acc pl: il-otóròk. Nom pl: il-ótòròk. n. Bee, honey-bee. Ɛ́támányá ilótòròk oldídòŋ lɛnyɛ̂. The bees have occupied their bee-hive. (Pk). LING: Pk dialect uses this term more often than ol-otóròì. See: ol-otóròì Bee.

ol-otunó   n. Warrior selected from different clans within a community to be an overall leader. He ushers the warriors into junior elderhood and he is the first one to marry in that age-set. Ɔlotunó apá ɔ́ɨ́tɛrá ayamɨshɔ́ tɔɔ́ IlKɨshɨlɨ́ pɔɔkɨ́. Olotuno was the first one to marry in the IlKishili age-set. (Pk). ol-otunó is said to shoulder all of his age set's sins. See: (ɔ)l-aúnònì Age-set leader; ɔl-aigúɛ́nànì Age-set leader; ɔl-ɔbɔrʉ́ ɛnkɛɛnɛ́ Leader; ɔl-ɔpɔlɔ́sɨ̀ ɔlkɨ́tɛ́ŋ; ɔl-ɔɨshɔ́rʉ̀ ɛnkárná ólpórrôr ɔ́lají. Age-set name-giver.

ol-oturoí   n. A disease of the skin.

óu   v.imp. Imperative singular of the verb 'come'. See: -éu Come (PF); a-lotú(n) Come.

ol-oúdò   Nom sg: ol-óùdò. Acc pl: il-oóudó. Nom pl: il-óoudó. n. 1 • Hip joint.

2 • [West] Buttock, rump.

a-oʉ́k   v. To turn. See: a-dám To turn; óù Come!.

ol-ouré kokóyò   [West] Acc sg: ɛn-ɛʉrɛ́ kɔkɔ́yɔ̀. n. Ankle bone; bones which protrude on both sides of the ankle. See: e-múrt ɛ́ nkɛ́jʉ́ Ankle; ɛ-rʉbatá ɛ nkɛ́jʉ́ Ankle; ol-aidólòkì Ankle; l-aibeláì Ankle.

owuarú1   Acc pl: ówúárâk. adj. 1 • Light red-brown with camouflage effect; golden; potentially a mixture of many colors including dark gray.

2 • Beastlike, carnivorous.

3 • Greedy, wanting to consume everything around. enkitók owarú A greedy woman. ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ owarú A cow that feeds excessively.

ol-owuarú2   Nom sg: ol-ówùàrù. [West] Nom sg: ol-ówuarú. Acc pl: il-ówúárâk. Nom pl: il-owuarák. n. 1 • Carnivorous, agressive animal, such as a lion, cheetah, leopard, hyena. Ɛgɨ́ráɨ́ áàìpùkìè inkíshú mɛ́nyà ilowuarák. The people are putting the cows into a flight so that they are not eaten by the beasts of prey (e.g. lions). (Pk). See: ol-owuarú Carniverous beast; a-wúár To lash out; e-ŋûɛ̂s Animal; ɔl-cáŋitó [Purko] Animal.

2 • Lion-skin headdress.

3 • Person or animal with a beast-like character. For W (kk), this connotes one who is ravenous and eats a lot, especially meat.

enk-owarú   A female beast.

ol-owuarú kerî   Nom sg: ol-ówuaru kérì. Acc pl: il-ówúárák kerîn. Nom pl: il-owuarák kérìn. n. Leopard. See: l-nyárrá Cheetah.

ol-owuarú márà   Nom sg: olówuarú márá. Acc pl: il-ówúárák márà. Variant: il-ówúárák máràì. Nom pl: il-ówuarú márá. n. 1 • Carnivorous, aggressive animal (lit: spotted carnivore).

2 • Leopard. panthera pardus. ilówúárák márà oaárè two leopards (W). ilówúárâk máràì ɔáárè two leopards (W). Etíi olówuarú márâ ɛmpɔ́lɔ̀s ólóítíkó ɔ́ lásʉ́ráí. The leopard is between the zebra and the snake. (W). See: a-wúár To lash out; márà Dotted, patchy. Etym: Proto-Maa 'predacious animal'; Proto-Ongamo-Maa *-ko-wwaru 'beast, wild' (Vossen 1989:194), from Proto-Lotuko-Maa *-ko-uwor- 'leopard', from Proto-Eastern Nilotic *-ko-gwor- 'leopard' (Vossen 1982:389).

l-ówùà [North]   Nom sg: l-ówûâ. Acc pl: l-ówuan. Nom pl: l-owúán. n. [North] Small mountain (not larger than the Ngong Hills). kɔ́ɔdɔ́ alɛ́ ówûâ olêŋ. This hill/mountain is very tall. (SN). Rrûk néméíshó iyioó mátɔdɔ́l lówùà. It is the dust that is preventing us from seeing the mountain. (SN). See: ol-dóínyó Mountain.

-ɔ́yɔ̀   dir. Variant of the 'away' directional -áà. Kɨ́ncɔɔ́yɔ̀ entíto. We will give out the girl (for marriage). Áɨ́shɔ́ɔ́yɔ ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ ánaaké. I give a cow everyday. See: -áà Away.

ol-oyíápaséì   Nom sg: ol-óyíápaséì. Acc pl: il-oyiapase. Nom pl: il-óyíápasé. n. Type of plant.

óyíétò   n. Riddle.

l-óyíópó [North]   n. [North] Vagabond, vagrant, loiterer. See: ol-kíríkóí Vagrant, vagabond; ol-wúshúwúshí Vagrant, vagabond; l-máásháí [North] Vagrant, vagabond; ɔl-cánkílí Loiterer, donkey.

óyìè   voc. An address for a group of boys; plural of eéro. Óyìè ɛ́ntɨ̀gɨ̀l ɛlɛ̂ óìtò peê ɨdɔlɨdɔ́lɔ̀ entólit natíi. Boys, break this bone so that you can see the marrow in it. (Pk).

-óyìè   dir. Away. See: -a Away.

ol-óyìòtè   Nom sg: ol-óyíòtè. Acc pl: ɨl-oyíótiaa. Nom pl: ɨl-óyiotiaá. n. Riddle.

ɔl-pɨlɛ́ [Purko]2   Nom sg: ɔl-pɨ́lɛ̂. Acc pl: pɨlɛɨ. n. 1 • Pale red liquid from meat. Erukúnyè ɔlpɨ́lɛ̂ tɔɔ́ nkirí. The pale red liquid flows from meat.

2 • Unripe pus; mixture of pus and blood.

3 • Hardened blood, left to dry. See: ɔ-sárgɛ́ Blood.

ol-túlii [Purko]   Nom sg: ol-tulí. Acc pl: il-túlì. Nom pl: il-túlî. [Purko] Nom sg: oltulíí. n. 1 • Buttock. Mmetumókì ɛná áyíóní atɔtɔ́nà aɨtɔbɨrakɨ́ amʉ̂ ɛ́tɨ́jɨ́ŋá ɔldʉ́taɨ́ ɔltúlìì. This boy cannot sit well because he has a boil on his buttock. (Pk).

2 • Back part. iltulí lɛ́ nkají The back of the house. Usage: It is very uncouth and profane to use il-túlì to refer to someone or something that is behind or following another.